Butomus umbellatus L. is a plant species typical of littoral communities of river and stream shores. It can form continuous stands in shallow reservoirs with fluctuating water level. Their expansion is promoted by: (a) intensive vegetative reproduction of plants, (b) crowded sprouting from rhizome fragments on emerged pond bottom, (c) shallow water layer in the year following summer drainage. Expansion of B. umbellatus depends on ploidy level: two cytotypes were found in the Czech and Slovak Republics, differing in their reproductive ability. Seed production of triploids is strongly limited (they are self-incompatible within clones), while diploids can be fully fertile. Nevertheless, even in diploids, the efficiency of seed reproduction under natural conditions is low. Triploids spread by intensive vegetative reproduction, which is decisive for clonal growth of populations and their regeneration after scraping of bottom surface. During seasonal development, maximum of aboveground biomass is produced in early summer, while underground biomass increases till autumn. Growth of the plants is limited by cutting before maximum underground biomass is attained, or by duck grazing.
- wetland plants
- spreading ability