HRT, Plasma Risk Factors, and Cardiovascular Disease

  • Gerd Assmann
  • Paul Cullen
  • Helmut Schulte
Part of the Medical Science Symposia Series book series (MSSS, volume 11)


Although the menopause, defined as the last menstrual bleeding due to exhaustion of the ovarian follicles, is a discrete event, events leading to the menopause, in particular the gradual reduction in ovarian function and decrease in production and circulation of sex steroids, form part of a gradual process taking place over several years. The mean age of females at the time of the last bleeding is 50–51 years. At current life expectancies, about a third of a woman’s life is after the menopause. Menopause is a physiological event, but the accompanying decrease in circulating estrogen often leads to nonphysiological symptoms such as hot flushes and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease as well as osteoporosis.


Coronary Heart Disease Plasma Lipoprotein Estrogen Replacement Therapy Hepatic Lipase Postmenopausal Estrogen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerd Assmann
  • Paul Cullen
  • Helmut Schulte

There are no affiliations available

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