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On Confronting Species-Specific Skepticism as We Near the End of the Twentieth Century

  • James M. Edie
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Part of the Contributions to Phenomenology book series (CTPH, volume 25)

Abstract

Ever since Socrates “called philosophy down from heaven to earth” to locate it in the cities and in the lives of individual human beings by exhorting them to turn within to their souls and to the concepts (logoi) that dwell therein, to turn to a knowledge of oneself first of all, to examine one’s own inner life in its acts of knowing, believing, desiring, willing, evaluating, giving meaning and intelligibility to the chaos of earths, airs, fires, waters and bones, sinews, humors, and joints, which confront us in raw nature, Western philosophy has seen the necessary turn to the foundations of experience and of reality-as-experienced which has come to be called “foundationalism” in philosophy. In their many different ways all of the greatest philosophers of our tradition have been “foundationalists”: Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Aquinas, Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Kant, Hegel and Husserl, to mention only the “giants,” who together and separately constitute the backbone of Western philosophy.

Keywords

Conscious Awareness Human Consciousness Perceptual Consciousness High Intelligence Transcendental Philosophy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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    Plato also (Meno, 75B) considered these relationships to be “materially” apriori: there cannot be brightness without color, or color without surface, or surface without extension. One cannot be present without the other as “parts” of a whole even though they belong to different “logical” categories (see J. M. Edie, Edmund Husserl’s Phenomenology, 1987, pp. 43–44). Or see Aquinas, In Physicorum Aristotelis Librum Secundum, cap. 2, lec. 3: Multa sunt conjuncta secundum rem, quorum unum non est de intellectu alterius: sicut album et musicum conjunguntur in aliquo subjecto, et tarnen unum non est de intellectu alterius, et ideo unum separatim intelligi potest sine alio. Et hoc est unum intellectum esse abstractum ab alio. Manifestum est autem quod posteriora non sunt de intellectu priorum, sed e converso; unde priora possunt intelligi sine posterioribus, et non e converse Sicut patet quod animal est prius homine, et homo prius hoc homine (nam homo se habet ex additione ad animal, et hic homo ex additione ad hominem); et propter hoc homo non est de intellectu animalis, nec Socrates de intellectu hominis…. Thus, if there is Socrates, there is a man, if there is a man, there is a rational animal, if there is a rational animal, there is an animal, if there is an animal, there is a living being, if there is a living being, there is a being (and not nothing), but, in all this, we have not here said anything about the real world, but only about the necessary apriori relationships of concepts which are implied in our experience of the real world in order to make it intelligible; thus, wherever there is real experience, the possibility of apriori rules of knowledge, both formal and “material,” come into play.Google Scholar
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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • James M. Edie
    • 1
  1. 1.Northwestern UniversityUSA

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