Advertisement

UV Photochemistry of Ices

The Role of Photons in The Processing of Ices
  • Farid Salama
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library book series (ASSL, volume 227)

Abstract

The potential impact of UV photoprocessing on the composition and the properties of solar system ices is discussed. The various energetic processes to which solar system ices are exposed (photon irradiation and charged particle bombardement) are taken into account as well as the variation of these processes with the type of object considered (planet, satellite, comet, rings.) and its environment. An attempt is made in each case to assess the relative contribution/importance of photoinduced chemistry compared to the chemistry induced by charged particle bombardement. Thus, it is found that UV photons should dominate the processing of ices in the outer layers of the surface . This, of course, needs to be scaled to the flux of solar UV photons available in each case. The information available on the composition of solar system molecular ices is reviewed and the known/potential chemical reactions induced by photon irradiation are examined. The laboratory techniques most commonly used to simulate the photoprocessing of ices are described. The information derived from the laboratory studies of the photochemistry of planetary, cometary and interstellar ice analogs is reviewed through representative examples. It is found that the laboratory effort devoted to the study of the UV photochemistry of planetary ice analogs has been virtually nonexistent until very recently. This is in sharp contrast with the case of interstellar ices where a fair amount of information has been derived from laboratory simulations over the last two decades. This is also in sharp contrast with the effort devoted to the study of the chemistry induced in ices by ion bombardment. A similar effort (in size, scope, and continuity) is called for to study the photon induced chemistry in solar-system ices . Moreover, it is fundamentally important to study the combined effects of UV photon irradiation and ion bombardment for the processing of ices to realistically simulate the irradiation effects on solar system ices.

Keywords

Solar Wind Solar System Cometary Nucleus Outer Solar System Energetic Process 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. A’Hearn, M.F., Millis, R.L., Schleicher, D.G., Osip, D.J. and Birch, P.V. (1995) The Ensemble Properties of Comets: Results from Narrowband Photometry of 85 Comets, 1976–1992, Icarus, 118, pp. 223–270ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allamandola, L.J. and Sandford, S.A. (1988) Laboratory Simulation of Dust Spectra, In: Bailey, M., Williams, D. (eds.) Dust in the Universe. Cambridge University Press, pp. 229–263Google Scholar
  3. Allamandola, L.J., Sandford, S.A. and Valero, G.J. (1988) Photochemical and Thermal Evolution of Interstellar/Precometary Ice Analogs, Icarus, 76, pp. 225–252ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen, C.W. (1985) Astrophysical Quantities. The Athlone Press, London.Google Scholar
  5. Benit, J., Bibring, J-P. and Rocard, F. (1988) Chemical Irradiation Effects in Ices, Nucl. Inst. Meth. Phys. Res., B32, pp. 349–353ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. Bernstein, M.P., Sandford, S.A., Allamandola, L.J., Chang, S. and Scharberg, M.A. (1995) Organic Compounds Produced by Photolysis of Realistic Interstellar and Cometary Ice Analogs Containing Methanol, ApJ, 454, pp. 327–344ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Birks, J.R. (1970) Photophysics of Aromatic Molecules. Wiley & Sons, London.Google Scholar
  8. Bockelée-Morvan, D., Brooke, T.Y. and Crovisier, J. (1995) On the Origin of the 3.2-to 3.6-μm Emission Features in Comets, Icarus, 116, pp. 18–39ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bohn, R.B., Sandford, S.A., Allamandola, L.J. and Cruikshank, D.P. (1994) Infrared Spectroscopy of Triton and Pluto Ice Analogs: The Case for Saturated Hydrocarbons, Icarus, 111, pp. 151–173ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown, W.L., Augustyniak, W.M., Simmons, E.J., Marcantonio, K.J., Lanzerotti, L.J., Johnson, R.E., Boring, J.W., Reimann, C.T., Foti, G. and Pirronello, V. (1982) Erosion and Molecular Formation in Condensed Gas Films by Electronic Energy Loss of Fast Ions, Nucl. Inst. Meth. Phys. Res. 198, pp. 1–8ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bruston, P., Khlifi, M., Benilan, B. and Raulin, F. (1994) Laboratory Studies of Organic Chemistry in Planetary Atmospheres: From Simulation Experiments to Spectroscopic Determinations, J. Geophys. Res., 99, pp. 19,047–19,061ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Calvert, J.G. and Pitts, J.N. (1966) Photochemistry. Wiley & Sons, London.Google Scholar
  13. Clark, R.N. and Roush, T.L. (1984) Reflectance Spectroscopy: Quantitative Analysis Techniques for Remote Sensing Applications, J. Geophys. Res., 89, pp. 6329–6340ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Crovisier, J. (1994) Molecular Abundances in Comets, In: Milani, A. (ed.), Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 1993, Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp. 313–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cruikshank, D.P. and Brown, R.H. (1993). Remote Sensing of Ices and Ice-Mineral Mixtures in the Outer Solar System. In: Pieters, C. M. and Englert, P. A. J. (eds.), Remote Geochemical Analysis: Elemental and Mineralogical Composition, Cambrige Univ. Press, New York, pp. 455–468Google Scholar
  16. Cruikshank, D.P., Roush, T.L., Owen, T.C., Geballe, T.R., de Bergh, C, Schmitt, B., Brown, R.H. and Bartholomew, M.J. (1993) Ices on the Surface of Triton, Science, 261, pp. 742–745ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cruikshank, D.P., Brown, R.H., Calvin, W. and Roush, T.C. (1997a) Ices on the Satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus, this volume.Google Scholar
  18. Cruikshank, D.P., Roush, T.L., Owen, T.C, Quirico, E. and de Bergh, C. (1997b) The Surface Composition of Triton, Pluto and Charon, this volume.Google Scholar
  19. Cuzzi, J.N. (1995) Evolution of Planetary Ringmoon Systems. In: Comparative Planetology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, (in press)Google Scholar
  20. Delitsky, M.L. and Thompson, W.R. (1987) Chemical Processes in Triton’s Atmosphere and Surface, Icarus, 70, pp. 354–365ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. d’Hendecourt, L.B., Allamandola, L.J. and Greenberg, J.M. (1985) Time Dependent Chemistry in Dense Molecular Clouds: I. Grain Surface Reactions, Gas/Grain Interactions and Infrared Spectroscopy, A&A, 152, pp. 130–150ADSGoogle Scholar
  22. d’Hendecourt, L.B., Allamandola, L.J., Grim, R.J.A. and Greenberg, J.M. (1986) Time Dependent Chemistry in Dense Molecular Clouds: II. Ultraviolet Photoprocessing and Infrared Spectroscopy of Grain Mantles, A&A, 158, pp. 119–134ADSGoogle Scholar
  23. d’Hendecourt, L.B. and Allamandola, L.J. (1986) Time Dependent Chemistry in Dense Molecular Clouds: III. Infrared Band Cross Sections of Molecules in Solid State at 10 K, A&AS, 64, pp. 453–467ADSGoogle Scholar
  24. Dones, L. (1997) The Rings of the Outer Planets, this volume.Google Scholar
  25. Douté, S. and Schmitt, B. (1995), private communication.Google Scholar
  26. Frei, H. (1991) Chemistry with Red and Near Infrared Light, Chimia, 45, pp. 175–190Google Scholar
  27. Gerakines, P.A., Schutte, W.A. and Ehrenfreund, P. (1996) Ultraviolet Processing of Interstellar Ice Analogs. I. Pure Ices, A&A, in pressGoogle Scholar
  28. Greenberg, J.M. and Li A. (1997) From Interstellar Dust to Comets: distributed CO in Comet Halley, this volume.Google Scholar
  29. Hagen, W., Allamandola, L.J. and Greenberg, J.M. (1979) Interstellar Molecule Formation in Grain Mantles: The Laboratory Analog Experiments, Results and Implication, Ap&SS, 65, pp. 215–240ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hallam, H.E. (1973) Vibrational Spectroscopy of Trapped Species. Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  31. Jenniskens, P., Baratta, G.A., Kouchi, A., de Groot, M.S., Greenberg, J.M., and Strazzulla, G. (1993) Carbon Dust Formation on Interstellar Grains, A&A, 273, pp. 583–600ADSGoogle Scholar
  32. Johnson, R.E. (1990) Energetic Charged-Particle Interactions with Atmospheres and Surfaces. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Johnson, R.E. (1991) Irradiation of Solids: Theory. In: Bussoletti, E., Strazzulla, G. (eds.) Proc. International School of Physics, Solid — State Astrophysics. North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 129–168Google Scholar
  34. Johnson, R.E. (1997) Sputtering and Desorption from Icy Surfaces, this volume.Google Scholar
  35. Khare, B.N., Thompson, W.R., Murray, B.G.J.P.T., Chyba, CF. and Sagan, C. (1989) Solid Organic Residues Produced by Irradiation of Hydrocarbon-Containing H 2O and H 2O/NH3 Ices: Infrared Spectroscopy and Astronomical Implications, Icarus, 79, pp. 350–361ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Khare, B.N., Thompson, W.R., Cheng, L., Chyba, CF., Sagan, C, Arakawa, E. T., Meisse, C. and Tuminello, P.S. (1993) Production and Optical Constants of Ice Tholin from Charged particle Irradiation of (1:6) C 2 H 6/H 2 O at 77 K, Icarus, 103, pp. 290–300ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lis, D., Keene, J., Young, K., Phillips, T., Bergin, E., Goldsmith, P., Bockelee-Morvan, D., Crovisier, J., Gautier, D, Wootten, A., Despois, D. and Owen, T. (1996), IAU Circular 6S62 Google Scholar
  38. Lucey, P.G. and Clark, R.N. (1985) Spectral Properties of Water Ice and Contaminants. In: Klinger, J., Benest, D, Dolfus, A. and Smoluchowski, R. (eds.), Ices in the Solar System. NATO ASI Series, D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, pp. 155–168 PublishersCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Matthews, H.E., Biver, N., Senay, M., Davies, J.K., Dent, W.R.F., Bockelee-Morvan, D., Jewitt, D., Owen, T., Crovisier, J., Rauer, H. and Gautier, D. (1996), IAU Circular 6353 Google Scholar
  40. McKay, C.P., Clow, G.D., Andersen, D.T. and WhartonJr., R.A. (1994) Light Transmission and Reflection in Perennially Ice-Covered Lake Hoare, Antarctica, J. Geophys. Res., 99, pp. 20,427–20,444ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Meyer, B. (1971) Low Temperature Spectroscopy. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  42. Moore, H.M., Donn, B., Khanna, R. and A’Hearn, M.F. (1983) Studies of Proton-Irradiated Cometary-Type Ice Mixtures, Icarus, 54, pp. 388–405ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Moore, H.M. and Hudson, R.L. (1994) Far-infrared Spectra of Cosmic-Type Pure and Mixed Ices, A&AS, 103, pp. 45–56ADSGoogle Scholar
  44. Mumma, M.J., Weissman, P.R. and Stern, S.A. (1993) Comets and the Origin of the Solar System: Reading the Rosetta Stone. In: Levy, E.H., Lunine, J.I. and Matthews, M.S. (eds) Protostars and Planets III. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 1177–1252Google Scholar
  45. Mumma, M.J., DiSanti, M.A., Russo, N.D., Fomenkova, M., Magee-Sauer, K., Kaminski, C.D. and Xie, D.X. (1996) Detection of Abundant Ethane and Methane, Along with Carbon Monoxide and Water, in Comet C/1996 B2 Hyakutake: Evidence for Interstellar Origin, Science, 272, pp. 1310–1314ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Okabe, H. (1978) Photochemistry of Small Molecules. Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  47. Owen, T.C., Roush, T.L., Crnikshank, D.P., Elliot, J.L., Young, L.A., de Bergh, C, Schmitt, B., Geballe, T.R., Brown, R.H. and Bartholomew, M.J. (1993) Surface Ices and the Atmospheric Composition of Pluto, Science, 261, pp. 745–748ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ozin, G. and Moskovitz, H. (1976) Cryochemistry. Wiley &, Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  49. Pimentel, G.C. (1960) Radical Formation and Trapping in the Solid Phase. In: Bass, A.M. and Broida, H.P. (eds.) Formation and Trapping of Free Radicals. Academic Press, New York, pp. 69–115Google Scholar
  50. Pirronello, V., Brown, W.L., Lanzerotti, L.J., Marcantonio, K.J. and Simmons, E.J. (1982) Formaldehyde Formation in a H 2 O/CO 2 Ice Mixture Under Irradiation by Fast Ions, ApJ, 262, pp. 636–640ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Piscitelli, J.R., Cruikshank, D.P. and Bell, J.F. (1988) Laboratory Studies of Irradiated Nitrogen-Methane Mixtures: Applications to Triton, Icarus, 76, pp. 118–124ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Quirico, E. and Schmitt, B. (1995) Near Infrared Spectroscopy of Simple Hydrocarbons and Carbon Oxides Diluted in Solid N 2 and as pure ices: Implications for Triton and Pluto, Icarus, submitted.Google Scholar
  53. Roessler, K. (1991) Suprathermal Chemistry in Space. In: Bussoletti, E., Strazzulla, G. (eds.) Proc. International School of Physics, Solid —State Astrophysics. North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 197–266Google Scholar
  54. Roush, T.L. (1995), private communicationGoogle Scholar
  55. Roush, T.L., Cruikshank, D.P. and Owen, T.C. (1995) Surface Ices in the Outer Solar System. In: Farley, K.A. (ed.), Volatiles in the Earth and Solar System. AIP Conference Proc. 341, New York, pp. 143–153Google Scholar
  56. Sagan, C. and Thompson, W.R. (1984) Production and Condensation of Organic Gases in the Atmosphere of Titan, Icarus, 59, pp. 133–161ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Salama, F., Allamandola, L.J., Witteborn, F.C., Cruikshank, D.P., Sandford, S.A. and Bregman, J.D. (1990) The 2.5–5.0 μm spectra of Io: Evidence for H 2S and H 2O frozen in SO2, Icarus, 83, pp. 66–82Google Scholar
  58. Sandford, S.A. (1996) The Composition of Interstellar Grains and Ices. In: Roberge, W. and Whittet, D. (eds.) Polarimetry of the Interstellar Medium. ASP Conference Ser., 97, pp. 29–47Google Scholar
  59. Schmitt, B. (1994) Physical and Chemical Processes in Icy Grain Mantles. In: Nenner, I. (ed.) Molecules and Grains in Space. AIP Conference Proc. 312, pp. 735–754Google Scholar
  60. Schutte, W.A. (1996) Formation and Evolution of Interstellar Icy Grain Mantles. In: Greenberg, J.M. (ed.) The Cosmic Dust Connection. NATO ASI Series, Kluwer Academic Publishers, (in press)Google Scholar
  61. Smith, E.V.P. and Gottlieb, D.M. (1974) Solar Flux and its Variations, Space Sci. Rev., 16, pp. 771–802ADSGoogle Scholar
  62. Strazzulla, G., Baratta, G.A. and Magazzu, A. (1991) Vibrational Spectroscopy of Ion-Irradiated Carbonaceous Materials. In: Bussoletti, E., Strazzulla, G. (eds.) Proc. International School of Physics, Solid — State Astrophysics. North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 403–421Google Scholar
  63. Strazzulla, G., Baratta, G.A., Johnson, R.E. and Donn, B. (1991) Primordial Comet Mantle: Irradiation Production of a Stable, Organic Crust, Icarus, 91, pp. 101–104ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Strazzulla, G. and Johnson, R.E. (1991) Irradiation Effects on Comets and Cometary Debris. In: Newburn, R.L., Neugebauer, M., Rahe, J. (eds.), Comets in the Post-Halley Era. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1, pp. 243–275Google Scholar
  65. Strazzulla, G. (1997) Chemistry of ice by Bombardment with Energetic Charged Particles, this volume.Google Scholar
  66. Thompson, W.R., Murray, B.G.J.P.T., Khare B.N. and Sagan, C. (1987) Coloration and Darkening of Methane Clathrate and Other Ices by Charged Particle Irradiation: Applications to the Outer Solar System, J. Geophyg. Res., 92, pp. 14,933–14,947ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tielens, A.G.G.M., Allamandola, L.J. and Sandford, S.A. (1991) Laboratory, Observational and Theoretical Studies of Interstellar Ices. In: Bussoletti, E., Strazzulla, G. (eds.) Proc. International School of Physics, Solid — State Astrophysics. North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 29–58Google Scholar
  68. Tokunaga, A.T., Brooke, T.Y., Weaver, H.A., Crovisier, J. and Bockelee-Morvan, D. (1996), IAU Circular 6378 Google Scholar
  69. Westley, M.S., Baragiola, R.A., Johnson, R.E. and Baratta, G.A. (1995) Photodesorption from Low-Temperature Water Ice in Interstellar and Circumsolar Grains, Nature, 373, pp. 405–407ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Whittet, D.C.B. (1992) Dust in the Galactic Environment. IOP Publishing Ltd, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Farid Salama
    • 1
  1. 1.Space Science DivisionNasa-Ames Research CenterMoffett FieldUSA

Personalised recommendations