Advertisement

Helium Core Flash and TIP of The Red Giant Branch Distances

  • Barry F. Madore
  • Wendy L. Freedman
Chapter
  • 129 Downloads
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library book series (ASSL, volume 237)

Abstract

The luminosity at which the helium core flash is triggered in low-mass stars is well understood to be largely independent of the mass and/or the chemical composition of the layers surrounding the degenerate He core. The bolometric luminosity at core flash is then expected to be a standard candle of relatively high stellar luminosity and having low dispersion. Empirical evidence suggest that, for a wide range of atmospheric metallicities, the emergent I-band flux shares the low dispersion in luminosity predicted by theory. The early history of using the brightest stars in globular clusters as distance indicators is reviewed and contrasted with the modern, tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) method currently being employed extensively in the determination of extragalactic distances. Recent applications of the TRGB method are also reviewed. Finally, comparisons are made with the Cepheid distance scale, and prospects for future applications are outlined.

Keywords

Globular Cluster Dwarf Galaxy Luminosity Function Virgo Cluster Bolometric Luminosity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bica, E. & Ortolani, S. & Barbuy, B. 1994 The Metal-Rich Globular Cluster NGC 6356, Astron. Ap., 106, 161–164.ADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Carney, B.W., Storm, J., & Jones, R.V. 1992 The Baade-Wesselink Method and the Distances to RR Lyrae Stars. VIII. Comparisons with Other Techniques and Implications for Globular Cluster Distances and Ages, Ap.J., 386, 663–684.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cassisi, S., & Salaris, M. 1998 The “Tip” of the Red Giant Branch as a Distance Indicator: Theoretical Calibration and the Value of H o Mem. Soc. Ital., (in press).Google Scholar
  4. Cassisi, S. Castellani, V. Degl’Innocenti, S. & Weiss, A. 1998 Stellar Models for very Low-Mass Main-Sequence Stars: the Role of Model Atmospheres Astron. Ap., 129, 267–279.ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. Da Costa, G.S., & Armandroff, T.E. 1990 Standard Globular Cluster Giant Branches in the (M I,(V-I) Plane, Astron. J., 100, 162–181.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Elson, R.A.W. 1997 Red giants in the halo of the SO galaxy NGC 3115: A Distance and a Bimodal Metallicity Distribution, M.N.R.A.S. 286, 771–776.ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. Ferguson, H.C., Tanvir, N. & von Hippel, T. 1996 Detection of Intergalactic Red Giant Branch Stars in the Virgo Cluster, Nature, 391, 461–463.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Freedman, W.L. 1988 Stellar Content of Nearby Galaxies. I. BVRI CCD Photometry for IC 1613, Astron. J. 96, 1248–1306.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Freedman, W.L., Wilson, C.D., & Madore, B.F. 1988 New Cepheid Distances to Nearby Galaxies based on BVRI CCD Photometry. II The Local Group Galaxy M33, Ap.J., 372, 455–471.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Grillmair, C. J., Lauer, T. R., Worthey, G., Faber, S. M., Freedman, W. L., Madore, B. F., Ajhar, E. A., Baum, W. A., Holtzman, J. A., Lynds, C. R., O’Neil, E. J., Jr., & Stetson, P. B. 1996 Hubble Space Telescope Observations of M32: The Color-Magnitude Diagram, Ap.J., 112, 1975–1987.ADSGoogle Scholar
  11. Durrell, P. Harris, W., Pierce, M. & Secker, J. 1998 The Hubble Constant from Observations of the Brightest Red Supergiant Stars in a Virgo-Cluster Galaxy, Nature, (July issue: in press)Google Scholar
  12. Iben, I. & Renzini, A. 1983 Asymptotic Giant Branch Evolution and Beyond, Ann. Rev. Astron. Ap., 21, 271–342.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lee, M.G. 1993 The Distance to the Nearby Galaxy NGC 3109 Based on the Tip of the Red Giant Branch, Ap.J., 408, 409–415.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lee, Demarque & Zinn 1993 The Horizontal-Branch Stars in Globular Clusters. I. The Period-Shift Effect, the Luminosity of the Horizontal Branch, and the Age-Metallicity Relation, Ap.J., 350, 155–172.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lee, M.G., Freedman, W.L. & Madore, B.F. 1993 The Tip of the Red Giant Branch as a Distance Indicator for Resolved Galaxies. Ap.J., 417, 553–559.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Madore, B.F., & Freedman, W.L. 1995 The Tip of the Red Giant Branch as a Distance Indicator for Resolved Galaxies. II. Computer Simulations, Astron. J., 109, 1645–1652.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mould, J.R. & Kristian, J. 1990 The Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy Andromeda I, Ap.J., 354, 438–445.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mould, J.R. & Kristian, J. 1986 The Stellar Populations in the Halos of M31 and M33, Ap.J., 305, 591–599.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mould, J.R., Kristian, J., & Da Costa, G.S. 1983 Stellar Populations in Local group Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies. I. NGC 147, Ap.J., 270, 471–484.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mould, J.R., Kristian, J., & Da Costa, G.S. 1984 Stellar Populations in Local group Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies. II. NGC 205, Ap.J., 278, 575–581.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Saha, A., Freedman, W.F., Hoessel, J.G., & Mossman, A.E. 1992 RR Lyrae Stars in Local Group Galaxies. IV. IC 1613, Astron.J., 104, 1072–1085.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sakai, S., Madore B.F., & Freedman, W.L. 1996 Tip of the Red Giant Branch Distances to Galaxies. II. The Dwarf Galaxy Sextans A, Ap.J., 461, 713–723.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sakai, S., Madore B.F., & Freedman, W.L. 1997 Tip of the Red Giant Branch Distances to Galaxies. III. The Dwarf Galaxy Sextans B, Ap.J., 480, 589–595.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sakai, S., Madore B.F., Freedman, W.L. Lauer, T.R., Ajhar, E.A., & Baum, W.A. 1997 Detection of the Tip of the Red Giant Branch in NGC 3379 (M105) in the Leo I Group, Ap.J., 478, 49–57.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Salaris, M. & Cassisi, S. 1998 A New Analysis of the Red Giant Branch “Tip” Distance Scale and the Value of the Hubble Constant, Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., (in press).Google Scholar
  26. Sandage, A.R., & Cacciari, C. 1990 The Absolute Magnitudes of RR Lyrae Stars and the Age of the Galactic Globular Cluster System Ap.J., 350, 645–661.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mould, R.E. Schulte-Ladbeck, R.E., Hopp, U. & Crone, M.M. 1998 The Direct Detection of Individual Old Stars in the Most Nearby BCD XVIIIth Moriorid Astrophysics Meeting “Dwarf Galaxies and Cosmology”, Les Arcs, 1999, eds. T. X. Thuan, C. Balkowski, J. Tran Thanh Van, Editions Frontieres (in press).Google Scholar
  28. Soria, R., et al. 1996 Detection of the Tip of the Red Giant Branch in NGC 5128, Ap. J., 456, 79–90.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Thomas, H.-C. 1967 Zeit. Ap., 67, 420.ADSGoogle Scholar
  30. Walker, A.R. 1992 CCD Photometry of Magellanic Cloud RR Lyrae Variables in The Extragalactic Distance Scale, ed. S. van den Bergh & C. Pritchet, (Provo: Brigham Young Univ. Press) Vol. 4, 69–70.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry F. Madore
    • 1
  • Wendy L. Freedman
    • 2
  1. 1.NASA/IPAC Extragalactic DatabaseJet Propulsion Laboratory, CalTechPasadenaUSA
  2. 2.The ObservatoriesCarnegie Institution of WashingtonPasadenaUSA

Personalised recommendations