Advertisement

Plant Metabolism of Organic Xenobiotics. Status and Prospects of the ‘Green Liver’ Concept

  • Heinrich SandermannJr.
Chapter
Part of the Current Plant Science and Biotechnology in Agriculture book series (PSBA, volume 36)

Summary

The plant metabolism of xenobiotics resembles that of mammalian liver in terms of metabolite patterns, enzyme classes and protein as well as DNA sequences. Plants appear to contain isoenzymes with specificity for secondary plant substrates or xenobiotics. The derived ‘green liver’ concept is further supported by the following recent results:
  • O-, N-, and S-glucosyltransferases for xenobiotics occur in many higher and lower plant species. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases for fatty acids and xenobiotics have been discovered in marine macroalgae. Glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase is identified as a progenitor of the plant alcohol dehydrogenase superfamily. Common indoor plants were active in the phytoremediation of air containing formaldehyde. Phytoremediation of soil and water also seems possible. However, new methods are required to overcome hydrophilic and lipophilic transport barriers. Several herbicides (glufosinate, glyphosate, isoproturon) were found to form metabolites that were identical in microbial, plant and animal systems.

  • The main prospects of the ‘green liver’ concept are seen in phytoremediation and in ecological genetics. A role of gene duplication and mutation, as well as genetic rearrangements is generally well established for the evolution of isoenzyme families. In addition, the existence of a gene pool in soil with potential accessibility to both microorganisms and plants is proposed because plant genes have recently been found to persist in soil over many months. A soil gene pool could contribute to processes such as soil adaptation to pesticides and horizontal gene transfer into microorganisms and plants.

Keywords

Horizontal Gene Transfer Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases Metabolite Pattern Plant Cell Suspension Culture Ecological Genetic 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Batard Y et al. (1998) Plant J 14, 111–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Coleman JOD et al. (1997) Trends Plant Sci. 2, 144–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Davies J (1994) Science, 264, 375–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Droog F (1997) J Plant Growth Regul. 16, 95–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ernst D et al. (1996) Plant Mol. Biol. Rep. 14, 143–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fliegmann J, Sandermann H (1997) Plant Mol. Biol. 34, 843–854.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Giese M et al. (1994) Plant Physiol. 104, 1301–1309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Gressel J et al. (1996) In: Engineering Plants for Commercial Products and Applications, (Collins GB, Shepherd RJ, eds.), Annals NY Acad. Sci. 792, 140–152.Google Scholar
  9. Gronwald JW (1994) In: Herbicide Resistance in Plants. Biology and Biochemistry (Powles SB, Holtum JAM, eds.), pp. 27–60, CRC Press, USA. Heap IM (1997) Pestic. Sci. 51, 235–243.Google Scholar
  10. Komoßa D et al., (1995) In: Plant Contamination: Modeling and Simulation of Organic Chemical Processes. (Trapp S, McFarlane C, eds.), pp. 69–103, CRC Press Boca Raton, USA.Google Scholar
  11. Krell H-W, Sandermann H (1984) Eur. J. Biochem. 143, 57–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Krell H-W, Sandermann H (1985) Plant Sci. 40, 87–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. LeBaron HM, Gressel J (eds.) (1982) Herbicide Resistance in Plants, John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  14. Lehr S et al. (1996) Intern. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 65, 231–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Linhart YB, Grant MC (1996) Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 27, 237–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Martinez MC et al. (1996) Eur. J. Biochem. 241, 849–857.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Miller RV (1998) Sci. Amer. (1), 47–51.Google Scholar
  18. Pflugmacher S, Sandermann (1998a) Phytochemistry, in press.Google Scholar
  19. Pflugmacher S, Sandermann H (1998b) Plant Physiol. 117, 123–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Racke KD, Coats JR (eds.) (1990) Enhanced Biodegradation of Pesticides in the Environment, American Chemical Society, ACS Symposium Series 426, Washington DC, USA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sandermann H (1992) Trends Biochem. Sci. 17, 82–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sandermann H (1994) Pharmacogenetics 4, 225–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sandermann H (1997) Spektrum der Wissenschaft (7) 38–41.Google Scholar
  24. Sandermann H et al. (1977) In: Plant Tissue Culture and its Biotechnological Application, (Barz W et al., eds.) pp. 178–196, Springer, Berlin, GermanyCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sandermann H et al. (1997a) In: Reinhaltung der Innenraumluft (FGU Berlin, ed.). Seminar Nr. 33, Berlin: UTECH ′97, 77–88.Google Scholar
  26. Sandermann H et al. (1997b) In: Zukunft der Gentechnik (Brand P, ed.), Birkhäuser, Basel, Switzerland, pp. 209–220.Google Scholar
  27. Seidel K (1966) Naturwissenschaften 53, 289–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Shafqat J et al. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 93, 5595–5599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Smith WW et al. (1992) Trends Biochem. Sci. 17, 489–493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. v d Trenck T, Sandermann H (1980) FEBS Letters 119, 227–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Watanabe ME (1997) Environ. Sci. Technol. 31, 182–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wetzel A, Sandermann H (1994) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 314, 323–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heinrich SandermannJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Biochemische PflanzenpathologieGSF - Forschungszentrum für Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbHOberschleißheimGermany

Personalised recommendations