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Abstract

The molecular details of early steps in ethylene signal transduction are becoming firmly established. Many key components have been identified through the study of mutations that affect a broad range of ethylene responses in the plant. Members of the ETR gene family can cause dominant ethylene insensitivity when mutated [1]. Loss of function mutations in EIN2 and EIN3 also result in ethylene insensitivity in the plant; while loss of function mutations in the CTR1 gene leads to constitutive activation of ethylene response pathways [2]. Genetic epistasis analysis indicated that the CTR1 protein acts between the ETR receptors and EIN2 and EIN3 in the signal transduction chain. The genes responsible for these all of these mutant phenotypes have been cloned by a variety of techniques and the derived amino acid sequences have provided important clues as to the biochemical functions of the gene products [3]. The ETR family shows homology to the two-component histidine-kinase receptors common in bacteria. CTR1 shows homology to eukaryotic serine/threonine protein kinases that initiate MAP kinase cascades in eukaryotes. EIN2 is related to a family of metal transporters found in eukaryotes while EIN3 represents a family of transcription factors found only in plants. These components of ethylene signaling and their evolutionary relationships are depicted in Figure 1.

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© 1999 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

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Bleecker, A.B., Hall, A.E., Rodriguez, F.I., Esch, J.J., Binder, B. (1999). The Ethylene Signal Transduction Pathway. In: Kanellis, A.K., Chang, C., Klee, H., Bleecker, A.B., Pech, J.C., Grierson, D. (eds) Biology and Biotechnology of the Plant Hormone Ethylene II. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-4453-7_11

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-4453-7_11

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