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Far Ultraviolet Imaging from the Image Spacecraft. 3. Spectral Imaging of Lyman-∝ and OI 135.6 nm

  • S. B. Mende
  • H. Heetderks
  • H. U. Frey
  • J. M. Stock
  • M. Lampton
  • S. P. Geller
  • R. Abiad
  • O. H. W. Siegmund
  • S. Habraken
  • E. Renotte
  • C. Jamar
  • P. Rochus
  • J.-C. Gerard
  • R. Sigler
  • H. Lauche
Chapter

Abstract

Two FUV Spectral imaging instruments, the Spectrographic Imager (SI) and the Geocorona Photometer (GEO) provide IMAGE with simultaneous global maps of the hydrogen (121.8 nm) and oxygen 135.6 nm components of the terrestrial aurora and with observations of the three dimensional distribution of neutral hydrogen in the magnetosphere (121.6 nm). The SI is a novel instrument type, in which spectral separation and imaging functions are independent of each other. In this instrument, two-dimensional images are produced on two detectors, and the images are spectrally filtered by a spectrograph part of the instrument. One of the two detectors images the Dopplershifted Lyman-α while rejecting the geocoronal ‘cold’ Ly-α, and another detector images the OI 135.6 nm emission. The spectrograph is an all-reflective Wadsworth configuration in which a grill arrangement is used to block most of the cold, un-Doppler-shifted geocoronal emission at 121.567 nm. The SI calibration established that the upper limit of transmission at cold geocoronal Ly-α is less than 2%. The measured light collecting efficiency was 0.01 and 0.008 cm2 at 121.8 and at 135.6 nm, respectively. This is consistent with the size of the input aperture, the optical transmission, and the photocathode efficiency. The expected sensitivity is 1.8 x 10-2 and 1.3 x 10-2 counts per Rayleigh per pixel for each 5 s viewing exposure per satellite revolution (120 s). The measured spatial resolution is better than the 128 x 128 pixel matrix over the 15° x 15° field of view in both wavelength channels. The SI detectors are photon counting devices using the cross delay line principle. In each detector a triple stack microchannel plate (MCP) amplifies the photo-electronic charge which is then deposited on a specially configured anode array. The position of the photon event is measured by digitizing the time delay between the pulses detected at each end of the anode structures. This scheme is intrinsically faster than systems that use charge division and it has a further advantage that it saturates more gradually at high count rates. The geocoronal Ly-α is measured by a three-channel photometer system (GEO) which is a separate instrument. Each photometer has a built in MgF2 lens to restrict the field of view to one degree and a ceramic electron multiplier with a KBr photocathode. One of the tubes is pointing radially outward perpendicular to the axis of satellite rotation. The optic of the other two subtend 60° with the rotation axis. These instruments take data continuously at 3 samples per second and rely on the combination of satellite rotation and orbital motion to scan the hydrogen cloud surrounding the earth. The detective efficiencies (effective quantum efficiency including windows) of the three tubes at Ly-α are between 6 and 10%.

Keywords

Entrance Slit Exit Slit Intermediate Image Pulse Height Distribution Parallel Light 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. B. Mende
    • 1
  • H. Heetderks
    • 1
  • H. U. Frey
    • 1
  • J. M. Stock
    • 1
  • M. Lampton
    • 1
  • S. P. Geller
    • 1
  • R. Abiad
    • 1
  • O. H. W. Siegmund
    • 1
  • S. Habraken
    • 2
  • E. Renotte
    • 2
  • C. Jamar
    • 2
  • P. Rochus
    • 2
  • J.-C. Gerard
    • 3
  • R. Sigler
    • 4
  • H. Lauche
    • 5
  1. 1.Space Sciences LaboratoryUniversity of California BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.Centre Spatiale de LiègeLiègeBelgium
  3. 3.University of LiègeLiègeBelgium
  4. 4.Lockheed-Martin Palo Alto Research LaboratoriesPalo AltoUSA
  5. 5.Max Planck Institut fur AeronomieKatlenburg-LindauGermany

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