Allelopathy research in agroforestry systems of South India

  • C. S. Hunshal
  • H. T. Channal
  • A. R. Alagawadi
  • R. H. Patil


In agroforestry, trees produce lot of litter the and the allelochemicals released from it influence the companion/understorey crops, however, its influence varies with the tree-crop combinations. Pigeonpea was found least susceptible and sesame the most sensitive to the bark leachates of acacia, casuarina, dalbergia, eucalyptus and tectona. Acacia nilotica reduces shoot biomass of wheat, berseem, chickpea and cotton. Pearlmillet grown with Acacia tortilis showed only 12% germination at 5 m distance from the tree and germination was enhanced to 78 and 92% at 10 and 15 m distance. A.nilotica had a greater depression effect on pearlmillet than clusterbean. Plant and soil extracts of A.nilotica and Cassia siamea inhibited the nodulation and N fixation of clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba). Contrarily dried leaves of glyricidia promoted the growth of tomato seedlings and the productivity of pigeonpea, sesame, castor and sorghum was increased under leuceana trees and that of sorghum under eucalyptus. Leaf extracts of tectona, Albizia procera and Acacia nilotica showed stimulatory effects on germination, growth, chlorophyll, protein, carbohydrate and proline content of soybean.

The trees in association with rice, fmgermillet (Eleusine coracana) and Echinochloa frumantacea increased organic carbon by three times, available P and K status significantly in soils. Eucalyptus in association with legumes enhanced the organic carbon, total N, mineral N and exchangeable cation and available P in soils. The dehydrogenase activity in soil under tree species was in the order of Leuceana leucocephala < acacia < eucalyptus. The population of bacteria, fungi and azotobacter increased under Bambusa bambos, Casurina equisetifolia, Ceiba pentandra, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Leucaena leucocephala, Tectona grandis.

Therefore, to improve the productivity of agroforestry systems, it is essential to determine the allelopathic compatibility of crops with trees.

Key words

Agroforestry allelochemicals allelopathy inhibition leachates metabolites phenols phytotoxins rhizosphere and tannins 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Alagawadi, A.R. and Patil, V.C. (1991). Soil microflora under forest tree species. National Seminar on Ecology of Western Ghats. Dharwad, Karnataka, India: Karnataka University.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alves, P.L.C.A., Toledo, R.E.B., Pavani, M.C. M.D. and Pitelli, R.A. (1996). The allelopathic phenomenon in Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. In Abstracts I World Congress on Allelopathy,The Science of Future,Abstract No A-11 pp 66,September 16–20,Cadiz, Spain.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bhaskar, V. and Dasappa (1986). Ground flora in eucalyptus plantation of different ages. In Eucalyptus in India - Past,Present and Future. (Eds., J.K. Sharma, C.T.S. Nair, S. Kedamath and S. Konda) pp 213–224. Peechi, Kerala, India: Kerala Forestry Institute India.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bhaskar, V, Arali, A. and Shankaralingappa, B.C. (1992). Alleviation of allelopathic effects of eucalyptus hybrid through litter burning. In proceedings of First National Symposium Allelopathy in Agroecosystems (Eds., P. Tauro and S.S. Narwal). pp 118–119. Hisar, India: Indian Society of Allelopathy, Haryana Agricultural University.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Blaise, D., Tyagi, P.C., Khola, O.P.S. and Ahlawat, S.P. (1997). Effects of eucalyptus on wheat, maize and cowpea. Allelopathy Journal 4: 344–344.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chaturvedi, O.P. and Jha, A.N. (1992). Studies on allelopathic potential of important agroforestry species. Forestry Ecology and Management 53: 91–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chellamuthu, V, Balasubramanian, T.N., Rajarajan, A. and Palaniappan, S.P. (1997). Allelopathic influence of Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC. in field crops. Allelopathy Journal 4: 291–302.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chetty, M.C. and Rao, K.N. (1994). Effect of Terminalia pallida fruit leachates on the biochemical composition of seedlings in Vigna radiata. Allelopathy Journal 1: 58–65.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chou, C.H. (1986). The role of allelopathy in subtropical agroecosystem in Taiwan. In The Science of Allelopathy (Eds., A.R. Putnam and C.S. Tang), pp. 57–73. New York: Wiley Interscience.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chou, C.H. and Kuo, Y.L. (1986). Allelopathic exclusion of understorey by Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de wit. Journal of Chemical Ecology 12: 1431–1448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Craig, J.A. and Saenalo, M. (1988). Effect of paddy bund planted eucalyptus trees on the performance of fields. Working paper No. 1. The Phar, Khan Kaen, Thailand: Nerad Project.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dalai, M.R., Dahiya, D.S., Sarmah, M.K. and Narwal, S.S. (1992). Suppression effects of arid -zone trees on plant stand and growth of crops. See Reference No.4 . pp 132–135.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Datta, S.C. and Chatterjee, A.K. (1980). Pollution by plants. In proceedings of the Symposium on Environmental Pollution and Toxicology. pp. 195–214. New Delhi: Today and Tommorrow Publishers.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Deng - Langbui, Chuittua, K., Shiming, L., Deng, L.G., Kong, L.H. and Luo, S.M. (1996). Isolation and identification of extract from Casuarina equisetifolia branchlets and its allelopathic action on seedling growth of casuarina. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology 7: 145–149.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Devasagayam, M. M. and Ebenezar, E.G. (1996). Allelopathic effect of eucalyptus on arable crops. Journal of Ecotoxicology and Environmental Monitoring 6:73–75.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Duhan, J.S. and Lakshminarayana, K. (1995). Allelopathic effect of Acacia nilotica on cereal and legume crops grown in fields. Allelopathy Journal 2: 93–98.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Duhan, J.S., Sharma, P.K. and Lakshminarayana, K. (1994). Allelopathic effect of Acacia nilotica on nodulation and nitrogen fixation by Rhizobium (cowpea). Allelopathy Journal 1:47–52.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fogg, G.E. (1947). Proceedings of Royal Society Ser. B. London. 134: 503–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gaynar, D.G. and Jadhav, B.B. (1992). Allelopathic effects of Terminalia tomentosa Roth. on germination of rice and cowpea. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology 35: 288–291.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gliessman, S.R. and Muller, C.H. (1978). The allelopathic mechanisms of dominance in bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) in southern California. Journal of Chemistry and Ecology 4: 337–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Goel, U., Nathawat, G.S. and Goel, U. (1990). Relative effects of Prosopis jul ylora Swartz and Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce on seed germination and seedling growth. Acta Botanica - India 18: 76–79.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Igboanugo, A.B.I. (1988). Effects of eucalyptus trees on yield of Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., Zea mays L. and Sorghum bicolor L. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment 24: 453–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Inderjit, Moral, R. Del, and Del, Moral, R. (1997). Is separating resource competition from allelopathy realistic? Botanical Review 63: 221–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jadhav, B.B. and Gaynar, D.G. (1992). Allelopathic effects of Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. on germination of rice and cowpea Indian Journal of Plant Physiology 35: 86–89.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jadhav, B.B. and Gaynar, D.G. (1994). Effect of Tectona grandis (L.) leaf leachates on rice and cowpea. Allelopathy Journal 1: 66–69.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jadhav, B.B. and Gayanar, D.G. (1995). Effect of Casuarina equisetifolia J.R. leaf litter leachates on germination and seedling growth of rice and cowpea. Allelopathy Journal 2: 105–108.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    King, K.F.S. and Chandler, M.T. (1998). The Waste Lands. Nairobi, Kenya: International Council for Research in Agroforestry.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kohli, R.K., Singh, D. and Verma, R.C. (1990). Influence of eucalyptus shelterbelt on winter season agroecosystems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 33: 23–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Konar, J. and Kushari, D.P. (1995). Effect of Eucalyptus globulus leachates on the growth and diosgenin content of Costus Speciosus. Allelopathy Journal 2: 215–218.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Koul, V.K. (1990). The effect of soil beneath Leucaena leucocephala and its decomposed leaves on germination of rice. Leucaena Research Reports 11: 54–55.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kumar, R., Kumar, S. and Singh, D. (1992). Impact of Acacia nilotica on soil physical and chemical properties. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports 10: 108–109.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kumari, S. and Devi, S. (1994). Influence of forest litter degradation on soil dehydrogenase activity. Current Research 23: 5–7.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Molisch, H. (1937). Der Enfusslinear Pflanze Aufdie Andere - Allelopathie, GDR: Fisher, Jena. pp. 130.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Muller, C.H. (1974). Allelopathy in the environmental complex, in Handbook of Vegetation Science, Part VI. Vegetation and Environment (Eds., B.R. Strain and W.D. Billings), pp.37–85.The Hague: W. Junk.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Noor, M., Salem, U., Khan, M.A., Noor, M. and Salam, U. (1995). Allelopathic effects of Prosopis juliora Swartz. Journal of Arid Environment 31: 83–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    O’Connel (1986). Effect of legume understorey on decomposition and nutrient content of eucalyptus forest litter. Plant and Soil 92: 235–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Padhy, B. and Khan, P.A. (1996). Physiological and biochemical effects of allelopathic substances of eucalyptus leaves on rice. Abstract No. E-6. See Reference No. 2, pp. 170.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Padhy, B, Khan, P.A., Acharya, B. and Buxipatra, N.P. (1992). Allelopathic effects of eucalyptus leaves on seed germination and seedlings growth of finger millet. See Reference No. 4, pp. 102–104.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Patil, B.P. (1994). Effects of Glyricidia maculata L. extracts on field crops. Allelopathy Journal 1: 118–120.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Permual, R. and Francis H.J. (1991). Soil fertility improvement using integrated nutrient management in agroforestry. In Agroforestry, Extension and Training (Eds., G. Perumal, J. Oiver, and R. Annamalai),pp. 39–41. Coimbatore, India: Tamil Nadu Agricultural University.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Phlomina, N.S. and Srivasuki, K.P. (1996). Allelopathic studies on agroforestry species: Effect of leaf leachates on seed germination of crop plants. Indian Journal of Forestry 19: 45–53.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Prawoto, A.A. (1997). A study of allelopathy effect of Cassia siamea and Adenanthera microsperma to cocoa. Pelita Perkebunan 13 (1):16–23.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Puri, S. (1992). The allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus tereticornis in an agroforestry system. See Reference No. 4, pp. 101.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rafique, M.(1995). Allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on wheat variety “Inqualab - 91”. Pakistan Journal of Foreshy 45: 21–24.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ramamoorthy, M. and Paliwal, K. (1993). Allelopathic compounds in leaves of Glyricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex Walp. and its effect on Sorghum vulgare L. Journal of Chemical Ecology 19: 1691–1701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rao, O.P., Saxena, A.K. and Singh, B.P. (1994). Allelopathic effects of certain agroforestry tree species on the germination of wheat, paddy and gram. Annals of Forestry 2: 60–64.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rastogi, R.P. and Mehrotra, B.M. (1991). In Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants (Vol.II),pp 832, Lucknow:Central Drug Research Institute.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rice, E.L. (1984). Allelopathy.IInd edition. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Rizvi, S.J.H., Sinha, R.C. and Rizvi, V. (1990). Implications of mimosine allelopathy in Agroforestry. Proceedings XIX IUFRO World Congress on Forestry, Montreal, Canada. 2: 22–27.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sajjan, A.S., Hiremath, S.M. and Badanur, V.P. (1997). Allelopathic effect of eucalyptus on germinatioon of seedling characteristics in some crops. Annals of Plant Physiology 11: 54–57.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sankhla, N., Baxi, D. and Chatterjee, W.N. (1965). Eco-physiological studies on arid zone plants. 1. Phytotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora D.C). Current Science 34: 612–614.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Saxena, A. and Sharma, A.K. (1996). Allelopathic potential of Acacia tortilis in agroforestry systems of arid region. Allelopathy Journal 3: 81–84.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Saxena, A., Singh, D.V. and Joshi N.L. (1996). Allelopathy in Agroecosystems. Field Crop Abstracts 49: 891–899.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Sharma, K.K. (1992). Wheat cultivation in association with Acacia nilotica (L.) Wild ex. Del. field bund plantation-a case study. Agroforestry Systems 17:881–884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Shivanna, L.R. and Prasanna, K.T. (1992). Allelopathic effects of eucalyptus; an assessment on the response of agricultural crops. Myforest 28: 131–137.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Singh, D., and Kohli, R.K. (1992). Impact of Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. shelterbelts on crops. Agroforestry Systems 20: 253–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Singh, D., Kohli, R.K. and Saxena, D.B. (1991). Effect of eucalyptus oil on germination and growth of Phaseolus aureus Roxb. Plant and Soil 137: 223–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Singh, H.K. (1993). Allelopathic effects of tree species on crop plants. In Proceedings and Recommendations of National Workshop on Farm Forestry Management, (Ed., T.H. Badu), pp. 18–22 Bhopal: Indian Institute of Forest Management.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Singh, P.N., Gupta, S., Azmi, S. and Singh, G. (1992). Allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook leaf litter leachate on germination and seedling growth of wheat, chickpea and toria. See Reference No. 4, pp. 105–107.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Siqueira, J.O., Nair, M.G., Hammerschmidt, R. and Safir, G.R. (1991). Significance of phenolic compounds in plant soil microbial systems. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 10:63–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Sivagurunathan, M., Devi, S.G. and Ramasamy, K. (1997). Allelopathic compounds in Eucalyptus spp. Allelopathy Journal 4: 313–320.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Srivastava, S., Tripathi, A. K. and Jain, A. (1996). Phytochemical investigation of some forest tree species for their allelopathic potential. Indian Journal of Ecology 23: 21–28.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Sundramoorthy, S. and Kalra, A. (1991). Allelopathic potential of wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw on selected weed species. Weed Science 30:495–497.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Sundramoorthy, S., Kalra, N. and Chawan, D.D. (1995). Allelopathy and Prosopis julora provenance Israel in semi-arid agrforestry systems. Indian Journal of Forestry 18: 214–220.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Surendran, (1991). Recent technology development in agroforestry. In Agroforestry, Extension and Training (Eds., G. Perumal, J. Oliver and R. Annamalai,). Pp. 12–16. Coimbatore, India: Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Suresh, K.K. and VinayRai, R.S. (1987). Studies on the allelopathic effects of some agroforestry trees on crops. International Tree Crop Journal 4: 109–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Swaminathan, C. (1996). Effect of leachates of multipurpose trees on germination and seedling growth of maize, pigeonpea and sesame. Allelopathy Journal 3: 77–80.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Swaminathan, C., VinayRai, R.S. and Suresh, K.K. (1989). Allelopathic proclivities of Acacia nilotica (L.). Journal of Tropical Forest Science 2: 56–60.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Tian, G. And Kang, B.T.(1994). Evaluation of phytotoxic effects of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq) Walp. pruning on maize and cowpea seedlings. Agroforestry Systems 26:3:249–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Tripathi, S., Tripathi, A. and Banerjee, S.K. (1996). Comparative study of chemical nature and role of leaf and root leachates on productivity. Advances in Forestry Research in India 14: 183–194.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Tripathi, S., Tripathi, A., Kori, D.C. and Tiwari, S. (1998). Effect of tree leaves aqueous extracts on germination and seedling growth of soybean. Allelopathy Journal 5: 75–82.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Tukey, H.B. Jr.(1970). The leaching of substances from plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 21: 305–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Waller, G.R. (1989). Allelochemical action of some natural products. In Phytochemical Ecology: Allelochemicals, Mycotoxin, Insect Pheromones and Allomones. (Eds., C.H. Chou and G.R. Waller), pp. 129–154. Taipei, Taiwan: Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Whittaker, R.H. (1970). The biochemical ecology of higher plants. In Chemical Ecology (Eds.,E. Sondheimer and J.B. Simeone), pp 43–70. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. S. Hunshal
    • 1
  • H. T. Channal
    • 1
  • A. R. Alagawadi
    • 1
  • R. H. Patil
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AgronomyUniversity of Agricultural SciencesKarnatakaIndia

Personalised recommendations