Advertisement

Allelopathic interactions in agroforestry systems

  • A. S. Gill
  • J. V. N. S. Prasad
Chapter

Abstract

Agroforestry systems, growing of multipurpose tree species (MPTS) with arable crops has the potential to increase the total biomass production per unit area. It is an ideal technology to meet the food, fuel, fruit and fodder requirements for the future generations. MPTS not only fulfil the above requirements but are also capable of improving soil fertility, controlling erosion and ensures sustainability of the system in which they exist. In recent years, lot of interest has been generated regarding the allelopatic effects of MPTS in various agroforestry systems. The tree which is the dominant component in the agroforestry system affects the associated crops plants through the leaf fall, exudates and by chemicals which are released at various stages of decomposition of leaf litter. Large number of allelopathy experiments conducted on Eucalyptus, the main species in social forestry programmes and industrial plantations in India, conclusively established its allelopathic effects. In addition to Eucalyptus, the allelopathic proclivities of some commonly grown MPTS have also been discussed in this chapter.

Key words

Acacia allelopathy agroforestry crops eucalyptus growth attributes leucaena 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Anwar, C. (1991). Study of the allelopathic effect of Eucalyptus species on the growth of corn seedlings. Bulletin Penelitian Hutan No. 543: 9–17.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ballester, A., Arias, A.M., Cobian, B., Lopez, C.E. and Vietez. (1982). Study of the allelopathic potentials caused by Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus pinaster and Pinus radiata. Don pastos 12: 239–254.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bansal, G.L. (1988). Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of stem and leaves of three tree species on the germination of some crops and weeds. In Trends in Tree science. pp. 118–23. Solan, India: Indian Society of Tree Scientists.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bansal, G.L., Nayyar, H. and Bedi, Y.S. (1992). Allelopathic effect of Eucalyptus macrorrhyncha and Eucalyptus youmanii on seedling growth of wheat and radish. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science 62: 771–772.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Basu, P.K., Kapoor, K.S., Nath, S. and Banerjee, S.K.(1987) Allelopathic influence: An assessment of the agricultural crops growing near Eucalyptus tereticornis. Indian Journal of Forestry 10: 267–71.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bedi, S. and Kohli, R.K. (1989). Comparison of allelopathic potential of root and shoot system of Eucalyptus globulus. In Proceedings of the Forest Biology in the Service of Mankind. pp. 70 Madurai, India: Indian Society of Tree Scientists.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bhaskar, V., Arali, A. and Shankaralingappa, B.C.(1992). Alleviation of allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus tereticornis through litter burning. In Proceedings First National Symposium. Allelopathy in Agroecosystems (Agriculture and Forestry), (Eds., P. Tauro, S.S. Narwal) pp.118–119. Hisar, India: Indian Society of Allelopathy.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bisla, S.S., Nandal, D.P.S. and Narwal, S.S.(1992). Influence of aqueous leaf extracts of Eucalyptus and Poplar on the germination and seedling growth of winter crops. See Reference No. 7 pp. 95–97.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Blaise, D. and Tyagi, P.C.(1996). Allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus on crops. In Abstracts. First World Congress on Allelopathy. pp.16–20. Cadiz, Spain.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bowman, D.M. and Kirkpatrick, J.B. (1986). Establishment, suppression and growth of Eucalyptus delagatensis in multi aged forest.III Interspecific allelopathy, competition between adults and juveniles for moisture and nutrients and frost damage to seedlings. Australian Journal of Botany 34: 81–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Casai, J.F., Reigosa, M.J., Carbelleira, A. (1985). Allelopathic potential of Acacia dealbata. Rev. Ecol. Biol. Sol. 22: 1–12.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chaturvedi, O.P. and Jha, A.N.(1992). Studies on the allelopathic potential of important agroforestry species. Forest Ecology and Management 53: 91–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chou, C.H. and Kuo, Y.L. (1986). Allelopathic exclusion of understorey by Leucaena leucocephala. Journal of Chemical Ecology 12:1431–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chouhan, G.S., Mathur, A. N., Bhandari, M.M.C. and Jat, P.K. (1992). Allelopathic effect of some tree species on associated grasses under silvi pastoral system. See Reference No.7.pp.130–131.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Craig, I.A. and Saenalo, M.(1988). Effect of paddy bund planted Eucalyptus trees, on the performance of field crops. Working Paper No. 1,The Phar, Thailand: Nerad project.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dalai, M.R., Dahiya, D.S., Sarmah, M.K. and Narwal, S.S. (1992). Supression effects of arid-zone trees on plant stand and growth of crops. See reference No.7. pp. 132–135.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    DelMoral, R. and Muller, C.H. (1970). The allelopathic effect of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. American Midland Naturalist 83: 254–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Duhan, J.S. and Laxminarayana, K.(1995). Allelopathic effect of Acacia nilotica on cereal and legume crops grown in fields. Allelopathy Journal 2: 93–98.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Duhan, J.S., Sharma, P.K. and Laxminarayana, K. (1994). Allelopathic effect of Acacia nilotica on nodulation and nitrogen fixation by Rhizobium (cowpea). Allelopathy Journal 1: 47–52.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gill, A.S. (1992). Allelopathy in agroforesty. See Reference No. 7.pp. 7Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gill, A.S. (1994). Allelopathic effect of MPTs in agroforestry. In Abstract, International Symposium on Allelopathy in Sustainable Agriculture,Forestry and Environment,(Eds., S.S. Narwal, P. Tauro, G.S. Dhaliwal and Jai Prakash), pp. 6. New Delhi, India: Indian Society of Allelopathy.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gill, A.S. and Parihar, S.S. (1996). Allelopathy in agroforestry systems. In Allelopathy. Field Observations and Methodology (Eds., S.S. Narwal and P. Tauro.) pp. 121–126.Jodhpur, India: Scientific publishers.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Igboanugo, I.B. (1988). Effects of some Eucalypts on yields of Vigna unguiculata,Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor. Agriculture Ecosystem and Environment 24:453–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jadhav, B.B. and Gaynar, D.G. (1992). Allelopathic effects of Acacia auriculiformis on germination of rice and cowpea. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology 35:86–89.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jhakhar, S.S. and Rana, V.S. (1994). Synergistic and antagonistic effect of Prosopis cineraria and Acacia nilotica on pearlmillet and chickpea. SeeReference No. 8. pp. 167.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jones, R.K. (1981). Does ruminai metabolism of mimosine explain the absence of leucaena toxicity in Hawai. Australian Vetarinary Journal 57:55–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Joshi, P.C. and Prakash, O.(1992). Allelopathic effects of litter extract of some tree species on germination and seedling growth of agricultural crops. See Reference No. 7. pp. 128–8.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kohli, R.K. (1990). Allelopathic properties of Eucalyptus. Project Report MAB. Do En..Project, pp. 199.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kohli, R.K. (1994). Allelopathic implications of Eucalyptus in Agro ecosystems. In Allelopathy in Agriculture and Forestry (Eds., S.S. Narwal and P. Tauro). pp. 75–91. Jodhpur,India: Scientific PublishersGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kohli, R.K., Kaur, K., Chaudhari, P., Kumari, A. and Saxena, D.B. (1987). Negative aspects of Eucalyptus fanning. In Agroforestry for Rural Needs. (Eds., P.K. Khosla and D.K. Khurana) pp. 225–41, Solan, India: Indian Society of Tree Scientists.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kohli, R.K., Singh, D. and Verma, R.C.(1990). Influence of shelterbelts on winter season agro ecosystems. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 33: 23–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Koul, V.K. (1990). The effect of soil beneath Leucaena leucocephala and its decomposed leaves on germination of rice. Leucaena Research Report 11:54–55.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kumari, A. and Kohli, R.K. (1987). Autotoxicity of Ragweed. (Parthenium hyterophorus). Weed Science 35: 629–632.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kumari, A., Singh, D., Verma, R. C. and Kohli, R.K. (1989).Correlation response of germination and vigour on different plant seeds to the Citronella oil from Eucalyptus. See Reference No.6. pp.107–19.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kuo, Y.L., Chou, C.H., Itu, T.W. (1983). Allelopathic potential of Leucaena leucocephala. In Allelochemicals and Pheromones, (Eds., C.H. Chou and G.R. Waller), pp. 107–19. Taipei, Taiwan: Academia Sinica.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Learner, R.H. and Evenari, M. (1961). The nature of germination inhibitors present in the leaves of Eucalyptus rostrata. Physiologia Plantarum 16:221–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lisanework, N. and Michelsen, A. (1993). Allelopathy in agroforestry systems. The effects of leaf extracts of Cupressis lucitanica and three Eucalyptus sps. on four Ethiopian crops. Agroforestry Systems 21:63–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lovett, J.V. (1986). Allelopathy, The Australian experience. In The Science of Allelopathy (Eds., A.R. Putnam and C.S. Tang). pp. 75–100. New York. Wiley Interscience.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Melkania, N. P.(1984). Influence of leaf leachates of certain woody species on agricultural crops. Indian Journal of Ecology 11:82–86.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Melkania, N.P. (1992). Allelopathy in fodder and agroecosystem in the Himalayan region. In Allelopathy:Basic and Applied Aspects. (Eds., S.J.H. Rizvi and V. Rizvi), NewYork: Champan and Hall.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Nandal, D.P.S., Bisla, S.S. and Narwal, S.S.(1992).Allelopathic influence of Eucalyptus and Poplar leaf extracts on the germination and seedling growth of winter vegetables. See Reference No. 7: 82–86.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Narwal, S.S. and Sarmah, M.K. (1992). Supression effect of Eucalyptus tereticornis on the field crops. See Reference No. 7 pp. 111–13.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Neiman (1952). Estimation of water soluble matter, gums and starches and crude glycyrrhizin in Gleyrrhiza glabra. Chein Wealblad 48:213.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Nishamura, H., Kaku, K., Nakamura, T., Fukazawa, T. and Mizutani, J. (1982). Allelopathic substances, p-methane-3, 8-diols isolated from from Eucalyptus citriodora. Agriculture Biology and Chemistry 46:319–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nishamura, H., Nakamura, T. and Mizutani, J. (1988). Allelopathic effects of methane-3, 8-diols isolated from Eucalyptus citriodora. Phytochemistry 23: 277–79.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Padhy, B., Khan, P.A., Acharya, B. and Buxipatra, N.P. (1992) Allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus leaves on seed germination and seedling growth of finger millet. See Reference No. 7. pp. 102–104.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Palani, M., Dastagir, M.G., Thiyageswari, S. and Balaji, S. (1998a). Effect of bark and leaf leachates of Acacia mangium on germination and seedling growth of agricultural crops. In Abstracts National Seminar on Integration of Livestock and Agroforestry Systems in Wasteland Development. pp. 26. Kattupakkam, Tamil Nadu: India.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Palani, M., Dastagir, M.G., Thiyagaswari, S. and Balaji, S. (1998b). A study on the allelopathic effect of Acacia nilotica on agricultureal crops. See Reference No. 47, pp 29.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Paulino, V.T., Sanchez, M.J.F., Werner, J.C. and Consla, V. (1987). Allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus on forage growth. Res. Agric. 62: 17–35.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Prasad, J.V.N.S (1998). Biomass and Ethanol Production Potential of Sweet Sorghum Varieties as Influenced by Plant Densities, Nitrogen and Allelogenic Tree Biomass application. Ph.D Thesis, New Delhi: Division of Agronomy, Indian Agricultural Research Institute.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Puri, S. (1992).The allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus tereticornis in an agroforestry system. See Reference No.7. pp.101.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Putnam, A.R. and Tang, C.S.(1986). The Science of Allelopathy., New York, USA:Wiley Inter Science.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rao, N.S. and Reddy, D.C. (1984). Studies on the inhibitory effects of Eucalyptus leaf extracts on the germination of certain food crops. Indian Forester 110: 218–22.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Reis, P.J., Tunki, D.A. and Chapman, R.E.(1975). Effects of mimosine. A potential chemical defleecing agent on wool growth and the skin of the sheep. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 28: 69–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Rizvi, V., Sinha, R.C. and Rizvi, S.J.H. (1994). Allelopathic effects of mimosine and its role in agroforestry. See Reference No. 21. pp. 50.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sanginga, S. and Swift, M.J. (1992). Nutritional affects of Eucalyptus litter on the growth of Maize. Agriculture Ecocystems and Environment 41: 55–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Saxena, S. and Singh, J.S.(1978),Influence of leaf leachate from Eucalyptus globulus and Aescules indica on the growth of Vigna radiata and Lolium perenne. Indian Journal of Ecology 5:148–59.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sharma, K.K. (1992). Wheat cultivation in association with Acacia nilotica (L.). Field bund plantation - A case study. Agroforestry Systems 17: 43–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sharma, K.M.S., Dhillon, M.S. and Dhingra, K.K. (1967). Presence of germination inhibitors in the leaf leachates of some farm grown trees. Indian Forester 113: 816–20.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Shivanna, L.R., Prasanna, K.T. and Mumtaz, J. (1992). Allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus: An assessment on the response of agricultural crops. See Reference No. 8. pp. 108–110.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Shridevi, B., Nimbole, N. N. and Rao, P.S. (1994). Influence of Eucalyptus leaf extract on germination of crop seeds. See Reference No.21.pp.53.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sidhu, D.S. and Hans, A.S. (1988). Preliminary studies on the effect of Eucalyptus leaf litter on acumulation of biomass in wheat. Journal of Tropical Forestry 4: 318–23.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Singh, D. and Kohli, R.K.(1992). Impact of Eucalyptus tereticornis shelterbelts on crops. Agroforestry Systems 20: 253–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Singh, D., Kohli, R.K. and Saxena, D.B. (1991). Effect of Eucalyptus oil on germination and growth of Phaseolus aureus. Plant and Soil 137 : 223–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Singh, G.B. (1993). Role of agroforestry in improving the environment. Indian Farming 33: 15–19.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Singh, P.N., Gupta, S., Azmi, S. and Singh, G. (1992). Allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus citriodora leaf litter leachate on germination and seedling growth of wheat, chickpea and Toria. See Reference No. 7. pp. 105–7.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Singh, R. and Bawa, R. (1982). Effect of leaf leachates from Eucalyptus globulus and Aesculus indica on germination of Glacium fiavum. Indian Journal of Ecology 9:21–28.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Singh, R.P. and Nandal, D.P.S. (1993). Allelopathic effect of aqueous leaf extract of important agroforestry tree species on some fodder crops. Forage research 19: 55–61.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Smith, I.K. and Fowden, C.J. (1966). A study of mimosine toxicity in plants Journal of Experimental Botany 17: 750–761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Srinivasan, K., Ramasan, M. and Shanta, R. (1990). Tolerence of pulse crops to allelochemicals of tree species. Indian Journal of Pulses research 3:40–44.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Sundaramoorthy, S. and Kalra, A. (1991).Allelopathy and vegetation in Acacia tortilis plantations in Indian desert. Annals of Arid Zone 30: 259–66.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sundaramoorthy, S., Kalra, N. and Sen, D.N. (1992). Allelopathic potentials of Acacia tortilis on seed germination and seedling growth of some legumes. See Reference No. 8. pp. 123–124.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Suresh, K.K. and Rai, R.S.V. (1987). Studies on the allelopathy affects of some agroforestry tree crops. International Tree Crops Journal 4:109–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Suresh, K.K. and Rai, R.S.V. (1988). Allelopathic exclusion of understorey by a few MPT. International Tree Crops Journal 5:143–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Swaminathan, C., Rai, R.V.S. and Suresh, K.K. (1989). Allelopathic activities of Acacia nilotica in India. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 2: 56–60.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Tawata, S. and Bongo, I. (1987). Mimosine allelopathy of Leucaena. Leucana Research Reports 8: 40–41.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Tomar, G.S. and Srivastava, S.K. (1986). Preliminary studies of rice cultivation in association with trees. In Agroforestry Systems a New Challenge (Eds., P.K. Khosla, S. Puri) pp. 207–211. Solan, India: Indian Society of Tree Scientists.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Tukey, H.B. Jr. (1970). The leaching of substances from plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 21: 305–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Wilson, W.F. and Bell, E.A. (1979). Amino acids and related compounds as inhibitors of lettuce growth. Phytochemistry 18: 1883–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. S. Gill
    • 1
  • J. V. N. S. Prasad
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Crop ProductionIndian Grassland and Fodder Research InstituteJhansiIndia

Personalised recommendations