Skip to main content

Tracer Studies of the Arctic Freshwater Budget

  • Chapter
The Freshwater Budget of the Arctic Ocean

Part of the book series: NATO Science Series ((ASEN2,volume 70))

Abstract

The freshwater lens covering the surface of the Arctic Ocean is roughly 50 to 150 meters thick and consists of river runoff, sea-ice meltwater, and low-salinity water of Pacific origin imported through Bering Strait. Whereas salinity data provide us with a good picture of the distribution and variability of the total freshwater contained in the Arctic Ocean, they cannot, in general, distinguish between the individual freshwater components. To obtain this information, measurements of additional water mass properties have to be performed.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

eBook
USD 9.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 54.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Craig, H. and Gordon, L.I. (1965) Deuterium and oxygen 18 variations in the ocean and the marine atmosphere, in: E. Tongiorgi (ed), Stable isotopes in oceanographic studies and Paleotemperatures. Spoleto Coif Proc., Cons. Naz. Ric., V. Lischi Figli, pp. 9–130.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Dansgaard, W. (1964) Stable isotopes in precipitation. Tellus, XVI, 436–468.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Ekwurzel, B. (1998) Circulation and mean residence times in the Arctic Ocean derived from tritium, helium, and oxygen-18 tracers, Ph.D. thesis, Columbia University, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Frank, M. (1996) Spurenstoffuntersuchungen zur Zirkulation im Eurasischen Becken des Nordpolanneeres, Ph.D. thesis, Ruprecht Karls Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Létolle, R., Martin, J.M., Thomas, A.J., Gordeev, V.V., Gusarova, V., and Sidorov, I.S. (1993) 18O Abundance and dissolved silicate in the Lena delta and Laptev Sea (Russia), Marine Chem., 43 47–64.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Falkner, K.K., Macdonald, R.W., Carmack, E.C., and Weingartner, T. (1994) The potential of barium as a tracer of Arctic water masses, in O.M. Johannessen, R.D. Muench, and J.E. Overland (eds.), The polar oceans and their role in shaping the global environment, pp. 63–76, American Geophysical Union, Washington DC.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Guay, C.K. and Falkner, K.K. (1997) Barium as a tracer of Arctic halocline and river waters, Deep Sea Res. 44 1543–1569.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Anderson, L.G., Olsson, K., and Skoog, A. (1994) Distribution of dissolved inorganic and organic carbon in the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean, in O.M. Johannessen, R.D. Muench, and J.E. Overland (eds) The polar oceans and their role in shaping the global environment, pp. 255–262, American Geophysical Union, Washington.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Anderson, L.G. (1995) Chemical oceanography of the Arctic and its shelf seas, in W.O. Smith Jr., and J.M. Grebmeier (eds.) Arctic oceanography: marginal ice zones and continental shelves, pp. 183–202, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  10. Anderson, L.G., Björk, B., Holby, O., Jones, E.P., Kanner, G., Koltermann, K.P., Liljeblad, B., Lindegren, R., Rudels, B., and Swift, J. (1994) Water masses and circulation in the Eurasian Basin: Results from the Oden 91 expedition, J. Geophys. Res., 99 (C2), 3273–3283

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Bauch, D., Schlosser, P., and Fairbanks, R.G. (1995) Freshwater balance and the sources of deep and bottom waters in the Arctic Ocean inferred from the distribution of H2180, Progress in Oceanography, 35 53–80.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Jones, E.P., Anderson, L.G., and Swift, J.H. (1998) Distribution of Atlantic and Pacific waters in the upper Arctic Ocean: Implications for circulation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25 765–768.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Broecker, W.S., Peacock, S.L., Walker, S., Weiss, R.F., Fahrbach, E., Schroeder, M., Mikolajewicz, U., Heinze, C., Key, R., Peng, T.-H., and Rubin, S. (1998) How much deep water is formed in the Southern Ocean?J. Geophys. Res., 103, 15,833–15,843.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Friedman, I., Schoen, B., and Harris, J. (1961) The deuterium concentration in Arctic sea ice, J. Geophys. Res.,66 1861–1864.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Redfield, A.C., and Friedman, I. (1961) The effect of meteoric water, melt water and brine on the composition of Polar Sea water and of the deep waters of the ocean, Deep-Sea Res.,16 197–214.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Östlund, H.G. (1982) The residence time of the freshwater component in the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 87 2035–2043.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Östlund, G.H. and Hut, G. (1984) Arctic Ocean water mass balance from isotope data, J. Geophys. Res., 89 6373–6381.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Östlund, H.G., G. Possnert, G., J.H. Swift, J.H. (1987) Ventilation rate of the deep Arctic Ocean from carbon 14 data, J. Geophys. Res., 92 3769--3777.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Östlund, H.G. and Grall, C. (1993) Arctic Tritium: 1973–1991. Tritium Laboratory data report no. 19, University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Miami, Florida, 33149.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Schlosser, P., Bauch, D., Fairbanks, R., and Bönisch, G., (1994). Arctic river-runoff: mean residence time on the shelves and in the halocline, Deep-Sea Research, 41 1053–1068.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Schlosser, P., Bayer, R., Bönisch, G., Cooper, L., Ekwurzel, B., Jenkins, W.J., Khatiwala, S., Pfirman, S., and Smethie, W.M., Jr. (1999) Pathways and mean residence times of dissolved pollutants in the ocean derived from transient tracers and stable isotopes. Science of the Total Environment, 237/238 15–30.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Morison, J.H, Steele, M., and Andersen, R., (1998) Hydrography of the upper Arctic Ocean measured from the nuclear submarine USS Pargo, Deep Sea Res. 45 15–38.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Carmack, E.C., Macdonald, R.K.W., Perkin, R.G., McLaughlin, F A., and Pearson, R.J., (1995) Evidence for warming of Atlantic Water in the Southern Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean, Results from the Larsen-93 Expedition, Geophys. Res. Letters 22 1061–1064.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. McLaughlin, F.A., Carmack, E.C., and Macdonald, R.W. (1996) Physical and geochemical properties across the Atlantic/Pacific water mass front in the southern Canadian Basin, J. Geophys., Res. 101 1183–1197, 1996.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Loeng, H (1991) Features of the physical oceanographic conditions of the BarentsSea, 1981, Polar Research 10, 5–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Pirman, S.L., Bauch, D., and Gammelsred, T. (1994) The Northern Barents Sea: Water mass distribution and modification, in O.M. Johannessen, R.D. Muench, and J.E. Overland (eds) The polar oceans and their role in shaping the global environment, AGU Geophysical Monograph no. 85, pp. 77–94.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  27. Schauer, U., Muench, R.D., Rudels, B., and Timokhov, L. (1997) Impact of eastern Arctic shelf waters on the Nansen Basin intermediate layers. J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3371–3382.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Cooper, L.W., Whitledge, T.E., and Grebmeier, J.M. (1997) The nutrient, salinity, and stable oxygen isotope composition of Bering and Chukchi Seas waters in and near the Bering Strait, J. Geophys. Res. 102, 12563–12573.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Bedard, P., Hillaire-Marcel, C., and Page, P. (1981) 18O modeling of freshwater inputs in Baffin Bay and Canadian Arctic coastal waters, Nature 293, 287–289.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Untersteiner, N. (1961) On the mass and heat budget of Arctic Sea Ice, Arch. Meteor. Geophys. Bioklim. Al2, 151–182.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Romanov, I.P. (1992) The ice cover of the Arctic Ocean. AARI, St. Petersburg, 211 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Mel’nikov, I.A. and Lobyshev, V.I. (1985) Fractionation of 180O in the snow and ice cover of the central Arctic Basin. Oceanology, 25(2), 181–184.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Pfirman, S.L., Lange, M., Wollenburg, I., and Schlosser, P. (1990) Sea ice characteristics and the role of sediment inclusions in deep sea deposition: Arctic-Antarctic comparisons, in: U. Bleil and J. Thiede (eds.), Geologic History of the Polar Oceans: Arctic versus Antarctic, NATO ASI Series C, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 187–211.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  34. Lobyshev, V.J., Mel’nikov, I.A., Yesikov, A.D., and V.V. Nechayev (1984) Study of the oxygen isotope composition of Arctic drift ice in connection with activation of the growth of phytoplankton at the boundary of the melting ice. Biophysics, 29(5) 912–917.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Hakkinen, S. (1990) Models and their applications to polar oceanographyin W.O. Smitjh (ed.), Polar Oceanogrphy, Part 1, Physical Science,Academic Press, San Diego, CA., pp. 225–384.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Holland, D.M, Mysak, L.A., and Oberhuber, J.M. (1996) An investigation of the general circulation of the Arctic Ocean using an isopycnal model, Tellus 48A, 138–157.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Proshutinsky, A.Y. and Johnson, M.A. (1997) Two circulation regimes of the wind-driven Arctic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res 102, 12,493–12,514.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Weatherly, J.W. and Walsh, J.E. (1996) The effects of precipitation and a river runoff in a coupled ice-ocean model of the Arctic. Climate Dynamics 12, 785–798.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Semtner, A.J. and Chervin, R.M. (1988) A simulation of the global ocean circulation with resolved eddiesJ. Geophys. Res. 93,15,502–15,522.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Killworth, P.D., Stainforth, D., Webb, D.J. and Paterson, S.M. (1991) The development of a free-surface Bryan-Cox-Semtner ocean model. J. Phys. Oceanography 21, 1333–1348.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Dukowicz, J.K. and Smith, R.D. (1994) Implicit free-surface method for the Bryan-Cox-Semtner ocean model, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7991–8014.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Hunke, E.C. and Zhang, Y. (1999) A comparison of sea ice dynamics models at high resolution, Mon. Weather Rev. 127, 396–408

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Steele, M. and Boyd, T. (1998) Retreat of the cold halocline layer in the Arctic OceanJ. Geophys. Res. 10310,419–10,435.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Maslanik, J.A., Serreze, M.C., and Barry, R.G. (1996) Recent decreases in Arctic summer ice cover and linkages to atmospheric circulation anomalies. Geophys. Res. Letters 23, 1677–1680.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Wallace, D.W.R., Moore, R.M., and Jones, E.P. (1987) Ventilation of the Arctic Ocean cold halocline: rates of diapycnal and isopycnal transport, oxygen utilization, and primary production inferred using chlorofluoromethane distributions, Deep Sea Res. 34, 1957–1979.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Schlosser, P., Bönisch, G., Kromer, B., Münnich, K.O. and Koltermann, K.P. (1990) Ventilation rates of the waters in the Nansen Basin of the Arctic Ocean derived from a multi-tracer approach, Journal of Geophysical Research,95, 3265–3272.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Wallace, D.W.R., Schlosser, P., Krysell, M., and Bönisch, G. (1992) Halocarbon ratio and tritium/3He dating of water masses in the Nansen Basin, Arctic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res. 39, 435–458.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Schlosser, P., Bönisch, G., Kromer, B., Loosli, H.H., Bühler, B., Bayer, R., Bonani, G., and Koltennann, K.P. (1995) Mid 1980s distribution of tritium, 3He, 14C and 39Ar in the Greenland/Norwegian seas and the Nansen Basin of the Arctic Ocean, Progress in Oceanography 35, 1–28.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Frank, M., Smethie, W.M., Jr., and Bayer, R. (1998) Investigation of subsurface water flow along the continental margin of the Eurasian basin using the transient tracers tritium, 3He, and CFCs, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 30,773–30,792.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Smethie, W.M. Jr., Schlosser, P. Hopkins, T.S., and Bönisch, G. (2000). Renewal and circulation of intermediate waters in the Canadian Basin observed on the SCICEX-96 cruise, J Geophys. Res., 105 1105–1121.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Wallace, D.W.R., and Moore, R.M. (1985) Vertical profiles of CCL3F (F-11) and CC12F2 (F-12) in the central Arctic Ocean basin. J. Geophys. Res., 90 1155–1166.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Pavlov, V.K., Timokhov, L.A., Baskakov, G.A., Kulakov, M.Y., Kurazhov, V.K., Pavlov, P.V., Pivovarov, S.V., and Stanovoy, V.V. (1996) Hydrometeorological regime of the Kara, Laptev, and East-Siberian Seas, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle. 179 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Becker, P. (1995) The effect of Arctic river hydrological cycles on Arctic Ocean circulation, Ph.D. thesis, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Macdonald, R.W., Carmack, E.C., McLaughlin, F.A., Iseki, K., Macdonald, D.M., and O’Brien, M.C. (1989) Composition and modification of water masses in the Mackenzie shelf estuary, J. Geophys. Res. 94 18,057–18,070.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Macdonald, R.W., Paton, D.W., Carmack, E.C., and Omstedt, A. (1995) The freshwater budget and under-ice spreading of the Mackenzie River water in the Canadian Beaufort Sea based on salinity and 18O/16O measurements in water and ice, J. Geophys. Res. 100 895–919.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Eicken, H. (1998) Deriving modes and rates of ice growth in the Weddell Sea from microstructural, salinity and stable-isotope data, in Antarctic sea ice: Physical processes,interactions and variability, pp. 89–122, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2000 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Schlosser, P., Ekwurzel, B., Khatiwala, S., Newton, B., Maslowski, W., Pfirman, S. (2000). Tracer Studies of the Arctic Freshwater Budget. In: Lewis, E.L., Jones, E.P., Lemke, P., Prowse, T.D., Wadhams, P. (eds) The Freshwater Budget of the Arctic Ocean. NATO Science Series, vol 70. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-4132-1_19

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-4132-1_19

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Dordrecht

  • Print ISBN: 978-0-7923-6440-5

  • Online ISBN: 978-94-011-4132-1

  • eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive

Publish with us

Policies and ethics