Industrialization and Labour Fragmentation in Thailand

  • Voravidh Charoenloet
Part of the Social Indicators Research Series book series (SINS, volume 5)


Thailand’s economy is presently undergoing a structural crisis, which is a result of a bubble economy — the divergence between speculative investment and the “real” economy. In 1987, the Thai economy went into a boom, and Thailand was in line to be the fifth “Asian Tiger” (as South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong were dubbed). The only question was when it would happen. A Time magazine story even trumpeted Thailand as the up-and-coming “Tiger,” and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) predicted that Thailand would be one of the next newly industrializing countries (NIC) by the year 2000. Ten years later, in 1997, the boom became a bust. Now, speculation centres on how long the crisis will last. The IMF predicts that the crisis may last 2 to 3 years if a Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) is strictly implemented. The Thai government sees a return to prosperity around the corner, and it has already launched big publicity campaigns to promote this idea. My impression is that Thailand’s economic crisis is here to stay. We are not yet at the depths of the crisis — it is only the beginning, and we are rolling down the hill. The crisis is structural. I may be pessimistic, but we have to wake up from the dream of the “Asian miracles” and trace our own destiny. We cannot let the market do that.


Gross Domestic Product Minimum Wage Trade Union Migrant Worker Informal Sector 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arom Pongpangan Foundation (1997).Survey on the Use of Amphetemin in the Manufacturing Establishment, Bangkok.Google Scholar
  2. Ativanichayapong, Napaporn (1997). Lives and Families of the Workers after the Kader’s Tragedy. Bangkok: Arom Pongpangan Foundation.Google Scholar
  3. Bello, Waiden (1998).The Rise and Fall of South-East Asia’s Economy, The Ecologist, Vol. 28, No. 1, January/February.Google Scholar
  4. Charoenloet, Voravidh (1991).Thailand in the Process of Becoming a NIC: Myth or Reality? Journal of Contemporary Asia, 21(1): 31–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Charoenloet, Voravidh (1997). Thailand in the Regional Divisional ofLabour. In Campbell, Duncan (ed.) Regionalization and Labour Market Interdependence in East and Southeast Asia. Geneva: International Institute for Labour Studies.Google Scholar
  6. Charoenloet, v. And Soonthorndhada, A. (1988).Factory Mangement, Skill Formation and Attitudes of Women workers in Thailand: A comparison between an American and a Japanese Factory. In Noeleen Heyzer (ed.) Daughter in Industry: Works, Skills and Consciousness of Women Workers in Asia. Kuala Lumpur: Asia and Pacific Development Centre.Google Scholar
  7. Charoenloet, V. And Yodkamonsat, S. (1995).Child Labour in Southeast Asian Manufacturing Industries: A case Study of the Garments, Leather and Gem Polishing Industries in Thailand. Bangkok: IPEC/EASTMAT/SEAPAT.Google Scholar
  8. Center for Labour Information, Service and Training (CLIST) (1996).Non-formal Employment: Row House Garment Manufacturing. Clist Newsletter. No.5. Commission on Justice and Peace, 1993 (Unpublished paper).Google Scholar
  9. Gereffi, Gary (1997).The Reorganization of Production on a World Scale: States, Markets and Networks in the Apparel and Electronics Commodity Chains. In Duncan Campbell (ed), Reorganization and Labour Market Independence in East and Southeast Asia. Geneva: International Institute for Labour Studies.Google Scholar
  10. Heron, L.R. (1995).Minimum Wages and Wage Administration. Thailand. Bangkok: ILO/EASTMAT.Google Scholar
  11. International Confedations of Trade Union (ICFTU) (1993).From the Ashes: A Toy Factory Fire in Thailand. Brussels.Google Scholar
  12. Institute for Population and Social Research (IPSR) (1997).Cross-Border Migration into Thailand Thailand: Mahidol University, Nakon Pathom.Google Scholar
  13. Kokit, Nukoo (1996). Subcontracting System and Impacts to Trade Union: A Case Study on Eden Group Company.” Labour Review 10(12), Arom Pongpangan Foundation, Bangkok.Google Scholar
  14. Limskul, Kitti (1994).Towards a Sustainable Development by a Human Resources Development with Labour Market Information System. In Thai Economy Towards the Year 2000. Tokyo: Institute of Developing Economies.Google Scholar
  15. Mounier, A., Kaewthep, K. And Charoenloet, V. (1995).Form and Phase of Thai Industrialization in a Historical Perspective. In Economies et Societes, Serie Development, croissance et priogress, No. 34, Ogena.Google Scholar
  16. Nimfa, B. (1997).Globalization with Equity: Policies for Growth in Thailand. Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University.Google Scholar
  17. Oudin, Xavier (1995).Development and Changes in the Labour Force in Thailand. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University Social Research Institute.Google Scholar
  18. Phongpaichit, Pasuk (1992).The Urban Informal Sector in Bangkok. In Phongpaichit and Itoga (eds.) The Informal Sector in Thai Economic Development Tokyo: Institute of Developing Economies.Google Scholar
  19. Pitayanon, Sumalee (1988).Changes in Thailand Labour Force Structure and Government Policy Responses. Graduate School of International Development, Nagoya University, forum of International Development Studies No. 9.Google Scholar
  20. Thailand Development Research Institute (TDRI) (1994).The Thai Economy: First Step in a New Direction. Bangkok: Thailand. Development Institute Foundation.Google Scholar
  21. Thanachaisethavit, Bundit (1998).Trade Union structure and Tripartite Systems in Thailand. Bangkok: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Voravidh Charoenloet

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations