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The Grain-Scale Distribution of Silicate, Carbonate and Metallosulfide Partial Melts: a Review of Theory and Experiments

  • Didier Laporte
  • Ariel Provost
Chapter
Part of the Petrology and Structural Geology book series (PESG, volume 11)

Abstract

In a partially molten rock containing a low melt fraction, the permeability and consequently the dynamics of melt segregation are strongly sensitive to the distribution of the melt at the grain scale. Melt distribution is controlled by a variety of factors such as the minimization of interfacial energies, the stress regime and different aspects of the melting reaction (melting rate, volume change on melting, spatial distribution of the reactants). Due to the long duration of large-scale melting events, an equilibrium melt configuration corresponding to a minimum total interfacial energy per unit volume should commonly be approached. In this chapter, we review the theoretical and experimental studies devoted to the equilibrium distribution of melt in a partially molten rock.

At low melt fraction, the ratio of grain-boundary energy to solid-melt interfacial energy, γ SS/γ SL, is the fundamental physical property that determines the equilibrium melt geometry, including the dihedral angle θ at the junction of melt with two grains and the interconnection threshold ϕ c (ϕ c is the melt fraction at which melt interconnection is established). The trends of increasing θ and ϕ c with decreasing γ SS/γ SL are well demonstrated in the idealized case of a monomineralic system with isotropic interfacial energies and that is subjected to hydrostatic stress. Recent experimental and theoretical studies indicate that these general trends must hold in natural systems: (1) low values of γ SS/γ SL (for instance ≈1) give rise to large average dihedral angles, a high proportion of dry grain edges and a non-interconnected melt geometry (at low melt fraction); (2) larger values of γ SS/γ SL result in low average dihedral angles, a large proportion of wetted grain edges and interconnection at a very low melt fraction; and (3) for large ratios γ SS/γ SL (> 2), generalized wetting of grain boundaries is expected.

The possibility of predicting the type of melt distribution as well as the interconnection threshold and the permeability from dihedral angle measurements has motivated numerous experimental studies of the grain-scale distribution of geological fluids. The data for silicate, carbonate and metallosulfide melts are reviewed and the implications for the movement of low melt fractions are discussed.

Key words

partial melting wetting behaviour dihedral angle interconnection threshold 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Didier Laporte
    • 1
  • Ariel Provost
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire “Magmas et Volcans”OPGC, CNRS & Université Blaise PascalClermont-Ferrand CedexFrance

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