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Anelastic and Viscoelastic Behaviour of Partially Molten Rocks and Lavas

  • Nickolai S. Bagdassarov
Chapter
Part of the Petrology and Structural Geology book series (PESG, volume 11)

Abstract

The present study deals with the torsion deformation of partially molten samples of pyroxene gabbro-norite, spinel lherzolite, basalt lava and dacite pumice at high temperatures (600–1200C) and over a range of frequencies (20 Hz –2.10−3 Hz). The anelastic and viscoelastic properties of partially molten samples of rocks have been studied using oscillatory force torsion apparatus. Measurements of the complex shear modulus (G*) and internal friction (Q−1) at small strains (~ 10−7) show that samples do not possess a relaxed shear viscosity at the highest temperatures of experiments, if the melt phase is less than 60 vol%. Frequency dependence of the internal friction indicates that the viscoelasticity of the melt phase starts to overwhelm other mechanisms of anelastic behaviour at the high temperature - low frequency range ωτ 1, where ωτ is the normalised frequency. Below the softening temperature of the melt phase, there is a general dependence of Q−1 ∝ ω−0.17±0.01, where ω is the angular velocity of forced oscillations. Above the softening temperature, Q−1 ∝ ω−α where the empirical exponent α > 0.35 and depends on the melt fraction and the shape of the crystals. At low temperatures and moderate melt fractions (10–20 vol%), there may be a band of frequencies and temperatures where internal friction has a weak frequency dependence or some poorly resolved peaks. The nature of these peaks can be associated with several shear stress relaxation processes such as grain boundary sliding, rotation of grains suspended in the viscous melt, and movement of melt between adjacent melt pockets. The relative contribution of these relaxation processes depends on the melt fraction, grain size and normalised frequency ωτ.

Key words

anelasticity viscoelasticity complex shear modulus internal friction partial melting pyroxen gabbro spinel lherzolite basalt lava cryptodome dacite 

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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nickolai S. Bagdassarov
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Meteorologie und GeophysikJ. W. Goethe Universität FrankfurtFrankfurt/MainGermany

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