Advertisement

The Study of Comets at Radio Wavelengths

  • J. Crovisier
  • F. P. Schloerb
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library book series (ASSL, volume 167)

Abstract

Radio observations of comets complement studies at other wavelengths as well as providing certain kinds of unique information. Studies of continuum emission may probe the thermal emission of the nucleus and large-size dust particles. Spectroscopic observations of gas in the coma allow searches for parent molecular species that have no signatures in the optical spectral range. The 18-cm wavelength spectral lines of the OH radical now are relatively easy to detect, and observations of them permit long-term and short-term monitoring of the cometary gaseous output. Moreover, with the unique spectral resolution of radio techniques, aspects of the kinematics of the coma may be also studied, such as the gas expansion velocity and the anisotropy of gas production from the nucleus. In this review, we present recent results of cometary radio observations, and discuss what may be learned from such studies in the future.

Keywords

Radio Emission Heliocentric Distance Expansion Velocity Radio Observation Collisional Quenching 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. A’Hearn, M. F., Hoban, S., Birch, R V., Bowers, C., Martin, R., and Klinglesmith, D. A. (1986) Cyanogen jets in comet Halley. Nature 324, 649–651ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altenhoff, W. J., Batrla, W., Huchtmeier, W. K., Schmidt, J., Stumpff, P., and Walmsley, C. M. (1983) Radio observations of comet 1983d. Astron. Astrophys. 125, L19–L22ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. Altenhoff, W. J., Huchtmeier, W. K., Schmidt, J., Schraml, J. B., Stumpff, R., and Thum, C. (1986) Radio continuum observations of comet Halley. Astron. Astrophys. 164, 227–230ADSGoogle Scholar
  4. Altenhoff, W. J., Huchtmeier, W. K., Kreysa, E., Schmidt, J., Schraml, J. B., and Thum, C. (1989) Radio continuum observations of comet Halley at 250 GHz. Astron. Astrophys. 222, 323–328.ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. Alurkar, S. K., Bhonsle, R. V., and Sharma, A. K. (1986) Radio observations of PKS2314+03 during occultation by comet Halley. Nature 322, 439–441ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ananthakrishnan, S., Bhandari, S. M., and Pramesh, R. A. (1975) Occultation of radio source PKS 2025–15 by comet Kohoutek (1973f). Astrophys. Space Sci. 37, 275–282ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ananthakrishnan, S., Manoharan, P. K., and Venugopal, V. R. (1987) Occultation observations of compact radio sources through comet Halley’s plasma tail. Nature 329, 698–700ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bajaja, E., Arnal, E. M., Cersosimo, J. C., Colomb, F. R., Martin, M. C., Mazzaro, J., Morras, R., Olalde, J. C., Poppel, W. G. L., Silva, A. M., Mirabel, I. F., and Boriakoff, V. (1987a) Comet Halley: OH absorption of galactic background radio sources. Astrophys. J. 313, 906–909ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bajaja, E., Morras, R., Poppel, W. G. L., Cersosimo, J. C., Martin, M. C., Mazzaro, J., Olalde, J. C., Silva, A., Arnal, M. E., Colomb, F. R., Mirabel, I. F., and Boriakoff, V. (1987b) Observation of the OH 1667 MHz line toward comet Halley from the southern hemisphere. Astrophys. J. 322, 549–558ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baum, S., and Hoban, S. (1986) A search for the millimeter wave transitions of CO+ in comet P/Halley. Icarus 67, 515–519ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berulis, I. L, Zinchenko, I. G., Losovskii, B. Ya., Sorochenko, R. L., and Tolmachev, A. M. (1987) A search for millimeter-wave H2O and HC3N emission from comet Halley (in Russian). Pisma Astron. Zh. 13, 526–529 (English translation: Sov. Astron. Lett. 13, 217–218)ADSGoogle Scholar
  12. Biraud, F., Bourgois, G., Crovisier, J., Fillit, R., Gérard, E., and Kazés, I. (1974) OH observation of comet Kohoutek (1973f) at 18 cm wavelength. Astron. Astrophys. 34, 163–166ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. Bird, M.K., Huchtmeier, W. K., von Kap-herr, A., Schmidt, J., and Walmsley, C. M. (1987) Searches for parent molecules at MPIfR. in “Cometary Radio Astronomy,” Proceedings of an NRAO Workshop, W.M. Irvine, F.P. Schloerb, and L.E. Tacconi-Garman (Eds.), Green Bank WV, USA. p. 85–89Google Scholar
  14. Bockelée-Morvan, D. (1987) A model for the excitation of water in comets. Astron. Astrophys. 181, 169–181ADSGoogle Scholar
  15. Bockelée-Morvan, D., Bourgois, G., Crovisier J., and Gérard, E. (1989) Comet Okazzaki-Levy-Rudenko (1989r) IAU Circular No. 4882Google Scholar
  16. Bockelée-Morvan, D., and Crovisier, J. (1985) Possible parents for the cometary CN radical: Photochemistry and excitation conditions. Astron. Astrophys. 151, 90–100ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. Bockelée-Morvan, D., and Crovisier, J. (1987) The role of water in the thermal balance of the coma. In “Symposium on the Diversity and Similarity of Comets”, ESA SP-278, 235–240Google Scholar
  18. Bockelée-Morvan, D., Crovisier, J., Baudry, A., Despois, D., Perault, M., Irvine, W. M., Schloerb, F. P., and Swade, D. (1984) Hydrogen cyanide in comets: Excitation conditions and radio observations of comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock 1983d. Astron. Astrophys. 141, 411–418ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. Bockelée-Morvan, D., Crovisier, J., Despois, D., Forveille, T., Gérard, E., Schraml, J., and Thum, C. (1987) Molecular observations of comets P/Giacobini-Zinner 1984e and P/Halley 1982i at millimetre wavelengths. Astron. Astrophys. 180, 253–262ADSGoogle Scholar
  20. Bockelée-Morvan, D., Crovisier, J., and Gérard, E. (1989) Retrieving the coma gas expansion velocity from cometary radio OH line profiles. In “Asteroids, Comets, Meteors III,” C-I Lagerkvist, H. Rickman, B. A. Lindblad, and M. Lindgren (Eds.), Uppsala, Sweden, pp. 267–270Google Scholar
  21. Bockelée-Morvan, D., and Gérard, E. (1984) Radio observations of the hydroxyl radical in comets with high spectral resolution. Kinematics and asymmetries of the OH coma in C/Meier (1978 XXI), C/Bradfield (1979 X), and C/Austin (1982g). Astron. Astrophys. 131, 111–122ADSGoogle Scholar
  22. Bystrova, N. V., Golubchin, G. S., Gosachinskii, I. V., Morozov, A. S., Nizhel’skaya, E. K., and Yudaeva, N. A. (1987) Observations of hydroxyl in comet Halley (in Russian). Pisma Astron Zh. 13, 1100–1103 (English translation: Sov. Astron. Lett. 13, 464–465)ADSGoogle Scholar
  23. Campbell, D. B. (1990) Radio studies: Radar. In “Comets in the Post-Halley Era,” in press.Google Scholar
  24. Campbell, D. B., Harmon, J. K., and Shapiro, I.I. (1989) Radar observations of comet Halley. Astrophys. J. 338, 1094–1105ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chin, G., and Weaver, H. A. (1984) Vibrational and rotational excitation of CO in comets: Nonequilibrium calculations. Astrophys. J. 285, 858–869ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Colom, P. (1989) Observations radio du radical OH dans la comete de Halley: Variations temporelles et anisotropic de la production gazeuse. Thesis, Universite Paris VIIGoogle Scholar
  27. Colom, P., Despois, D., Paubert, G., Bockelée-Morvan, D., Crovisier, J., and Gérard, E. (1989) Periodic comet Brorsen-Metcalf (1989o). IAU Circular No. 4851Google Scholar
  28. Colom, P., and Gérard, E. (1988) A search for periodicities in the OH radio emission of comet P/Halley (1986 III). Astron. Astrophys. 204, 327–336ADSGoogle Scholar
  29. Colom, P., Gérard, E., and Crovisier, J. (1990) A study of the non-gravitational forces on comet Halley nucleus from the observations of the OH radio lines. In “Asteroids, Comets, Meteors III,” C-I Lagerkvist, H. Rickman, B. A. Lindblad, and M. Lindgren (Eds.), Uppsala, Sweden, pp. 293–296Google Scholar
  30. Combes, M. et al. (1988) The 2.5 to 12 microns spectrum of comet Halley from the IKS-VEGA experiment. Icarus 76, 404–436ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Combi, M. R., and Delsemme, A. H. (1980) Neutral cometary atmospheres. I. An average random walk model for photodissociation in comets. Astrophys. J. 237, 633–640ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Combi, M. R., and Smyth, W. H. (1988) Monte Carlo particle-trajectory models for neutral cometary gases. I. Models and equations. Astrophys. J. 327, 1026–1043ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Crifo, J. F. (1989) Collisional coma models: An unorthodox overview. Adv. Space Res. 9, (3)197–(3)211ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cordes, J., Falchi, A., Tofani, G., Lewis, B. M., and Terzian, Y. (1986) Radio OH observations of Halley’s comet. In “20th ESLAB Symposium on the Exploration of Halley’s Comet”, ESA SP-250, Vol. 3, 113–115Google Scholar
  35. Crovisier, J. (1984) The water molecule in comets: Fluorescence mechanisms and thermodynamics of the inner coma. Astron. Astrophys. 130, 361–372 (erratum 135, 197)ADSGoogle Scholar
  36. Crovisier, J. (1985) Searching for cometary parent molecules at radio wavelengths. Astron. J. 90, 670–674ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Crovisier, J. (1986) Sub-millimetre cometary spectroscopy. In “ESA Workshop on a Space-Borne Sub-Millimetre Astronomy Mission”, ESA SP-260, 57–65Google Scholar
  38. Crovisier, J. (1987) Rotational and vibrational synthetic spectra of linear parent molecules in comets. Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Series 68, 223–258ADSGoogle Scholar
  39. Crovisier, J. (1989) The photodissociation of water in cometary atmospheres. Astron. Astrophys. 213, 459–464ADSGoogle Scholar
  40. Crovisier, J., Despois, D., Bockelée-Morvan, D., Gérard, E., Johansson, L. E. B., Ekelund, L., Winnberg, A., Ge, W., Irvine, W. M., Kinzel, W. M., Schloerb, F. P., and Swade, D. A. (1990) A search for the 3-mm lines of HCN in comet Wilson 1987 VII. In “Asteroids, Comets, Meteors III,” C-I Lagerkvist, H. Rickman, B. A. Lindblad, and M. Lindgren (Eds.), Uppsala, Sweden, pp.301–304Google Scholar
  41. Crovisier, J., and Encrenaz, T. (1983) Infrared fluorescence of molecules in comets: The general synthetic spectrum. Astron. Astrophys. 126, 170–182ADSGoogle Scholar
  42. Crovisier, J., and Le Bourlot, J. (1983) Infrared and microwave fluorescence of carbon monoxyde in comets. Astron. Astrophys. 123, 61–66ADSGoogle Scholar
  43. Delsemme, A. H. (1982) Chemical composition of cometary nuclei. In “Comets”, L L Wilkening (Ed.), The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona, pp. 85–130Google Scholar
  44. Delsemme, A. H., and Miller, D. C. (1971) Physico-chemical phenomena in comets — III the continuum of comet Burnham (1960 II). Planet. Space Sci. 19, 1229–1257ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. de Pater, I., Palmer, P., and Snyder L. E. (1986) The brightness distribution of OH around comet Halley. Astrophys. J. 304, L33–L36ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. de Pater, I., Palmer, P., and Snyder, L. E. (1990) A review of radio interferometric imaging of comets. In “Comets in the Post-Halley Era,” in pressGoogle Scholar
  47. de Pater, I., Wade, C. M., Houpis, H. L. F., and Palmer, P. (1985) The nondetection of continuum radiation from comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock (1983d) at 2-to 6-cm wavelengths and its implication on the icy-grain halo theory. Icarus 62, 349–359ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Despois, D., Crovisier, J., Bockelée-Morvan, D., Schraml, J., Forveille, T., and Gérard, E. (1986) Observations of hydrogen cyanide in comet Halley. Astron. Astrophys. 160, L11–L12ADSGoogle Scholar
  49. Despois, D., Gérard, E., Crovisier, J., and Kazés, I. (1981) The OH radical in comets: Observation and analysis of the hyperfine microwave transitions at 1667 MHz and 1665 MHz. Astron. Astrophys. 99, 320–340ADSGoogle Scholar
  50. Duncan, R. A., Norris, R. P., Forster, J. R., Stewart, R. T., and McConnell, D. (1986) Observations of 18 cm OH emission and absorption from Halley’s comet. Proc. Astron. Soc. Australia 6, 301–303Google Scholar
  51. Dobrovolski, O. V. (1958) Radio Emission of comets (in Russian). Bull. Instit. Astrofiz. Akad. Nauk. Tadzh. SSR. No. 26Google Scholar
  52. Elitzur, M. (1981) On pumping of the OH ground state in comets. Astrophys. J. 246, 354–359ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Falchi, A., Gagliardi, L., Palagi, F., Tofani, G., and Comoretto, G. (1987) 10.7 GHz continuum observations of comet P/Halley. Astron. Astrophys. 187, 462–464ADSGoogle Scholar
  54. Festou, M. C. (1981) The density distribution of neutral compounds in cometary atmospheres. I. Models and equations. Astron. Astrophys. 95, 69–79ADSGoogle Scholar
  55. Galt, J. (1987) Monitoring the 1.667 GHz OH line in comet Halley. Astron. J. 93, 747–752ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gaylard, M. J. (1987) Comet Halley hydroxyl observations at 18-cm during the transit of the galactic plane and Centaurus A. In “Cometary Radio Astronomy”, Proceedings of an NRAO Workshop, W. M. Irvine, F. P. Schloerb, and L. E. Tacconi-Garman (Eds.) Green Bank, WV, USA pp. 109–119Google Scholar
  57. Gérard, E. (1985) An estimate of the magnetic field strength in the OH coma of comet Austin (1982 VI). Astron. Astrophys. 146, 1–10ADSGoogle Scholar
  58. Gérard, E. (1990) On the discrepancy between OH production rates deduced from radio and UV observations of comets. I A comparative study of radio and UV observations of P/Halley 1986 III in late November and early December 1985. Astron. Astrophys, in press.Google Scholar
  59. Gérard, E., Bockelée-Morvan, D., Bourgois, G., Colom, P., and Crovisier, J. (1987) 18-cm wavelength radio monitoring of the OH radical in comet P/Halley 1982i. Astron. Astrophys. 187, 455–461ADSGoogle Scholar
  60. Gérard, E., Bockelée-Morvan, D., Bourgois, G., Colom, P., and Crovisier, J. (1988) Observations of the OH radio lines in comet P/Giacobini-Zinner 1985 XIII. Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Series 74, 485–495ADSGoogle Scholar
  61. Gérard, E., Bockelée-Morvan, D., Bourgois, G., Colom, P., and Crovisier, J. (1989) Observations of the OH radio lines in comet P/Halley 1986 III. Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Series 77, 379–410ADSGoogle Scholar
  62. Gibson, D. M., and Hobbs, R. W. (1981) On the microwave emission from comets. Astrophys. J. 248, 863–866. (Errata, Astrophys. J. 269, 805–806)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Goldstein, R. M., Jurgens, R. F., and Sekanina, Z. (1984) A radar study of comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock 1983d. Astron. J. 89, 1745–1754ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Gulkis, S., Batelaan, P. D., Frerking, M. A., Klein, M. J., Kuiper, T. B. H., Pickett, H. M., Schaefer, M. M., Wannier, P., Bockelée-Morvan, D., Crovisier, J., Encrenaz, P. J., Zimmermann, P., and Destombes, J. L. (1989) Search for water in comet P/Halley at 380 GHz. Astron. Astrophys. 213, 465–468ADSGoogle Scholar
  65. Harmon, J. K., Campbell, D. B., Hine, A. A., Shapiro, I.I., and Marsden, B. G. (1989) Radar observations of comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock 1983d. Astrophys. J. 338, 1071–1093ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Haser, L. (1957) Distribution d’intensite dans la tete d’une comete. Bull. Acad. Roy. Soc. Belgique (Classe des Sciences) 43, 740–750MathSciNetADSzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  67. Hoban, S., and Baum, S. (1987) A VLA search for 2-cm continuum radiation from comet Halley. Icarus 70, 264–268ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hobbs, R. W., Brandt, J. C., and Maran, S. P. (1977) Microwave continuum radiation from Comet West (1975n). Astrophys. J. 218, 573–578ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hobbs, R. W., Maran, S. P., Brandt, J. C., Webster, W. J., and Krishna Swamy, K. S. (1975) Microwave continuum radiation from comet Kohoutek 1973f: Emission from the icy-grain halo? Astrophys. J. 201, 749–755ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hodges, R. R. (1990) Monte Carlo simulation of nonadiabatic expansion in cometary atmospheres: Halley. Icarus, in pressGoogle Scholar
  71. Huebner, W. F., Snyder, L. E., and Buhl, D. (1974) HCN radio emission from comet Kohoutek (1973f). Icarus 23, 580–584ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Irvine, W. M. et al. (1984) Radioastronomical observations of comets IRAS-Araki-Alcock (1983d) and Sugano-Saiguza-Fujikawa (1983e). Icarus 60, 215–220MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Irvine, W. M., Schloerb, F. P., and Tacconi-Garman, L. E. (Eds). (1987) “Cometary Radio Astronomy,” Proceedings of an NRAO Workshop, Green Bank, WV, USAGoogle Scholar
  74. Jackson, W. M., Clark, T., and Donn, B. (1976) Radio detection of H2O in comet Bradfield (1974b). In “The Study of Comets,” NASA SP-393, 272–280Google Scholar
  75. Jewitt, D., and Luu, J. (1989) Periodic Comet Brorsen-Metcalf (1989o). IAU Circular NO. 4852Google Scholar
  76. Krankowsky, D. (1990) The composition of comets. In “Comets in the Post-Halley Era,” in pressGoogle Scholar
  77. Lämmerzahl, P. et al. (1987) Expansion velocity and temperatures of gas and ions measured in the coma of comet P/Halley. Astron. Astrophys. 187, 169–173ADSGoogle Scholar
  78. Larson, H. P., Mumma, M. J., and Weaver, H. A. (1987) Expansion velocity and temperatures of gas and ions in the coma of comet P/Halley. Astron. Astrophys. 187, 166–173Google Scholar
  79. Luo, X., Zhou, X., Yao, D., Du, S., Qian, Z., Ji, D., and Zhang, W. (1988) Radio observations of the OH line in comet Halley. Act. Astrophys. Sin. 8, 223–229. (English translation: Chin. Astron. Astrophys. 12, 324–327)ADSGoogle Scholar
  80. Luo, X., Zhou, T., Yao, D., Du, S., Qian, Z., Ji, D., and Zhang, W. (1988) Radio observations of the OH line in comet Halley. Vistas in Astronomy 31, 161–163ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mies, F. H. (1974) Ultraviolet fluorescent pumping of OH 18-centimeter radiation in comets. Astrophys. J. 191, L145–L148ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rickman, H. (1986) Masses and densities of comets Halley and Kopff. In “Comet Nucleus Sample Return”, ESA SP-249, 195–205Google Scholar
  83. Rickman, H. (1989) The nucleus of comet Halley: Surface structure, mean density, gas and dust density. Adv. Space Res. 2, (3)59–(3)71Google Scholar
  84. Roesler, F. L., Scherb, F., Magee, K., Harlander, J., Reynolds, R. J., Yelle, R. V., Broadfoot, A. L., and Oliversen, R. J. (1986) High spectral resolution line profiles and images of comet Halley. Adv. Space Res. 5 (No 12), 279–282ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sagdeev, R. Z., Elyasberg, P. E., and Moroz, V. I. (1988) Is the nucleus of comet Halley a low density body? Nature 331, 240–242ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Scalise, E. Jr., Montero do Vale, J. L., Vila Boas, J. W. S., Abraham, Z., Botti, L. C. L., Tateyama, C. E., Cancoro, A. C. O., Kaufman, P., and Del Ciampo, L. F. (1987) Radio observations of comet Halley at 22 and 43 GHz. In “Cometary Radio Astronomy,” Proceedings of an NRAO Workshop, W. M. Irvine, F. P. Schloerb, and L. E. Tacconi-Garman (Eds.), Green Bank, WV, USA, pp. 27–30Google Scholar
  87. Schliecher, D. G. (1983) The fluorescence of cometary OH and C.N. Ph D thesis, University of MarylandGoogle Scholar
  88. Schleicher, D. G., and A’Hearn, M. F. (1988) The fluorescence of cometary OH. Astrophys. J. 331, 1058–1077ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Schloerb, F. P. (1988) Collisional quenching of cometary emission in the 18 centimeter OH transitions. Astrophys. J. 332, 524–530ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Schloerb, F. P., Claussen, M. J., and Tacconi-Garman, L. E. (1987) OH radio observations of comet P/Halley. Astron. Astrophys. 187, 469–474ADSGoogle Scholar
  91. Schloerb, F. P., and Gérard, E. (1985) Models of cometary emission in the 18-cm OH transitions: The predicted behavior of comet Halley. Astron. J. 90, 1117–1135ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Schloerb, F. P., Kinzel, W. M., Swade, D. A., and Irvine, W. M. (1986) HCN production rates from comet Halley. Astrophys. J. 310, L55–L60ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Schloerb, F. P., Kinzel, W. M., Swade, D. A., and Irvine, W. M. (1987) Observations of HCN in comet P/Halley. Astron. Astrophys. 187, 475–480ADSGoogle Scholar
  94. Silva, A. M., and Mirabel, I. F. (1988) Gaseous outbursts in comet P/Halley. A model for the dissociation of the OH radical. Astron. Astrophys. 201, 350–354ADSGoogle Scholar
  95. Snyder, L. E. (1982) A review of radio observations of comets. Icarus 51, 1–24ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Snyder, L. E. (1986) The 18 cm OH lines in comets: Preparation for Halley. Astron. J. 91, 163–170ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Snyder, L. E., Palmer, P., and de Pater, I. (1989) Radio detection of formaldehyde emission from comet Halley. Astron. J. 97, 246–253ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Snyder, L. E., Palmer, P., and Wade, C. M. (1983) An upper limit to the microwave continuum radiation from comet Austin (1982g). Astrophys. J. 269, L21–L23ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Snyder, L. E., Palmer, P., and de Pater, I. (1990) Observations of formaldehyde in comet Machholz (1988j) Icarus, in pressGoogle Scholar
  100. Swade, D. A., Schloerb, F. P., Irvine, W. M., and Kinzel, W. M. (1987) Search for molecules in comet Halley at millimeter wavelengths. In “Cometary Radio Astronomy,” Proceedings of an NRAO Workshop, W. M. Irvine, F. P. Schloerb, and L. E. Tacconi-Garman (Eds.), Green Bank, WV, USA, pp. 79–83Google Scholar
  101. Tacconi-Garman, L. E. (1989) Ph D thesis, University of MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  102. Tacconi-Garman, L. E., Schloerb, F. P., and Claussen, M. J. (1990) A kinematic model for cometary comae. In “Asteroids, Comets, Meteors III,” C-I Lagerkvist, H. Rickman, B. A. Lindblad, and M. Lindgren (Eds.), Uppsala, Sweden, pp.455–458Google Scholar
  103. Turner, B. E. (1974) Detection of OH at 18-centimeter wavelength in comet Kohoutek (1973f). Astrophys. J. 189, L137–L139ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Van Dishoeck, E. F., and Dalgarno, A. (1984) The dissociation of OH and OD in comets by solar radiation. Icarus 59, 305–313ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Walmsley, C. M. (1985) The interpretation of the radio continuum emission from comet 1983d (IRAS-Araki-Alcock). Astron. Astrophys. 142, 437–440ADSGoogle Scholar
  106. Weaver, H. A., Mumma, M. J., and Larson, H. P. (1990) Infrared spectroscopy of cometary parent molecules. In “Comets in the Post-Halley,” in pressGoogle Scholar
  107. Winnberg, A., Ekelund, L., and Ekelund, A. (1987) Detection of HCN in comet P/Halley. Astron. Astrophys. 172, 335–341ADSGoogle Scholar
  108. Wootten, A., Boulanger, F., Bogey, M., Combes, F., Encrenaz, P. J., Gerin, M., and Ziurys, L. (1986) A search for interstellar H3O+. Astron. Astrophys. 166, L15–L18ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Crovisier
    • 1
  • F. P. Schloerb
    • 2
  1. 1.Observatoire de Paris-MeudonMeudonFrance
  2. 2.Department of Physics and AstronomyUniversity of MassachusettsAmherstUSA

Personalised recommendations