Lung cancers are generally subdivided into four main types based on classical histological criteria: small cell carcinoma (approx. 25% of lung cancers); adenocarcinoma (30%); squamous (or epidermoid) carcinoma (25%); and large cell carcinoma (15%). The latter three types are frequently grouped together and termed ‘non small cell lung cancer’. The main reason for the division of tumours into’ small cell lung cancer’ (SCLC) and ‘non small cell lung cancer’ (NSCLC) is because of the different treatment policies followed by most centres for the two disease types. For NSCLC the major prognostic factor is whether or not a complete surgical resection can be performed following diagnosis. In the 20% of patients for whom a complete resection is possible the 5 year survival is around 30%. It is debateable whether or not post-operative radio- or chemotherapy is of significant value in this group of patients. In patients for whom complete resection is not possible the long term survival is extremely poor. Although a significant response to chemotherapy may be seen in a minority of patients the duration of remission is usually very short and the treatment induced toxicity can be severe. There is also a role for radiotherapy in palliative relief of symptoms in advanced NSCLC.
KeywordsLung Cancer Small Cell Lung Cancer Small Cell Carcinoma Lung Cancer Cell Line Large Cell Carcinoma
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Anger, B., Bockman, R., Andreeff, N., Erlandson, R., Jharnwar, S., Kameya, T., Saigo, P., Wright, W., Beattie, E.J., Oettgen, H.F., Old, L.F. (1981). Characterization of two newly established human cell lines from patients with large cell anaplastic lung cancer. Cancer 50:1518–1529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Baillie-Johnson, H., Twentyman, P.R., Fox, N.E., Walls, G.A., Workman, P., Watson, J.V., Johnson, N., Reeve, J.G., Bleehen, N.M. (1985). Establishment and characterisation of cell lines from patients with lung cancer (predominantly small cell carcinoma). Br J Cancer 52:495–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Brauch, B.H., Johnson, B., Hovis, J., Takahiko, B.A., Gazdar, A., Pettengill, O.S., Graziano, S., Sorensen, G.D., Poiesz, B.J., Minna, J.D., Lineham, M., Zbar, B. (1987). Molecular analysis of the short arm of chromosome 3 in small cell and non-small cell carcinoma of the lung. New Engl J Med 317:1109–1114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Brower, M. (1986). Letter to the Editor. Cancer Res. 46:6012.Google Scholar
- Carney, D.N., Gazdar, A.F., Bunn Jr, P.A., Guccion, J.G. (1981). Demonstration of the stem cell nature of clonogenic tumor cells from lung cancer patients. Stem Cells 1:149–164.Google Scholar
- Fogh, J. and Trempe, G. (1975). New human tumor cell lines. In: Human tumor cells in vitro (ed. Fogh, J.). Plenum Press, New York, pp 115–159.Google Scholar
- Gazdar, A.F., Carney, D.N., Russell, E.K., Sims, H.L., Baylin, S.B., Bunn Jr., P.A., Guccion, J.G., Minna, J.D. (1980). Establishment of continuous clonable cultures of small-cell carcinoma of the lung which have amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation cell properties. Cancer Res 40:3502–3507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Johnson, B.E., Naylor, S.L., Zbar, B., Brauch, H., Simmons, A., Minna, J.D., Gazdar, A.F. (1988a). Restriction fragment length polymorphism studies show loss of chromosome 3p alleles in small cell lung cancer but not in extrapulmonary small cell cancer. ASCO Proceedings 7:199.Google Scholar
- Shorthouse A.J. Peckham M.J. Smyth J.F. Steel G.G. 1980. The therapeutic response of bronchial carcima xegrafts a direct patient-xegraft comparison. Br J Cancer 41 Suppl IV 142–145Google Scholar
- Slocum, H.K., Pavelic, Z.P., Rustum, Y.M., Creaven, P.J., Karakousis, C., Takita, H., Greco, W.R. Characterization of cells obtained by mechanical and enzymatic means from human melanoma, sarcoma and lung tumours. Cancer Res 41:1428–1434.Google Scholar
- Walls, G.A. (1988). Ph D Thesis, University of London.Google Scholar