Carcinogens and Mutagens in the Diet

  • W. K. Lutz
  • J. Schlatter
Part of the Developments in Oncology book series (DION, volume 70)


Doll and Peto (1981), in their review on ‘Quantitative Estimates of Avoidable Risks of Cancer’ state that “it may be possible to reduce US cancer death rates by practicable dietary means by as much as 35%”. This reduction results from a 90% reduction of deaths from stomach and large bowel cancer and a 50% reduction of cancer of the endometrium, gallbladder, pancreas and breast. The degree of uncertainty in this estimate is expected to be large, however, so that values between 10% and 70% are considered possible. The authors also indicate that “there is still no precise and reliable evidence as to exactly what dietary changes would be of major importance”.


Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Average Daily Intake Nitroso Compound Ethyl Carbamate Carcinogenic Potency 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anonymous (1991). Sweetener intakes. Fd Chem Toxic 29: 71–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aebi H, Blumenthal A, Bohren-Hoerni M, Brubacher G, Frey U, Müller HR, Ritzel G, Stransky M (Hrsg) (1984). Zweiter Schweizerischer Ernährungsbericht, Huber, Bern, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  3. Aeschbacher HU (1991). Potential carcinogens in the diet. Mutat Res 259: 203–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnes BN, Profet M, Gold LS (1990). Dietary pesticides (99.99% all natural). Proc Natl Acad Sci (USA) 87: 7777–7781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arnes BN, Magaw R, Gold LS (1987). Ranking possible carcinogenic hazards. Science 236: 271–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Becher H, Wahrendorf J (1990). Variability of unit risk estimates under different statistical models and between different epidemiological data sets. In: Scientific Issues in Quantitative Cancer Risk Assessment, SH Moolgavkar (ed), Birkhäuser, Basel, Switzerland, pp 267–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bronsch C (1987). Untersuchungen zur Exposition und zum renalen Ausscheidungsverhalten des Kunststoffweichmachers Di(2-ethylhehyl)phtalat (DEHP) beim Menschen. Thesis No 8459, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  8. DFG Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (1990). Ochratoxin A Vorkommen und toxikologische Bewertung. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Weinheim, Germany.Google Scholar
  9. Dichter CR (1984). Risk estimates of liver cancer due to aflatoxin exposure from peanuts and peanut products. Fd Chem Toxicol 22: 431–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Doll R, Peto R (1981). The causes of cancer: quantitative estimates of avoidable risks of cancer in the United States today.J Natl Cancer Inst. 66: 1191–1308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Gold LS, Sawyer CB, Magaw R, Backman GM, de Veciana M, Levinson R, Hooper NK, Havender WR, Bernstein L, Peto R, Pike MC, Arnes BN (1984). A carcinogenic potency database of the standardized results of animals bioassays. Environ Health Perspect 58: 9–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gold LS, de Veciana M, Backman GM, Magaw R, Lopipero P, Smith M, Blumenthal M, Levinson R, Bernstein L, Ames BN (1986). Chronological supplement to the carcinogenic potency database: standardized results of animal bioassays published through December 1982. Environ Health Perspect 67: 161–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gold LS, Slone TH, Backman G, Magaw R, Costa MD, Lopipero P, Blumenthal M, Ames BN (1987). Second chronological supplement to the carcinogenic potency database: standardized results of animal bioassays published through December 1984 and by the National Toxicology Program through May 1986. Environ Health Perspect 74: 237–329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ingram DM (1981). Trends in diet and breast cancer mortality in England and Wales 1928–1977. Nutr Cancer 3:75–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kramers PGN, Van Der Heijden CA (1988). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): carcinogenicity data and risk extrapolations. Toxicol Environ Chem 16: 341–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lutz WK (1990a). Endogenous genotoxic agents and processes as a basis of spontaneous carcinogenesis. Mutat Res 238:287–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lutz WK (1990b). Dose-response relationship and low dose extrapolation in chemical carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis 11:1243–1247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lutz W, Poetzsch J, Schlatter J, Schlatter Ch (1991). The real role of risk assessment in cancer risk management. Trends Pharmacol Sei 12: 214–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Peers FG, Linsell CA (1977). Dietary aflatoxins and human primary liver cancer.Ann Nutr Alim 31:1005–1018.Google Scholar
  20. Perera F, Boffetta P (1988). Perspectives on comparing risks of environmental carcinogens.J Natl Cancer Inst 80:1282–1291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Schlatter J, Lutz WK (1990). The carcinogenic potential of ethyl carbamate (ure- thane): risk assessment at human dietary exposure levels. Fd Chem Toxic 28: 205–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. SFA (1991). Zahlen und Fakten zu Alkohol- und Drogenproblemen 1990/91. Schweizerische Fachstelle für Alkoholprobleme, Lausanne, Switzerland. ISBN 2–88183–027–7.Google Scholar
  23. Shephard SE (1991). Risikobeurteilung von N-Nitrosoverbindungen un deren Vorläufer in der Nahrung. Mitt Gebiete Lebensm Hyg 82:36–44.Google Scholar
  24. Stähelin HB, Lüthy J, Casabianca A, Monnier N, Müller HR, Schutz Y, Sieber R (Hrsg) (1991). Dritter Schweizerischer Ernährungsbericht. Bundesamt für Gesundheitswesen, Bern, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  25. Tannenbaum A (1944). The dependence of the genesis of induced skin tumors in the caloric intake during different stages of carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 4: 673–677.Google Scholar
  26. Tannenbaum A, Silverstone H (1953). Nutrition in relation to cancer. Adv Cancer Res 1:451–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Voogd CE (1981). On the mutagenicity of nitroimidazoles. Mutat Res 86:243–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zimmerli B, Zimmermann H, Müller F (1982). Perchlorethylen in Lebensmitteln. Mitt Gebiete Lebensm Hyg 73: 71–81.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. K. Lutz
    • 1
  • J. Schlatter
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of ToxicologySwiss Federal Institute of Technology and University of ZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Toxicology Section, Division of Food ScienceSwiss Federal Office of Public HealthSchwerzenbachSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations