Advertisement

Edges of Life: The Consequences of Prenatal Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment

  • Robert C. Cefalo
Part of the Philosophy and Medicine book series (PHME, volume 41)

Abstract

Of the approximately 3.5 million infants born alive in the United States each year, 4–6% enter neonatal critical care nurseries. The majority is admitted either for major congenital anomalies or low birth weight. Recent advances in maternal-fetal medicine and neonatology have contributed to dramatic decreases in mortality and morbidity. Therefore, a child born with major congenital anomalies or with low birth weight is much more likely to survive today.

Keywords

Down Syndrome Prenatal Diagnosis Cesarean Delivery Twin Pregnancy Selective Reduction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography

  1. Adams, M. M., Finley, S., Hansen, H. et al.: 1981, ‘Utilization of prenatal genetic diagnosis in women > 35, United States 1977–1978’, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 139,673–677.Google Scholar
  2. Alberg, A, Metelman, F. and Crantz, M.: 1978, ‘Cardiac puncture of a fetus with Hurler’s Disease avoiding abortion of the unaffected co-twin’, The Lancet II, 990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee Opinion: 1987, ‘Patient choice: Maternal and fetal conflict,’ (55).Google Scholar
  4. American Medical Association: 1986, ‘Current opinion of the Council on the Ethical and Judicial Affairs of the AMA’ Journal of American Medical Association 2, 16–19.Google Scholar
  5. Beauchamp, T. L. and McCullough, L. B.: 1984, Medical Ethics: The Moral Responsibilities of Physicians, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 22–51.Google Scholar
  6. Berkowitz, R. L., Lynch, L., Chitkara, V. et at.: 1988, ’selective reduction of multifetal pregnancies in the first trimester’, The New England Journal of Medicine 318(16),1043–1045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berkowitz, R. L. and Lynch, L.: 1990, ’selective reduction: An unfortunate misnomer’, Obstetrics and Gynecology 75, 873–874.Google Scholar
  8. Cefalo, R. C. and Engelhardt, H. T. Jr.: 1989, ‘The use of fetal and anencephalic tissue for transplantation’, The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14,25–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chervenak, F. A, Berkowitz, R. L., Tortora, M. et at.: 1985, ‘The management of fetal hydrocephalus’, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 151, 941–953.Google Scholar
  10. Chervenak, F. A. and McCullough, L. B.: 1985, ‘Perinatal ethics: A practical method of analysis of obligations to the mother and fetus’, Obstetrics and Gynecology 66, 442–446.Google Scholar
  11. Chervenak, F. A. and McCullough, L. B.: 1987, ‘Ethical challenges in perinatal medicine: The intrapartum management of pregnancy complicated by fetal hydrocephalus with macrocephaly’, Seminars in Perinatology 11(3),232–239.Google Scholar
  12. Clark, S. L. and DeVore, G. R.: 1989, ‘Prenatal diagnosis for couples who would not consider abortion’, Obstetrics and Gynecology 73(6), 1035–1038.Google Scholar
  13. Cochrane, D. D. and Myles, S. T.: 1982, ‘Management of intrauterine hydrocephalus’, Journal of Neurosurgery 57,590–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dumez, Y. and Oury, J. F.: 1986, ‘Method of first trimester selection abortion in mUltiple pregnancy’, Contributions to Gynecology and Obstetrics 15,50–53.Google Scholar
  15. Elias, S. and Annas, G. J.: 1987, Reproductive Genetics and the Law, Chicago, Year Book,pp.123–129.Google Scholar
  16. Engelhardt, H. T. Jr.: 1985, ‘Current controversies in obstetrics: Wrongful life and forced fetal surgical procedures’, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 151,313–316.Google Scholar
  17. Evans, M. I., Fletcher, J. C. and Rodeck, C.: 1989, ‘Ethical problems in mUltiple gestation: Selective termination’, Section 4, in Evans, Fletcher, Dexler, and Schulman (eds.), Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy, Science, Ethics and the Law, J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, p. 270.Google Scholar
  18. Evans, M. I., Fletcher, J. C., Zador, I. E. et al.: 1988, ’selective first trimester termination in octuplet, and quadruplet pregnancies: Clinical ethical issues’, Obstetrics and Gynecology 71, 289–296.Google Scholar
  19. Fletcher, J. C. and Wertz, D. C.: 1987, ‘Ethical aspects of prenatal diagnosis: Views of U.S. medical geneticists’, Clinics in Perinatology 14(2), 293–311.Google Scholar
  20. Fuchs, J.: 1983, ‘The absoluteness of behavioral moral norms’, Personal Responsibility and Christian Morality, Georgetown University Press, Washington, D. C., 115–152.Google Scholar
  21. Globus, M. L. (ed.): 1985, ‘Fetal therapy’, Seminars in Perinatology VIX(2), 51–136.Google Scholar
  22. Handyside, A. H., Kontogianni, E. H. and Hardy, K., Winston R. M. L.: 1990, ‘Pregnancies from biopsied human preimplantation embryos sexed by Y-specific DNA amplification’, Nature 344, 768–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Henifin, M. S.: 1988, ’selective termination of pregnancy: A commentary’, Hastings Center Report, pp. 22–23.Google Scholar
  24. Hobbins, J. C.: 1988, ’selective reduction: A perinatal necessity?’ The New England Journal of Medicine 318, 1062–1063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Holder, A. R.: 1988, ’selective termination of pregnancy: A commentary’, Hastings Center Report, pp. 21–22.Google Scholar
  26. Kerenyi, T. D. and Chitkaro, V.: 1981, ’selective birth in twin pregnancy with discordancy for Down’s Syndrome’, The New England of Medicine 304, 1525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kovner, E. M., Cox, W. S. and Vople, J. J.: 1984, ‘Development and marked reconstitution of the cerebral mantle after postnatal treatment of hydrocephalus’, Neurology’, 840–845.Google Scholar
  28. Ledbetter, D. H., Martin, A. O., Verlinsky, Y. et al.: 1990, ‘Cytogenetic results of chorionic villus sampling: High success rate and diagnostic accuracy’, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 162(2), 495–501.Google Scholar
  29. Lorber, J.: 1981 (suppl), ‘The results of early treatment of extreme hydrocephalus’, Med Child Neurol, 16, 21.Google Scholar
  30. MacLennon, A. H.: 1984, ‘Multiple gestations’, In Creasy, R. K., Resnick, R. (eds), Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice, W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 527–538.Google Scholar
  31. McCullough, D. C. and Balzar-Martin, L. A.: 1982, ‘Current prognosis overt neonatal hydrocephalus’, Journal of Neurosurgery 57, 378–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mealy, J. Jr., Gelmar, R. L. and Bubb, M. P.: 1973, ‘The prognosis of hydrocephalus overt at birth’, Journal of Neurosurgery 39, 348–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Monk, M. and Holding, C.: 1990, ‘Amplification of a B-hemoglobin sequence in individual human oocytes and polar bodies’, The Lancet 355, 985–988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Petres, R. E. and Redwine, F. U.: 1981 (letter), ’selective birth in twin pregnancy’, The New England Journal of Medicine 305:1218–1219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Platt, L. D., DeVore, G. R., Bilniarz, A. et al.: 1983, ‘Antenatal diagnosis of acephalia acardia. A proposed management scheme’, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 146, 857–859.Google Scholar
  36. Redwine, F. O. and Hays, P. M.: 1986, ’selective birth’, Seminars in Perinatology 10(1), 73–81.Google Scholar
  37. Rhoads, G. G., Jackson, L. G., Schelesselman. S. et al.: 1989, ‘The safety and efficacy of chorionic villus sampling for early prenatal diagnosis of cytogenetic abnormalities’, The New England Journal of Medicine 320, 609–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Robie, G., Payne, G. Jr. and Morgan. M.: 1989, ’selective delivery of an acardiac acephalic twin’, The New England Journal of Medicine 320(8), 512–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Strong, C.: 1987, ‘Ethical conflicts between mother and fetus’, Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics in Perinatology 14(2), 313–328.Google Scholar
  40. U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Human Development Services: 1985, ‘Child abuse and neglect prevention and treatment program’, Final Rule, Federal Register 50(72), 14878–14892.Google Scholar
  41. Wapner, R. J., Davis, G. H., Johnson, A. et al.: 1990, ’selective reduction of multifetal pregnancies’, The Lancet 335,90–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Working Party on Children Conceived by in vitro fertilization, births in Great Britain resulting from assisted conception 1978-1987; 1990. British Medical Journal 300. 1229–1233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert C. Cefalo

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations