Langmuir—Blodgett films

  • P. Hodge
  • N. B. McKeown


Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films are exceedingly thin films (2.5-1000 nm) which, under optimum circumstances, have a highly organized layer structure at a molecular level. Although LB films have been known since the 1930s (Gaines, 1966), only about twenty years ago was it recognized that the order at the molecular level could possibly be exploited for applications in opto-electronics, microelectronics and molecular electronics. As a consequence the last twenty years have seen intense research activity on LB films (Prasad and Williams, 1990; Ulman, 1991a). Great progress has been made but as yet no commercial device has been produced. Research, however, still proceeds vigorously on a number of fronts towards this objective.


Thin Solid Film Nonlinear Optical Material Langmuir Film Aqueous Subphase Azobenzene Derivative 
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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Hodge
  • N. B. McKeown

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