Pharmacokinetics of (S)-nicotine and metabolites in humans
An understanding of the pharmacokinetics of nicotine and its metabolites is important in understanding the biological effects of nicotine and tobacco for various reasons. The rate of absorption and distribution profoundly affects the magnitude of pharmacological effect of nicotine (Benowitz et al., 1990). The rate of metabolism of nicotine affects its pharmacology by determining the level of nicotine in the body with any given rate of consumption of tobacco. When elimination of nicotine is accelerated, people consume more tobacco, presumably to maintain a desired level of nicotine in the body (Benowitz et al., 1990). Metabolites of nicotine may be pharmacologically active (Clark et al., 1965) or may be toxic (Shigenaga et al.,1988) and, therefore, it is important to know levels of human exposure. Metabolic data can be used to estimate nicotine intake and exposure to tobacco smoke (Benowitz, 1984; Benowitz and Jacob, 1984a).
KeywordsStable Isotope Environmental Tobacco Smoke Smokeless Tobacco Cotinine Level Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Adlkofer, F., Scherer, G., Jarczyk, L. et al.(1988) Pharmacokinetics of 3’-hydroxycotinine, in The Pharmacology of Nicotine(Eds M.J. Rand and K. Thurau ), ICSU Press, pp. 25–9.Google Scholar
- Baillie, T.A., Rettenmeier, A.W., Peterson, L.A. et al. (1984) stable isotopes in drug metabolism and disposition, in Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry, Academic Press, New York, p. 273.Google Scholar
- Beckett, A.H., Gorrod, J.W. and Jenner, P. (1971) The analysis of nicotine-1’-Noxide in urine, in the presence of nicotine and cotinine, and its application to the study of in vivonicotine metabolism in man. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 23, 555–615.Google Scholar
- Benowitz, N.L. (1984) The use of biologic fluid samples in assessing smoke consumption, in Measurement in the Analysis and Treatment of Smoking Behavior, NIDA Monograph #48(Eds J. Grabowski and C.S. Bell ), US Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., pp. 6–26.Google Scholar
- Benowitz, N.L., Porchet, H. and Jacob, P., III. (1990) Pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and pharmacodynamies of nicotine, in Nicotine Psycho-pharmacology: Molecular, Cellular and Behavioral Aspects(Eds S. Wonnacott, M.A.H. Russell and I.P. Stolerman ), Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 112–57.Google Scholar
- Beynon, J.H. and Williams, A.E. (1963) Mass and Abundance Tables for Use in Mass Spectrometry, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
- Byrd, G.D., Chang, K., Greene, J.M. et al.(1992) Evidence for urinary excretion of glucuronide conjugates of nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3’-hydroxycotinine in smokers. Drug Metab. Disp., 20, 192–7.Google Scholar
- Clark, M.S.G., Rand, M.J. and Vanov, S. (1965) Comparison of pharmacological activity of nicotine and related alkaloids occurring in cigarette smoke. Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn., 363–79.Google Scholar
- Jacob, P., III, Benowitz, N.L. and Shulgin, A.T. (1988b) Recent studies of nico-tine metabolism in humans. Pharmacol. Biochem. and Behavior, 41, 474–9.Google Scholar
- Pool, W.F., Godin, C.S. and Crooks, P.A. (1985) Nicotine racemization during cigarette smoking. The Toxicologist, 5, 232.Google Scholar