The role of nucleoplasmin in chromatin assembly and disassembly
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Nucleoplasmin is the most abundant nuclear protein in Xenopus oocytes and eggs. The term ‘molecular chaperone’ was coined to describe its role in the assembly of the nucleosome subunits of chromatin. Although histones and DNA can self-assemble into nucleosomes, nucleoplasmin can facilitate this process in vitro by competing against non-specific charge interactions. In vivo nucleoplasmin binds histones H2A and H2B and transfers them to DNA. Another acidic nuclear protein, N1, binds and transfers histones H3 and H4. Nucleoplasmin has at least one other role in modulating chromatin structure in Xenopus eggs. It is required for the first stage of sperm chromatin decondensation. It binds and removes sperm basic proteins and replaces them by histones H2A and H2B, again forming nucleosomes, and resulting in decondensation of the compacted sperm chromatin. In addition we propose that the properties of the nuclear localization signal of nucleoplasmin can be explained by a model in which heat shock cognate protein hsc70 has a chaperone role in signal presentation during nuclear transport.
KeywordsNuclear Localization Signal Xenopus Oocyte Sperm Nucleus Nucleolar Protein Xenopus Laevis Oocyte
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