Skip to main content

Mark-Recapture Techniques and Adult Dispersal

  • Chapter

Abstract

The basic principles of the single mark-recapture technique and the calculation of population size by the Lincoln Index and other simple methods are described in Chapter 2 in relation to estimating the size of larval populations. More complicated methods involving a series of markings and recaptures are more appropriate for studying adult populations, and are consequently described in this chapter, which also includes a review of the different marking methods as well as an account of adult dispersal. Mark-recapture techniques were principally devised for estimating population size, but adult mosquitoes have usually been marked to study dispersal, feeding behaviour, duration of the gonotrophic cycle, survival rates and other behaviours.

Keywords

  • Release Point
  • Aedes Aegypti
  • Gonotrophic Cycle
  • Flight Range
  • Fluorescent Powder

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-94-011-1868-2_9
  • Chapter length: 100 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   74.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-94-011-1868-2
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  • Aarons, T., Walker, J. R., Gray, H. F. & Mezger, E. G. (1951). Studies of the flight range of Aedes squamiger (Coquillett). Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Ass., 19, 65–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Abdel-Malek, A. A. (1961). The effect of radioactive phosphorous on the growth and development of Culex pipiens molestus Forsk. (Diptera: Culicidae). Bull. ent. Res., 53, 701–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Abdel-Malek, A. A. (1966). Study of the dispersion and flight range of Anopheles sergentii Theo. in Siwa Oasis using radioactive isotopes as markers. Bull. Wld Hlth Org., 35, 968–73.

    Google Scholar 

  • Abdel-Malek, A. A. & Abdel-Wahab, M. F. (1961). Autoradiography as a technique for radioactive phosphorus, P-32 uptake in Culex molestus Forsk. Bull. Soc. ent. Egypte, 45, 409–18.

    Google Scholar 

  • Alho, J. M. (1990). Logistic regression in capture-recapture models. Biometrics, 46, 623–35.

    Google Scholar 

  • Anderson, R. A., Edman, J. D. & Scott, T. W. (1990). Rubidium and cesium as host blood-markers to study multiple blood feeding by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). J. med. Entomol., 27, 999–1001.

    Google Scholar 

  • Aragao, M. B. (1953). Utilizçâo de mosquitos radioactivos na avaliagao do raio de võo. Revta bras. Malar. Doenc. trop., 5, 137–43.

    Google Scholar 

  • Arnason, A. N. (1972a). Parameter estimates from mark-recapture experiments on two populations subject to migration and death. Res. Popul. Ecol., 13, 97–113.

    Google Scholar 

  • Arnason, A. N. (1972b). ‘Prediction Methods and Variance Estimates for the Parameters of the Triple Catch—Two Population Model with Migration and Death’. Scient. Rep. No. 54, Dept. Computer Sci., University Manitoba, Canada, 31 pp. (mimeographed).

    Google Scholar 

  • Asman, S. M., Nelson, R. L., McDonald, P. T. Milby, M. M. Reeves, W. C., White, K. D. & Fine, P. E. M. (1979). Pilot release of a sex-linked multiple translocation into a Culex tarsalis field population in Kern county, California. Mosquito News, 39, 248–58.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bailey, D. L., Lowe, R. E., Fowler, J. E. F. & Dame, D. A. (1979). Sterilizing and packaging males of Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann for field release. Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg., 28, 902–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bailey, N. T. J. (1951). On estimating the size of mobile populations from recapture data. Biometrika, 38, 293–306.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bailey, N. T. J. (1952). Improvements in the interpretation of recapture data. J. Anim. Ecol., 21, 120–7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bailey, S. F. & Baerg, D. C. (1967). The flight habits of Anopheles freeborni Aitken. Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Ass., 25, 55–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bailey, S. F., Eliason, D. A. & litis, W. G. (1962). Some marking and recovery techniques in Culex tarsalis Coq. flight studies. Mosquito News, 22, 1–10.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bailey, S. F., Eliason, D. A. & Hoffman, B. L. (1965). Flight and dispersal of the mosquito Culex tarsalis Coquillett in the Sacramento valley of California. Hilgardia, 37, 73–113.

    Google Scholar 

  • Baldry, D. A. T. & Bennett, R. B. (1981). ‘Preliminary appraisal of X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy for studying tsetse dispersal’. 16th Mtg Int. sci Council tryp. Res. & Contr. Yaounde, 1979. Eleza Services Ltd, Nairobi, 334–40.

    Google Scholar 

  • Barndorff-Nielsen, O. (1972). Estimation problems in capture-recapture analysis. Danish Rev. Game Biol., 6, No. 5, 22 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Beesley, W. N. & Crewe, W. (1963). The bionomics of Chrysops silacea Austen, 1907 II. The biting-rhythm and dispersal in rain-forest. Ann. trop. Med. Parasit., 57, 191–203.

    Google Scholar 

  • Begon, M. (1976). Dispersal, density and microdistribution in Drosophila subobscura Collin. Anim. Ecol., 45, 441–56.

    Google Scholar 

  • Begon, M. (1979). Investigating Animal Abundance: Capture-recapture for Biologists. Edward Arnold, London, 97 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Begon, M. (1983). Abuses of mathematical techniques in ecology: applications of Jolly’s capture-recapture method. Oikos, 40, 155–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Begon, M., Harper, J. L. & Townsend, C. R. (1986). Ecology. Individuals, Populations and Communities. Blackwell Sci. Pubis, Oxford, 876 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Beier, J. C., Berry, W. J. & Craig, G. B. (1982). Horizontal distribution of adult Aedes triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to habitat structure, oviposition, and other mosquito species. J. med. Entomol., 19, 239–47.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bennett, G. F. (1965). The effect of phosphorus32 on the fecundity of Aedes aegypti (L.) and its use in determining blood meal volumes. Mosquito News, 25, 465–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bennett, S. R., McClelland, G. A. H. & Smilanick, J. M. (1981). A versatile system of fluorescent marks for studies of large populations of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). J. med. Entomol., 18, 173–4.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bidlingmayer, W. L. & Schoof, H. F. (1957). The dispersal characteristics of the salt-marsh mosquito, Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann), near Savannah, Georgia. Mosquito News, 17, 202–12.

    Google Scholar 

  • Birley, M. H. & Charlwood, J. D. (1989). The effect of moonlight and other factors on the oviposition cycle of malaria vectors in Madang, Papua New Guinea. Ann. trop. Med. Parasit., 83, 415–22.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bishop, J. A. & Sheppard, P. M. (1973). ‘An evaluation of two capture-recapture models using the technique of computer simulation.’ pp. 233–244. In The Mathematical Theory of the Dynamics of Biological Populations (edit. M. S. Bartlett & R. W. Hiorns). Academic Press, London, xii + 347 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Blower, J. G., Cook, L. M. & Bishop, J. A. (1981). Estimating the Size of Animal Populations. Allen & Unwin, London, 128 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bond, H. A., Craig, G. B. & Fay, R. W. (1970). Field mating and movement of Aedes aegypti. Mosquito News, 30, 394–402.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bonnet, D. D. & Worcester, D. J. (1946). The dispersal of Aedes albopictus in the territory of Hawaii. Am. J. trop. Med., 26, 465–76.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boreham, P. F. L. & Port, G. R. (1982). The distribution and movement of engorged females of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Gambian village. Bull, ent. Res., 72, 489–95.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bowden, J., Brown, G. & Stride, T. (1979). The application of X-ray spectrometry to analysis of elemental composition (chemoprinting) in the study of migration of Noctua pronuba L. Ecol Ent., 4, 199–204.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bowden, J., Digby, P. G. N. & Sherlock, P. L. (1984). Studies of elemental composition as a biological marker in insects. I. The influence of soil type and host-plant on elemental composition of Noctua pronuba (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Bull. ent. Res., 74, 207–25.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brenner, R. J., Wargo, M. J., Stains, G. S. & Mulla, M. S. (1984). The dispersal of Culicoides mohave (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in the desert of southern California. Mosquito News, 44, 343–50.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brooks, G. D. & Singh, K. R. P. (1975). Quick release device for use in distribution of mosquitoes during genetic control operations. J. Commun. Dis., 7, 280–7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bruce-Chwatt, L. J. & Hayward, J. (1956). Uptake of radioactive phosphorus by larvae and adults of mosquitoes. Nature, Lond., 177, 661–2.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brust, R. A. (1980). Dispersal behaviour of adult Aedes sticticus and Aedes vexans (Diptera: Culicidae) in Manitoba. Can. Ent., 112, 31–42.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bryan, J. H., Foley, D. H., Geary, M. & Carven, C. T. J. (1991). Anopheles annulipes Walker (Diptera: Culicidae) at Griffith, New South Wales. 3. Dispersal of sibling species. J. Aust. ent. Soc., 30, 119–21.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bugher, J. C. & Taylor, M. (1949). Radiophosphorous and radiostrontium in mosquitoes. Preliminary report. Science, N.Y., 110, 146–7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Burton, G. J. (1964). Attack on the vector of filariasis in British Guiana. U.S. publ. Hlth Rep., 79, 137–43.

    Google Scholar 

  • Calaprice, J. R. (1971). X-ray spectrometric and multivariate analysis of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) from different geographic regions. J. Fish. res. Bd. Can., 28, 369–77.

    Google Scholar 

  • Campbell, M. M. & Kettle, D. S. (1976). Marking of adult Culicoides brevitarsis Kieffer (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). J. Aust. ent. Soc., 14, 383–6.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carle, F. L. & Strub, M. R. (1978). A new method for estimating population size from removal data. Biometrics, 34, 621–30.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carothers, A. D. (1973). Capture-recapture methods applied to a population with known parameters. J. Anim. Ecol., 42, 125–46.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carothers, A. D. (19736). The effects of unequal catchability on Jolly-Seber estimates. Biometrics, 29, 79–100.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carothers, A. D. (1979). Quantifying unequal catchability and its effect on survival estimates in an actual population. J. Anim. Ecol., 48, 863–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Causey, O. R. & Kumm, H. W. (1948). Dispersion of forest mosquitoes in Brazil; preliminary studies. Am. J. trop. Med., 28, 469–80.

    Google Scholar 

  • Causey, O. R., Kumm, H, W. & Laemmert, H. W. (1950). Dispersion of forest mosquitoes in Brazil: further studies. Am. J. trop. Med., 30, 301–12.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chang, H. T. (1946). Studies on the use of fluorescent dyes for marking Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Mosquito News, 6, 122–5.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chant, G. D. & Baldwin, W. F. (1972). Dispersal and longevity of mosquitoes tagged with 32P. Can. Ent., 104, 941.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chapman, D. G. (1955). Population estimation based on changes of composition caused by a selective removal. Biometrika, 42, 279–90.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chapman, D. G. & Junge, C. O. (1956). The estimation of the size of a stratified animal population. Ann. math. Statist., 27, 375–89.

    Google Scholar 

  • Charlwood, J. D. & Alecrim, W. A. (1989). Capture-recapture studies with the South American malaria vector Anopheles darlingi, Root. Ann. trop. Med. Parasit., 83, 569–76.

    Google Scholar 

  • Charlwood, J. D. & Bryan, J. H. (1987). A mark-recapture experiment with the filariasis vector Anopheles punctulatus in Papua New Guinea. Ann. trop. Med. Parasit., 81, 429–36.

    Google Scholar 

  • Charlwood, J. D., Dagoro, H. & Paru, R. (1985). Blood-feeding and resting behaviour in the Anopheles punctulatus Donitz complex (Diptera: Culicidae) from coastal Papua New Guinea. Bull. ent. Res., 75, 463–75.

    Google Scholar 

  • Charlwood, J. D., Graves, P. M. & Birley, M. H. (1986). Capture-recapture studies with mosquitoes of the group of Anopheles punctulatus Donitz (Diptera: Culicidae) from Papua New Guinea. Bull. ent. Res., 76, 211–27.

    Google Scholar 

  • Charlwood, J. D., Graves, P. M. & Marshall, T. F. de C. (1988). Evidence for a ‘memorized’ home range in Anopheles farauti females from Papau New Guinea. Med. vet. Ent., 2, 101–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chiang, G. L., Loong, K. P., Mahadevan, S. & Eng, K. L. (1988). A study of dispersal, survival and gonotrophic cycle estimates of Mansonia uniformis in an open swamp ecotype. Southeast Asian J. trop. Med. publ. Hlth, 19, 271–82.

    Google Scholar 

  • Clark, D. P. (1962). An analysis of dispersal and movement in Phaulacridium vittatum (Siost.) (Acrididae). Aust. J. Zool., 10, 382–99.

    Google Scholar 

  • Conrad, L. B., Joslyn, D. J. & Stewart, B. R. (1983). Laboratory testing of the Giemsa self-marker in four species of mosquitoes. Proc. Ann. Mtg New Jers. Mosq. Contr. Ass., 70, 84–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Conway, G. R., Trpis, M. & McClelland, G. A. H. (1974). Population parameters of the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) estimated by mark-release-recapture in a suburban habitat in Tanzania. J. Anim. Ecol., 53, 289–304.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cook, L. M., Brower, L. P. & Croze, H. J. (1967). The accuracy of a population estimate from multiple recapture data. J. Anim. Ecol., 36, 57–60.

    Google Scholar 

  • Coppedge, J. R., Spencer, J. P., Brown, H. E., Whitten, C. J., Snow, J. W. & Wright, J. E. (1979). A new dye marking technique for the screwworm. J. econ. Ent., 72, 40–2.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cormack, R. M. (1968). The statistics of capture-recapture estimates. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev., 6, 455–506.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cormack, R. M. (1972). The logic of capture-recapture estimates. Biometrics, 28, 337–43.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cormack, R. M. (1973). ‘Commonsense estimates from capture-recapture studies.’ pp. 225–234. In The Mathematical Theory of the Dynamics of Biological Populations (edit. M. S. Bartlett & R. W. Hiorns). Academic Press, London, xii + 347 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Craig, G. B. & Hickey, W. A. (1967). ‘Genetics of Aedes aegypt’. pp. 67–131. In Insect Vectors of Disease (edit. J. W. Wright & R. Pal). Elsevier, Amsterdam, xix + 794 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cunningham, M. P., Harley, J. M. B. & Grainge, E. B. (1963). ‘The Labelling of Animals with Specific Agglutinins and the Detection of these Agglutinins in the Blood Meals of Glossina.’ pp. 23–4. E. Afr. tryp. Res. Org. Rep., 1961. 55 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Curry, D. P. (1939). A documented record of a long flight of Aedes sollicitans. Proc. New Jers. Mosq. Ex term. Ass., 26, 36–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Curtis, C. F. & Rawlings, P. (1980). A preliminary study of dispersal and survival of Anopheles culicifacies in relation to the possibility of inhibiting the spread of insecticide resistance. Ecol. Ent., 5, 11–17.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dalmat, H. T. (1950). Studies on the flight range of certain Simuliidae, with the use of aniline dye marker. Ann. ent. Soc. Am., 43, 537–45.

    Google Scholar 

  • Darling, S. T. (1925). Entomological research in malaria. Sth. med. J., Nashville, 18, 446–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Darroch, J. N. (1959). The multiple-capture census. II. Estimation when there is immigration or death. Biometrika, 46, 336–51.

    Google Scholar 

  • Darroch, J. N. (1961). The two-sample capture-recapture census when tagging and sampling are stratified. Biometrika, 48, 241–60.

    Google Scholar 

  • d’Auria, J. M. & Bennett, R. (1975). X-rays and trace elements. Chemistry, 48, 17–19.

    Google Scholar 

  • Davies, R. G. (1971). Computer Programming in Quantitative Biology. Academic Press, London, xi + 492 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dempster, J. P. (1971). The population ecology of the Cinnabar moth, Tyria jacobaeae L. (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae). Oceologia, 7, 26–67.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dempster, J. P., Lakhani, K. H. & Coward, P. A. (1986). The use of chemical composition as a population marker in insects: a study of the Brimstone butterfly. Ecol. Ent., 11, 51–65.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dobzhansky, T. & Wright, S. (1943). Genetics of natural populations. X. Dispersion rates in Drosophila pseudoobscura. Genetics, 28, 304–40.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dobzhansky, T. & Wright, S. (1947). Genetics of natural populations. XV. Rate of diffusion of a mutant gene through a population of Drosophila pseudoobscura. Genetics, 32, 303–40.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dow, R. P. (1971). The dispersal of Culex nigripalpus marked with high concentrations of radiosphosphorus. J. med. Entomol., 8, 353–63.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dow, R. P., Reeves, W. C. & Bellamy, R. E. (1965). Dispersal of female Culex tarsalis into a larvicided area. Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg., 14, 656–70.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dowdeswell, W. H. (1967). Practical Animal Ecology. Methuen, London, 320 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dowdeswell, W. H., Fisher, R. A. & Ford, E. B. (1940). The quantitative study of populations in the Lepidoptera. 1. Polyommatus icarus Rott. Ann. Eugen. Lond., 10, 123–36.

    Google Scholar 

  • Duncombe, W. G. (1959). An autoradiographic method for distinguishing samples labelled with phosphorous-32 and sulphur-35. Nature, Lond., 183, 319.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dunn, P. H. & Mechalas, B. J. (1963). An easily constructed vacuum duster. J. econ. Ent., 56, 899.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eberhardt, L. L. (1990). Using radio-telemetry for mark-recapture studies with edge effects. J. appl. Ecol., 27, 259–71.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eddy, G. W., Roth, A. R. & Plapp, F. W. (1962). Studies on the flight habits of some marked insects. J. econ. Ent., 55, 603–7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Edman, J. D. & Lea, A. O. (1972). Sexual behaviour of mosquitoes. 2. Large-scale rearing and marking of Culex for field experiments. Ann. ent. Soc. Am., 65, 267–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eyles, D. E. (1943). A method for catching, marking, and re-examining large numbers of Anopheles quadrimaculatus. J. natn. Malar. Soc., 2, 85–91.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eyles, D. E. (1944). ‘A Critical Review of the Literature Relating to the Flight and Dispersion Habits of Anopheline Mosquitoes.’ U.S. Publ. Hlth Bull., No. 287, 39 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eyles, D. E. & Bishop, L. K. (1943). An experiment on the range of dispersion of Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Am. J. Hyg., 37, 239–45.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eyles, D. E. & Cox, W. W. (1943). The measurements of a population of Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. J. natn. Malar. Soc., 2, 71–83.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fales, J. H., Bodenstein, O. F., Mills, G. D. & Wessel, L. H. (1964). Preliminary studies on face fly dispersion. Ann. ent. Soc. Am., 57, 135–7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fay, R. W. & Craig, G. B. (1969). Genetically marked Aedes aegypti in studies of field populations. Mosquito News, 29, 121–7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fay, R. W., Baker, J. T. & Jensen, J. A. (1959). Radioactive tagging of Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) with 32P. Mosquito News, 19, 139–43.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fisher, R. A. & Ford, E. B. (1947). The spread of a gene in natural conditions in a colony of the moth Panaxia dominula L. Heredity, Lond., 1, 143–74.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fleischer, S. J., Gaylor, M. J., Hue, N. V. & Graham, L. C. (1986). Uptake and elimination of rubidium, a physiological marker, in adult Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae). Ann. ent. Soc. Am., 79, 19–25.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fletcher, B. S. (1974). The ecology of a natural population of the Queensland fruit fly, Dacus tryoni. V. The dispersal of adults. Aust. J. Zool., 22, 189–202.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fletcher, B. S., Kapatos, E. & Southwood, T. R. E. (1981). A modification of the Lincoln index for estimating the population densities of mobile insects. Ecol. Ent., 6, 397–400.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ford, E. B. (1953). ‘The Experimental Study of Evolution.’ Rep. Brisbane Mtg Australian and N.Z. Ass. Adv. Sci. (1951), 28, 143–54.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frank, J. H. & Curtis, G. A. (1977). On the bionomics of bromeliad-inhabiting mosquitoes. V. A mark-release-recapture technique for estimation of population size of Wyeomyia vanduzeei. Mosquito News, 37, 444–52.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frank, P. W. (1964). On home range of limpets. Am. Nat., 98, 99–104.

    Google Scholar 

  • Freeman, P. R. (1973a). Sequential recapture. Biometrika, 60, 141–53.

    Google Scholar 

  • Freeman, P. R. (19736). A numerical comparison between sequential tagging and sequential recapture. Biometrika, 60, 499–508.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fruton, J. S. & Simmonds, S. (1958). General Biochemistry, 2nd edn. John Wiley & Sons, New York, xii + 1077 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fryer, J. C. & Meek, C. L. (1989). Further studies on marking an adult mosquito, Psorophora columbiae, in situ using fluorescent pigments. SWest. Ent., 14, 409–18.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fussell, E. M. (1964). Dispersal studies on radioactive-tagged Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Mosquito News, 24, 422–6.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gangwere, S. K., Chavin, W. & Evans, F. C. (1964). Methods of marking insects with special reference to Orthoptera (Sens. lat.). Ann. ent. Soc. Am., 57, 662–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Garby, L., Yasuno, M. & Phurivethaya, Y. (1966). Labelling mosquitoes with radioactive iodine, 131I. Trans. R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg., 60, 136.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gardiner, J. E. (1963). A radioactive marking ink. Nature, Lond., 197, 414.

    Google Scholar 

  • Garrett-Jones, C. (1962). The possibility of active long-distance migrations by Anopheles pharoensis Theobald. Bull. Wld Hlth Org., 21, 299–302.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gaskell, T. J. & George, B. J. (1972). A Bayesian modification of the Lincoln index. J. appl. Ecol, 9, 377–84.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gaydecki, P. A. (1984). ‘A quantification of the behavioural dynamics of certain Lepi-doptera in response to light’. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Cranfield Institute of Technology, Bedford, England. 157 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gazey, W. J. &. Staley, M. J. (1986). Population estimation from mark-recapture experiments using a sequential Bayes algorithm. Ecology, 67, 941–51.

    Google Scholar 

  • Geiger, J. C., Purdy, W. C. & Tarbett, R. E. (1919). Effective malaria control in a ricefield district with observations on experimental mosquito flights. J. Am. med. Ass., 72, 844–7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Germain, F., Hervé, J. P. & Geoffroy, B. (1977). Variations du taux de survie des femelles d’ Aedes africanus (Theobald) dans une galerie forestière de sud de l‘Empire Centrafricain. Cah. ORSTOM, sér. Entomol. méd. Parasit., 15, 291–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Germain, M., Eouzan, J. P. & Ferrara, L. (1972). Données sur les facultés de dispersion de deux diptères d’intérrêt médical: Aedes africanus (Theobald) et Simulium damnosum Theobald dans la domaine montagnard du nord du Cameroun occidental. Cah. ORSTOM, sér. Entomol. méd. Parasit., 10, 291–300.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gibson, C. C. G. (1923). Malaria and mosquitoes in Belize, British Honduras. Jl R. Army med. Cps, 40, 38–3.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gillies, M. T. (1958a). A modified technique for the age-grading of populations of Anopheles gambiae. Ann. trop. Med. Parasit., 52, 261–73.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gillies, M. T. (19586). A simple autoradiographic method for distinguishing insects labelled with phosphorus-32 and sulphur-35. Nature, Lond., 182, 1684.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gillies, M. T. (1961). Studies on the dispersion and survival of Anopheles gambiae Giles in East Africa, by means of marking and release experiments. Bull. ent. Res., 52, 99–127.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gilmour, D., Waterhouse, D. F. & Mclntyre, G. A. (1946). An account of experiments undertaken to determine the natural population density of the sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina. Wied. Bull. Coun. scient, ind. Res., Aust., 195, 1–39.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ginsberg, H. S. (1986). Dispersal patterns of Aedes sollicitons (Diptera: Culicidae) at the east end of the fire island national seashore, New York, USA. J. med. Entomol., 23, 146–55.

    Google Scholar 

  • Graham, H. M. & Magnum, C. L. (1971). Larval diets containing dyes for tagging pink bollworm moths internally J. econ. Ent., 64, 376–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Greenslade, P. J. M. (1964). The distribution, dispersal and size of a population of Nebria brevicollis (F.), with comparative studies on three other Carabidae. J. Anim. Ecol., 33, 311–33.

    Google Scholar 

  • Guthrie, J. E. & Brust, R. A. (1971). Sterilization of Aedes aegypti (L.) as a result of chronic exposure to low doses of beta radiation. Nature, Lond., 232, 345–6.

    Google Scholar 

  • Guthrie, J. E. & Burzynski, A. Z. (1972). Accumulation of 137Cs by Aedes aegypti larvae and the effect of potassium concentration. Can. Ent., 104, 411–16.

    Google Scholar 

  • Haddow, A. J. (1942). The mosquito fauna and climate of native huts at Kisumu, Kenya. Bull. ent. Res., 33, 91–142.

    Google Scholar 

  • Haeger, J. S. (1960). Behavior preceding migration in the salt-marsh mosquito, Aedes taeniorhynchus. Mosquito News., 20, 136–47.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hamada, R. (1976). Density estimation by the modified Jackson’s method. Appl. Entomol. Zool, 11, 194–201.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hamlyn-Harris, R. (1933). Some ecological factors involved in the dispersal of mosquitoes in Queensland. Bull. ent. Res., 24, 229–32.

    Google Scholar 

  • Haramis, L. D. & Foster, W. A. (1983). Survival and population density of Aedes triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in a woodlot in central Ohio, USA. J. med. Entomol., 20, 391–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harden, F. W. & Chubb, H. S. (1960). Observations of Aedes taeniorhynchus dispersal in extreme south Florida and the Everglades National Park. Mosquito News, 20, 249–55.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hassett, C. C. & Jenkins, D. W. (1951). The uptake and effect of radio-phosphorus in mosquitoes. Physiol. Zool., 24, 257–66.

    Google Scholar 

  • Haüsermann, W., Fay, R. W. & Hacker, C. S. (1971). Dispersal of genetically marked female Aedes aegypti in Mississippi. Mosquito News, 31, 37–51.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hayes, D. K. & Schechter, M. S. (1970). Survival of codling moth larvae treated with methylene blue under short-and long-day photoperiod. J. econ. Ent., 63, 997.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hayes, J. L. & Reed, K. G. (1989). Using rubidium-treated artificial nectar to label adults and eggs of Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Env. Ent., 18, 807–10.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hendricks, D. E. (1971). Oil-soluble blue dye in larval diet marks adults, eggs, and firststage F1 larvae of the pink bollworm. J. econ. Ent., 64, 1404–6.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hendricks, D. E. (1980). Low-frequency sonar device that counts flying insects attracted to sex pheromone dispensers. Env. Ent., 9, 452–7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hendricks, D. E. & Graham, H. M. (1970). Oil-soluble dye in larval diet for tagging moths, eggs, and spermatophores of tobacco budworms. J. econ. Ent., 63, 1019–20.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hendricks, D. E., Leal, M. P., Robinson, S. H. & Hernandez, N. S. (1971). Oil-soluble black dye in larval diet marks, adults and eggs of the tobacco budworm and pink bollworm. J. econ Ent., 64, 1399–01.

    Google Scholar 

  • Heron, R. J. (1968). Vital dyes as markers for behavioral and population studies of the Larch sawfly, Pristiphora erichsonii (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae). Can. Ent., 100, 470–5.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hervy, J. P. (1977a). Expérience de marquage-lâcher-recapture portant sur Aedes aegypti Linné, en zone de savane soudanienne ouest-africaine. I. Le cycle trophogonique. Cah. ORSTOM, sér. Entomol. méd. Parasit., 15, 353–64.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hervy, J. P. (19776). Expérience de marquage-lâcher-recapture, portant sur Aedes aegypti Linné, en zone de savane soudanienne ouest africaine. II. Relations entre habitat, morphologie et comportement. Cah. ORSTOM, sér. Entomol. méd. Parasit., 15, 365–72.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hii, J. L. K. & Vun, Y. S. (1985). A study of dispersal, survival and adult population estimates of the malaria vector, Anopheles balabacensis Baisas (Diptera: Culicidae) in Sabah, Malaysia. Trop. Biomed., 2, 121–31.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hocking, B. (1953). The intrinsic range and speed of flight of insects. Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond., 104, 223–345.

    Google Scholar 

  • Holbrook, F. R., Belden, R. P. & Bobian, R. J. (1991). Rubidium for marking adults of Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). J. med. Entomol., 28, 246–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Howard, J. J., White, D. J. & Muller, S. L. (1989). Mark-recapture studies on the Culiseta (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of eastern equine encephalitis virus. J. med. Entomol., 26, 190–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hudson, J. E. & Edman, J. D. (1978). Dispersal of blood-fed Culiseta inornata and Culiseta alaskaensis at Edmonton, Alberta. Mosquito News, 38, 87–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ikeshoji, T. & Yap, H. H. (1990). Impact of the insecticide-treated sound traps on an Aedes albopictus population. Jap. J. sanit. Zool., 41, 213–17.

    Google Scholar 

  • Itô, Y. (1973). A method to estimate a minimum population density with a single recapture census. Res. Popul. Ecol., 14, 159–69.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ivanova, V. L. & Ipatov, V. P. (1987). Migration routes of Aedes communis De Geer, Ae. punctor Kirby and Ae. pionips Dyar mosquito females. Communication I. The method of fluorescent dust labelling applied to follow up the mosquito flying into the settlement in the Middle taiga zone. Med. Parasit. Parasitic Dis., 56, 55–9 (In Russian, English summary).

    Google Scholar 

  • Iwao, S. (1963). On a method for estimating the rate of population interchange between two areas. Res. Popul. Ecol., 5, 44–50.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jackson, C. H. N. (1933). On a method of marking tsetse flies. J. Anim. Ecol., 2, 289–90.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jackson, C. H. N. (1939). The analysis of an animal population. J. Anim. Ecol., 8, 238–46.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jenkins, D. W. (1949). A field method for marking arctic mosquitoes with radiophosphorus. J. econ. Ent., 40, 988–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jenkins, D. W. (1963). ‘Use of radionuclides in ecological studies in insects.’ pp. 431–40. In Radioecology (edit V. Schultz and A. W. Klement). National Symposium on Radioecology, 1961. Reinhold, New York, xvii + 746 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jenkins, D. W. & Hassett, C. C. (1950). Radioisotopes in entomology. Nucleonics, 6, 5–14.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jenkins, D. W. & Hassett, C. C. (1951). Dispersal and flight range of subarctic mosquitoes marked with radiophosphorus. Can. J. Zool., 29, 178–87.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jensen, T. & Washino, R. K. (1991). An assessment of the biological capacity of a Sacramento valley population of Aedes melanimon to vector arboviruses. Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg., 44, 355–63.

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, C. G. (1969). Migration and Dispersal of Insects by Flight. Methuen & Co. Ltd., London, xxii + 763 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jolly, G. M. (1965). Explicit estimates from capture-recapture data with both birth and immigration-stochastic model. Biometrika, 52, 225–47.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jones, R. L., Harrell, E. A. & Snow, J. W. (1972). Three dyes as markers for Corn Earworm moths. J. econ. Ent., 65, 123–6.

    Google Scholar 

  • Joslyn, D. J. & Fish, D. (1986). Adult dispersal of Aedes communis using Giemsa selfmarking. J. Am. Mosq. Contr. Ass., 2, 89–90.

    Google Scholar 

  • Joslyn, D. J., Conrad, L. B. & Slavin, P. T. (1985). Development and preliminary field testing of the Giemsa self-marker for the salt marsh mosquito Aedes sollicitans (Walker) (Diptera: Culicidae). Ann. ent. Soc. Am., 78, 20–3.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kay, B. H. & Mottram, P. (1986). In-vivo staining of Aedes vigilax, Aedes aegypti and Culex annulirostris larvae with Giemsa and other vital dyes. J. Am. Mosq. Contr. Ass., 2, 141–5.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kelker, G. H. (1940). Estimating deer populations by a differential hunting loss in the sexes. Proc. Utah Acad. Sci., 17, 65–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kettle, D. S. (1951). The spatial distribution of Culicoides impunctatus Goet. under woodland and moorland conditions and its flight range through woodland. Bull. ent. Res., 42, 239–91.

    Google Scholar 

  • Khudadov, G. D. (1959). The method of marking insects by introducing radioactive isotopes incorporated into foodstuffs. Byull. mosk. Obshch. Ispyt. Prir. (N.S.) Otd. Biol., 64, 35–45 (In Russian, English summary).

    Google Scholar 

  • Kimsey, R. B. & Kimsey, P. B. (1984). Identification of arthropod blood meals using rubidium as a marker; a preliminary report. J. med. Entomol., 21, 714–19.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kirkpatrick, T. W. (1925). The Mosquitoes of Egypt. Cairo Govt. Press, Cairo, xi + 224 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kline, D. L. & Wood, J. R. (1989). ‘Practical assessment and enhancement of some currently used adult surveillance techniques for Florida mosquitoes. Phase IF. Final Report to Florida Dept. Hlth & Rehabil., 29 pp. (unpublished report).

    Google Scholar 

  • Knight, R. H. & Southon, H. A. W. (1963). A simple method for marking haema-tophagous insects during the act of feeding. Bull. ent. Res., 54, 379–82.

    Google Scholar 

  • Krebs, C. J. & Boonstra, R. (1984). Trappability estimates for mark-recapture data. Can. J. Zool., 62, 2440–4.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kuper, S. W. A. & Pelc, C. R. (1953). Radioactive labelling experiments with Plasmodium. Parasitology, 42, 269–71.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kurihara, T. (1963). Radioactive tagging of Culex pipiens with P32. Jap. J. sanit. Zool., 14, 16–19 (In Japanese, English summary).

    Google Scholar 

  • LaSalle, M. W. & Dakin, M. E. (1982). Dispersal of Culex salinarius in southwestern Louisiana. Mosquito News, 42, 543–50.

    Google Scholar 

  • Legg, D. E. & Chiang, H. C. (1984). Rubidium marking technique for the European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in corn. Em. Ent., 13, 578–83.

    Google Scholar 

  • Le Prince, J. A. A. & Griffitts, T. H. D. (1917a). Flight of Mosquitoes. Studies on the Distance of Flight of Anopheles quadrimaculatus. U.S. Publ. Hlth Rep., 32, 656–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Le Prince, J. A. & Griffitts, T. H. D. (1917b). Notes from a malaria survey: impounded waters, biting of A. punctipennis on porches, distance of flight of A. quadrimaculatus. Sth. med. J., Nashville, 10, 642–4.

    Google Scholar 

  • Leslie, P. H. (1952). The estimation of population parameters from data obtained by means of the capture-recapture method. II. The estimation of total numbers. Biometrika, 39, 363–88.

    Google Scholar 

  • Leslie, P. H. & Chitty, D. (1951). The estimation of population parameters from data obtained by means of the capture-recapture method. I. The maximum likelihood equations for estimating the death-rate. Biometrika, 38, 269–92.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lewis, C. T. & Waloff, N. (1964). The use of radioactive tracers in the study of dispersion of Orthotylus virescens (Douglas & Scott) (Miridae, Heteroptera). Entomologia exp. appl., 7, 15–24.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lillie, T. H., Marquardt, W. C. & Jones, R. H. (1981). The flight range of Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Can. Ent., 113, 419–26.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lillie, T. H., Kline, D. L. & Hall, D. W. (1985). The dispersal of Culicoides mississippiensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in a salt marsh near Yankeetown, Florida. J. Am. Mosq. Contr. Ass., 1, 463–7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lincoln, R. J., Boxshall, G. A. & Clark, P. F. (1982). A Dictionary of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 298 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lindig, O. H., Wiygul, G., Wright, J. E., Dawson, J. R. & Roberson, J. (1980). Rapid method for mass-marking boll weevils. J. econ. Ent., 73, 385–6.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lindquist, A. W., Ikeshoji, T., Grab, B., De Meillon, B. & Khan, Z. H (1967). Dispersion studies of Culex pipiens fatigans tagged with 32P in the Kemmendine area of Rangoon, Burma. Bull. Wld Hlth Org., 36, 21–37.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lines, J. D., Lyimo, E. O. & Curtis, C. F. (1986). Mixing of indoor-and outdoor-resting adults of Anopheles gambiae Giles s.l. and A. funestus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) in coastal Tanzania. Bull. ent. Res., 76, 171–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Linthicum, K. J., Bailey, C. L., Davies, F. G. & Kairo, A. (1985). Observations on the dispersal and survival of a population of Aedes lineatopennis (Ludlow) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Kenya. Bull. ent. Res., 75, 661–70.

    Google Scholar 

  • Loong, K. P., Chiang, G. L., Eng, K. L., Chan, S. T. & Yap, H. H. (1990). Survival and feeding behaviour of Malaysian strains of Anopheles maculatus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) and their role in malaria transmission. Trop. Biomed., 7, 71–6.

    Google Scholar 

  • Low, N. (1925). Anti-malarial work in Ismailia. Jl R. Army med. Cps, 45, 52–4.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lowe, R. E., Bailey, D. L., Dame, D. A., Savage, K. E. & Kaiser, P. E. (1980). Efficiency of techniques for the mass release of sterile male Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann in El Salvador. Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg., 29, 695–703.

    Google Scholar 

  • MacCreary, D. & Stearns, L. A. (1937). Mosquito migration across Delaware Bay. Proc. New Jers. Mosq. Exterm. Ass., 24, 188–97.

    Google Scholar 

  • Macdonald, W. W., Sebastian, A. & Tun, M. M. (1968). A mark-release-recapture experiment with Culex pipiens fatigans in the village of Okpo, Burma. Ann. trop. Med. Parasit., 62, 200–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • MacLeod, J. (1958). The estimation of numbers of mobile insects from low-incidence recapture data. Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond., 110, 363–92.

    Google Scholar 

  • MacLeod, J. & Donnelly, J. (1957). Individual and group marking methods for fly-popu-lation studies. Bull. ent. Res., 48, 585–92.

    Google Scholar 

  • Majid, S. A. (1937). An improved technique for marking and catching mosquitoes. Rec. Malar. Surv. India, 7, 105–7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Manly, B. F. J. (1969). On a method of population estimation using capture-recapture data. Entomologist, 102, 117–20.

    Google Scholar 

  • Manly, B. F. J. (19696). Some properties of a method of estimating the size of mobile animal populations. Biometrika, 56, 407–10.

    Google Scholar 

  • Manly, B. F. J. (1970). A simulation study of animal population estimation using the capture-recapture method. J. appl. Ecol., 7, 13–39.

    Google Scholar 

  • Manly, B. F. J. (1971). A simulation study of Jolly’s method for analysing capture-recapture data. Biometrics, 27, 415–24.

    Google Scholar 

  • Manly, B. F. J. (1985). A test of Jackson’s method for separating death and emigration with mark-recapture data. Res. Popul. Ecol., 27, 99–109.

    Google Scholar 

  • Manly, B. F. J. & Parr, M. J. (1968). A new method of estimating population size, survivorship, and birth rate from capture-recapture data. Trans. Soc. Br. Ent., 18, 81–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Marten, G. G. (1969). A regression method for mark-recapture estimation of population size with unequal catchability. Ecology, 51, 291–5.

    Google Scholar 

  • McCarty, J. C., Jenkins, J. N., Parrott, W. L. & Davich, T. B. (1972). Effect of dyes on body fat and eye color of Ebony Pearl boll weevils. J. econ. Ent., 65, 370–2.

    Google Scholar 

  • McClelland, G. A. H. & Conway, G. R. (1971). Frequency of blood feeding in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Nature, Lond., 232, 485–6.

    Google Scholar 

  • McClelland, G. A. H., McKenna, R. J. & Cahill, T. A. (1973a). ‘New Approaches for Mark-Release-Recapture Studies on Biting Insects.’ Proc. Symposium on Biting Fly Control and Environmental Quality. Alberta, Canada (1972), DR 217, pp. 49–52.

    Google Scholar 

  • McClelland, G. A. H., McKenna, R. J., Jolly, D. J. & Cahill, T. A. (1973b). Results of preliminary mark-release-recapture trials with Aedes nigromaculis. Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Ass., 41, 107–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • McDonald, P. T. (1977a). Population characteristics of domestic Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in villages on the Kenya coast. I. Adult survivorship and population size. J. med. Entomol., 14, 42–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • McDonald, P. T. (1977b). Population characteristics of domestic Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in villages on the Kenya coast. II. Dispersal within and between villages. J. med. Entomol., 14, 49–53.

    Google Scholar 

  • McLean, J. A. & Bennett, R. B. (1978). Characterization of two Gnathotrichus sulcatus populations by X-ray energy spectrometry. Env. Ent., 7, 93–6.

    Google Scholar 

  • McLean, J. A., Stump, I. G., d’Auria, J. M. & Holman, J. (1979). Monitoring trace elements in diets and life stages of the onion maggot, Hylemya antiqua (Diptera: An thorny iidae), with X-ray energy spectrometry. Can. Ent., 111, 1293–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meek, C. L., Broussard, B. B. & Andis, M. D. (1987). Marking adult mosquitoes using aerially applied fluorescent pigment. J. Am. Mosq. Contr. Ass., 3, 400–2.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meek, C. L., Fryer, J. C. & Niebylski, M. L. (1988). Marking adult mosquitoes using fluorescent pigments in dispersal studies. Bull. Soc. vect. Ecol., 13, 319–22.

    Google Scholar 

  • Milby, M. M. (1979). The mark-release-recapture study as a research technique. Proc. Calif Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Ass., 47, 83–5.

    Google Scholar 

  • Milby, M. M., Reisen, W. K. & Reeves, W. C. (1983). Intercanyon movement of marked Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae). J. med. Entomol., 20, 193–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Miller, S. D., Becker, E. F. & Ballard, W. H. (1987). Black and brown bear density estimates using modified capture-recapture techniques. Int. Conf Bear Res. Mgmt, 7, 23–5.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mitchell, C. J. (1979). Winter survival of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) hibernating in mine tunnels in boulder county, Colorado, USA. J. med. Entomol., 16, 482–7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Moflitt, H. R. & Albano, D. J. (1972). Vacuum application of fluorescent powders as markers for adult Codling moths. J. econ. Ent., 65, 882–4.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mori, A. (1979). Effects of larval density and nutrition on some attributes of immature and adult Aedes albopictus. Trop. Med., 21, 85–103.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mori, A. & Wada, Y. (1977). The gonotrophic cycle of Aedes albopictus in the field. Trop. Med., 19, 141–6.

    Google Scholar 

  • Morlan, H. B. & Hayes, R. O. (1958). Urban dispersal and activity of Aedes aegypti. Mosquito News, 18, 137–44.

    Google Scholar 

  • Morton, A. C. (1982). The effects of marking and capture on recapture frequencies of butterflies. Oecologia (Berl.), 53, 105–10.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mosby, H. S. (1969). The influence of hunting on the population dynamics of a woodlot grey squirrel population J. Wldl. Mgmt, 33, 59–73.

    Google Scholar 

  • Moss, J. I. & van Steenwyk, R. A. (1982). Marking pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) with cesium. Env. Ent., 11, 1264–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nayar, J. K. (1982). Wyeomyia mitchellii: Observations on dispersal, survival, nutrition, insemination and ovarian development in a Florida population. Mosquito News, 42, 416–27.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nayar, J. K. (1985). Bionomics and physiology of Aedes taeniorhynchus and Aedes sollicitans, the salt marsh mosquitoes of Florida. Agr. exp. Stn, Inst. Food Agr. Sci., University Florida, Bulletin no. 852, Gainesville. 148 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nayar, J. K. & Sauerman, D. M. (1969). Flight behavior and phase polymorphism in the mosquito Aedes taeniorhynchus. Entomologia exp. appl., 12, 365–75.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nayar, J. K. & Sauerman, D. M. (1970). A comparative study of growth and development in Florida mosquitoes. Part 3. Effects of temporary crowding on larval aggregation formation, pupal ecdysis and adult characteristics at emergence. J. med. Entomol., 7, 521–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nayar, J. K. & Sauerman, D. M. (1973). A comparative study of growth and development in Florida mosquitoes. Part 4. Effects of temporary crowding during larval stages on female flight activity patterns. J. med. Entomol., 10, 37–42.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nayar, J. K., Provost, M. W., Sauerman, D. M. & Crossman, R. A. (1979). Quantitative bionomics of Culex nigripalpus (Diptera: Culicidae) populations in Florida. 1. Phos-phorus-32 marking techniques. J. med. Entomol., 15, 239–45.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nayar, J. K., Provost, M. W. & Hansen, C. W. (1980). Quantitative bionomics of Culex nigripalpus (Diptera: Culicidae) populations in Florida. 2. Distribution, dispersal and survival patterns. J. med. Entomol., 17, 40–50.

    Google Scholar 

  • Neame, K. D. & Homewood, C. A. (1974). Introduction to Liquid Scintillation Counting. Butterworths, London, vii + 180 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nelson, R. L. & Milby, M. M. (1978). Distribution of Culex tarsalis in an isolated field area in California. Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Ass., 46, 50–3.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nelson, R. L. & Milby, M. M. (1980a). Dispersal and survival of field and laboratory strains of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae). J. med. Entomol., 17, 146–50.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nelson, R. L. & Milby, M. M. (19806). Effects of fluorescent marker dusts on Culex tarsalis, a factor in mark-release-recapture studies. Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vect. Contr. Ass., 48, 66–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nelson, R. L., Milby, M. M., Reeves, W. C. & Fine, P. E. M. (1978). Estimates of survival, population size, and emergence of Culex tarsalis at an isolated site. Ann. ent. Soc. Am., 71, 801–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Newhouse, B. A. (1953). A progress report of the Aedes flight range studies in Kern county. Proc. Calif Mosq. Contr. Ass., 22, 80–1.

    Google Scholar 

  • Niebylski, M. L. & Meek, C. L. (1989). A self-marker device for emergent adult mosquitoes. J. Am. Mosq. Contr. Ass., 5, 86–90.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nielsen, E. T. (1958). The initial stage of migration in salt-marsh mosquitoes. Bull. ent. Res., 49, 305–15

    Google Scholar 

  • Nielsen, E. T. (1961). On the habits of the migratory butterfly Ascia monuste. L. biol. Medd. kgl. Dan. Vidensk, Selsk., 23, 1–81.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nielsen, E. T. & Haeger, J. S. (1960). Swarming and mating in mosquitoes. Misc. Pubis ent. Soc. Am., 1, 71–95.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nielsen, E. T. & Nielsen, A. T. (1953). Field observations on the habits of Aedes taeniorhynchus. Ecology, 34, 141–56.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nutsathapana, S., Sawasdiwongphorn, P., Chitprarop, U., Cullen, J. R., Gass, R. F. & Green, C. A. (1986). A mark-release-recapture demonstration of host preference heterogeneity in Anopheles minimus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Thai village. Bull. ent. Res., 76, 313–20.

    Google Scholar 

  • Otis, D. L., Burnham, K. P., White, G. C. & Anderson, D. R. (1978). Statistical inferences from capture data on closed animal populations. Wldl. Monogr., 62, 1–135.

    Google Scholar 

  • Padgham, D. E., Cook, A. G. & Hutchinson, D. (1984). Rubidium marking of the rice pest Nilaparva lugens (Stål) and Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Dephacidae) for field dispersal studies. Bull. ent. Res., 74, 379–85.

    Google Scholar 

  • Paing, M. & Naing, T. T. (1988). Marking mosquito larvae for mark-release-recapture studies on adults. J. Commun. Dis., 20, 276–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pal, R. (1947). Marking mosquitoes with fluorescent compounds and watching them by ultra-violet light. Nature, Lond., 160, 298–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Paris, O. H. (1965). The vagility of P32-labelled isopods in grassland. Ecology, 46, 635–48.

    Google Scholar 

  • Parr, M. J. (1965). A population study of a colony of imaginal Ischnura elegans (Van der Linden) (Odonata: Coenagriidae) at Dale, Pembrokeshire. Fid Stud., 2, 237–82.

    Google Scholar 

  • Parr, M. J., Gaskell, T. J. & George, B. J. (1968). Capture-recapture methods of estimating animal numbers. J. biol. Educ., 2, 95–117.

    Google Scholar 

  • Patterson, R. S., Weidhaas, D. E., Ford, H. R. & Lofgren, C. S. (1970). Suppression and elimination of an island population of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus with sterile males. Science, N.Y., 168, 1368–70.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pearson, A. C., Ballmer, G. R., Sevacherian, V. & Vail, P. V. (1989). Interpretation of rubidium marking levels in beet armyworm eggs (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Env. Ent., 18, 844–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pedgley, D. (1982). Windborne Pests and Diseases. Meteorology of Airborne Organisms. Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chichester, 250 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Peer, D. F. (1957). Further studies on the mating range of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Can. Ent., 89, 108–10.

    Google Scholar 

  • Peffly, R. L. & LaBrecque, G. C. (1956). Marking and trapping studies on dispersal and abundance of Egyptian house flies. J. econ. Ent., 49, 214–17.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pielou, E. C. (1977). Mathematical Ecology. John Wiley, New York, x + 385 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Porter, S. D. & Jorgensen, C. D. (1980). Recapture studies of the harvester ant Pogonomytmex owyheei Cole, using a fluorescent marking technique. Ecol. Ent., 5, 263–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Provost, M. W. (1952). The dispersal of Aedes taeniorhynchus. I. Preliminary studies. Mosquito News, 12, 174–90.

    Google Scholar 

  • Provost, M. W. (1953). Motives behind mosquito flights. Mosquito News, 13, 106–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Provost, M. W. (1957). The dispersal of Aedes taeniorhynchus. II. The second experiment. Mosquito News, 17, 233–7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Provost, M. W. (1960). The dispersal of Aedes taeniorhynchus. III. Study methods for migratory exodus. Mosquito News, 20, 148–61.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pumpuni, C. B. & Walker, E. D. (1989). Population size and survivorship of adult Aedes triseriatus in a scrap tireyard in northern Indiana. J. Am. Mosq. Contr. Ass., 5, 166–72.

    Google Scholar 

  • Quan, S. F., Hartwell, W. V., Scott, K. G. & Peng, C. T. (1957). Cerium 144 as a tag for arthropods of medical importance. Trans. R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg., 51, 87–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Quarter-man, K. D., Mathis, W. & Kilpatrick, T. W. (1954). Urban fly dispersal in the area of Savannah, Georgia. J. econ Ent., 47, 405–12.

    Google Scholar 

  • Quarterman, K. D., Jensen, J. A., Mathis, W. & Smith, W. W. (1955). Flight dispersal of rice field mosquitoes in Arkansas. J. econ. Ent., 48, 30–2.

    Google Scholar 

  • Quraishi, M. S. (1968). Uptake of P32 by yellow-fever mosquito larvae of equal age, and those pupating synchronously: Its loss and transfer during development, mating and oviposition. J. econ. Ent., 61, 530–3.

    Google Scholar 

  • Quraishi, M. S., Faghih, M. A. & Esghi, W. (1966). Flight range, lengths of gonotrophic cycles and longevity of P32-labeled Anopheles stephensi mysorensis. J. econ. Ent., 59, 50–5.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rajagopalan, P. K., Menon, P. K. B., Mani, T. R. & Brooks, G. D. (1975). Measurement of density of immatures of Culex pipiens fatigans in effluent drains. J. Commun. Dis., 7, 327–37.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rajagopalan, P. K., Yasuno, M. & LaBrecque, G. C. (1973). Dispersal and survival in the field of chemosterilized, irradiated, and cytoplasmically incompatible male Culex pipiens fatigans. Bull. Wld Hith Org., 48, 631–5.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rawlings, P., Curtis, C. F., Wickramasinghe, M. B. & Lines, J. (1981). The influence of age and season on dispersal and recapture of Anopheles culicifacies in Sri Lanka. Ecol. Ent., 6, 307–19.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reeves, W. C., Brookman, B. & Hammon, W. M. (1948). Studies on the flight range of certain Culex mosquitoes, using a fluorescent-dye marker, with notes on Culiseta and Anopheles. Mosquito News, 8, 61–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reisen, W. K. & Aslamkhan, M. (1979). A release-recapture experiment with the malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston, with observations on dispersal, survivorship, population size, gonotrophic rhythm and mating behaviour. Ann. trop. Med. Parasit., 73, 251–69.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reisen, W. K. & Mahmood, F. (1981). Relative abundance, removal sampling, and markrecapture estimates of population size of Anopheles culicifacies and An. stephensi at diurnal resting sites in rural Punjab province, Pakistan. Mosquito News, 41, 22–30.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reisen, W. K. & Reeves, W. C. (1990). ‘Bionomics and ecology of Culex tarsalis and other potential mosquito vector species’, pp. 254–329. In Epidemiology and Control of Mosquito-borne Arboviruses in California, 1943–1987 (edit. W. C. Reeves). Calif. Mosq. Vector Contr. Ass., Sacramento, 508 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reisen, W. K., Baker, R. H., Sakai, R. K., Aziz-Javed, A., Aslam, Y. & Siddiqui, T. F. (1977). Observations on the mating behavior and survivorship of Culex tritaenio-rhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) during late autumn. Southeast Asian J. trop. Med. publ. Hlth, 8, 537–45.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reisen, W. K., Aslam, Y., Siddiqui, T. F. & Khan, A. Q. (1978). A mark-release-recapture experiment with Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles. Trans. R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg., 72, 167–77.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reisen, W. K., Mahmood, F. & Parveen, T. (1979). Anopheles subpictus Grassi: observations on survivorship and population size using mark-release-recapture and dissection methods. Res. Popul. Ecol., 21, 12–29.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reisen, W. K., Mahmood, F. & Parveen, T. (1980). Anopheles culicifacies Giles: a mark-release-recapture experiment with cohorts of known age with implications for malaria epidemiology and genetical control in Pakistan. Trans. R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg., 74, 307–17.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reisen, W. K., Mahmood, F. & Azra, K. (1981). Anopheles culicifacies Giles: adult ecological parameters measured in rural Punjab province, Pakistan using capture-release-recapture and dissection methods, with comparative observations on An. stephensi Liston and An. subpictus Grassi. Res. Popul. Ecol., 23, 39–60.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reisen, W. K., Mahmood, F. & Parveen, T. (1982a). Seasonal trends in population size and survivorshp of Anopheles culicifacies, An. stephensi and An. subpictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in rural Punjab province, Pakistan. J. med. Entomol., 19, 86–97.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reisen, W. K., Milby, M. M., Asman, S. M., Bock, M. E., Meyer, R. P., McDonald, P. T. & Reeves, W. C. (1982b). Attempted suppression of a semi-isolated Culex tarsalis population by the release of irradiated males: a second experiment using males from a recently colonized strain. Mosquito News, 41, 736–44.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reisen, W. K., Sakai, R. K., Baker, R. H., Azra, K. & Niaz, S. (1982c). Anopheles culicifacies: observations on population ecology and reproductive behavior. Mosquito News, 42, 93–101.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reisen, W. K., Milby, M. M., Meyer, R. P. & Reeves, W. C. (1983). Population ecology of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) in a foothill environment in Kern county, California: Temporal changes in male relative abundance and swarming behavior. Ann. ent. Soc. Am., 76, 809–15.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reisen, W. K., Milby, M. M., Meyer, R. P., Pfuntner, A. R., Spoehel, J., Hazelrigg, J. E. & Webb, J. P. (1991). Mark-release-recapture studies with Culex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in southern California. J. med. Entomol., 28, 357–71.

    Google Scholar 

  • Renshaw, M. (1991). ‘Population dynamics and ecology of Aedes cantans (Diptera: Culicidae) in England’. Ph.D. thesis, University of Liverpool, 186 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reuben, R., Yasuno, M. & Panicker, K. N. (1972). ‘Studies on the Dispersal of Aedes aegypti at Two Localities in Delhi.‘ WHO/VBC 72.388. 9 pp (mimeographed).

    Google Scholar 

  • Reuben, R., Yasuno, M., Panicker, K. N. & LaBrecque, G. C. (1973). The estimation of adult populations of Aedes aegypti at two localities in Delhi, India. J. Comm.Dis., 5, 154–62.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reuben, R., Rahman, S. J., Panicker, K. N., Das, P. K. & Brooks, G. D. (1975a). The development of a strategy for large-scale releases of sterile males of Aedes aegypti (L.). J. Commun. Dis., 7, 313–26.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reuben, R., Panicker, K. N., Brooks, G. D. & Ansari, M. A. (19756). Studies on dispersal and loss rate of male Aedes aegypti (L.) in different seasons at Sonepat, India. J. Commun. Dis., 7, 301–12.

    Google Scholar 

  • Richards, O. W. & Waloff, N. (1954). Studies on the biology and population dynamics of British grasshoppers. Anti-Locust Bull., 17, 182 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Riordan, D. F. (1965). Emergence and fertility of Aedes aegypti (L.) reared in various concentrations of P32. Can. J. Zool, 43, 497–501.

    Google Scholar 

  • Robinson, J. & Luff, M. L. (1979). Population estimates and dispersal of Hydrotaea irritans Fallen. Ecol. Ent., 4, 289–96.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roff, D. A. (1973). On the accuracy of some mark-recapture estimators, Oecologia (Berl.), 12, 15–34.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rooum, D. (1988). Identifying individual insects by means of spot codes. Antenna, 12, 155–7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rudd, W. G. & Gandour, R. W. (1985). Diffusion model for insect dispersal. J. econ. Ent., 78, 295–301.

    Google Scholar 

  • Russell, P. F. & Santiago, D. (1934). Flight range of Anopheles in the Philippines. Second experiment with stained mosquitoes. Am. J. trop. Med., 14, 407–24.

    Google Scholar 

  • Russell, P. F., Knipe, F. W., Rao, T. R. & Putnam, P. (1944). Some experiments on flight range of Anopheles culicifacies. J. exp. Zool., 97, 135–63.

    Google Scholar 

  • Russell, R. C. (1987). Survival of insects in the wheel bays of Boeing 747B aircraft on flights between tropical and temperate airports. Bull Wld Hlth Org., 65, 659–62.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schaefer, G. W. (1976). ‘Radar observations of insect flight’, pp. 157–96. In Insect Flight (edit. R. C. Rainey). Symp. R. ent. Soc. Lond., 7, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, xi + 287 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schaefer, G. W. & Bent, G. A. (1984). An infra-red remote sensing system for the active detection and automatic determination of insect flight trajectories (IRADIT). Bull ent. Res., 74, 261–78.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schlein, Y. (1987). Marking Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) by feeding on sprayed, coloured sugar bait: a possible means for behavioural and control studies. Trans. R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg., 81, 599.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schnabel, Z. E. (1938). The estimation of the total fish population of a lake. Am. math. Mon., 45, 348–50.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schoof, H. F. & Siverly, R. E. (1954). Multiple release studies on the dispersion of Musca domestica at Phoenix, Arizona. J. econ. Ent., 47, 830–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schoof, H. F., Siverly, R. E. & Jensen, J. A. (1952). House fly dispersion studies in metropolitan areas. J. econ. Ent., 45, 675–83.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schreiber, E. T., Mulla, M. S., Chaney, J. D. & Dhillon, M. S. (1988). Dispersal of Culex quinquefasciatus from a dairy in southern California. J. Am. Mosq. Contr. Ass., 4, 300–4.

    Google Scholar 

  • Scott, A. G. (1972). ‘Radiation Dose to Mosquito Larvae Reared in Radioactive Media.’ Whitesell Nuclear Research Establishment, Pinawa, Manitoba, Canada, AECL-3789, 18 pp. (mimeographed).

    Google Scholar 

  • Seber, G. A. F. (1965). A note on the multiple-recapture census. Biometrika, 49, 249.

    Google Scholar 

  • Seber, G. A. F. (1973). The Estimation of Animal Abundance and Related Parameters. Griffin, London, xii + 506 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Seber, G. A. F. (1982). The Estimation of Animal Abundance and Related Parameters (2nd edit.). Macmillan, New York, xvii + 654 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Seber, G. A. F. (1986). A review of estimating animal abundance. Biometrics, 42, 267–92.

    Google Scholar 

  • Self, L. S., Tun, M. M., Mathis, H. L., Abdulcader, M. H. M. & Sebastian, A. (1971). Studies on infiltration of marked Culex pipiens fatigans into sprayed areas of Rangoon, Burma. Bull Wld Hlth Org., 45, 379–83.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sempala, S. D. K. (1981). The ecology of Aedes (Stegomyia) africanus Theobald in a tropical forest in Uganda: Mark-release-recapture studies on a female adult population. Insect Sci. Appl., 1, 211–24.

    Google Scholar 

  • Service, M. W. (1971). Studies on sampling larval populations of the Anopheles gambiae complex. Bull Wld Hlth Org., 45, 169–80.

    Google Scholar 

  • Service, M. W. (1980). Effects of wind on the behaviour and distribution of mosquitoes and blackflies. Int. J. Biometeorol., 24, 347–53.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shapiro, J. M., Saliternik, Z. & Belferman, S. (1944). Malaria survey of the Dead Sea area during 1942, including the description of a mosquito flight test and its results. Trans. R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg., 38, 95–116.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sharma, V. P. (1977). Insemination rate in Culex pipiens fatigans Wied. moving from wells to the village. J. Commun. Dis., 9, 128–31.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shemanchuk, J. A., Fredeen, F. J. H. & Kristjanson, A. M. (1955). Studies on flight range and dispersal habits of Aedes flavescens (Müller) (Diptera: Culicidae) tagged with radio-phosphorus. Can. Ent., 87, 376–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shepard, M. & Waddill, V. H. (1976). Rubidium as a marker for Mexican bean beetles, Epilachna varivestis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Can. Ent., 108, 337–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sheppard, P. M., Macdonald, W. W., Tonn, R. J. & Grab, B. (1969). The dynamics of an adult population of Aedes aegpyti in relation to dengue haemorrhagic fever in Bangkok. J. Anim. Ecol., 38, 661–702.

    Google Scholar 

  • Singh, K. R. P. & Brooks, G. D. (1975). Semi-automatic release system for distribution of mosquitoes during genetic control operations. J. Commun. Dis., 7, 288–93.

    Google Scholar 

  • Singh, K. R. P., Razdan, R. K., Vaidyanathan, V. & Malhotra, P. R. (1975a). Caging, marking and transportation of Culex pipiens fatigans Wied, for large scale genetic control operations. J. Commun. Dis., 7, 269–79.

    Google Scholar 

  • Singh, K. R. P., Brooks, G. D., Ansari, M. A., Razdan, R. K. & Khan, Q. U. (19756). Development of equipment for packaging, marking and transportation of Aedes aegypti for large scale genetic control operations. J. Commun. Dis., 7, 294–300.

    Google Scholar 

  • Singh, N. & Yasuno, M. (1972). A device for self-marking of mosquitoes. Bull. Wld Hlth Org., 47, 677–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sinsko, M. J. & Craig, G. B. (1979). Dynamics of an isolated population of Aedes triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae). I. Population size. J. med. Entomol., 15, 89–98.

    Google Scholar 

  • Skalski, J. R. & Robson, D. S. (1979). ‘Tests of homogeneity and goodness-of-flt to a truncated geometric model for removal sampling’, pp. 283–313. In Sampling Biological Populations (edit. R. M. Cormack, G. P. Patil & D. S. Robson). Co-operative Publishing House, Fairland, Maryland, USA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Skalski, J. R. & Robson, D. S. (1982). A mark and removal method field procedure for estimating population abundance. J. Wildl. Mgmt, 46, 741–51.

    Google Scholar 

  • Skalski, J. R., Robson, D. S. & Simmons, M. A. (1983). Comparative census procedures using single mark-recapture methods. Ecology, 64, 752–60.

    Google Scholar 

  • Skalski, J. R., Simmons, M. A. & Robson, D. S. (1984). The use of removal sampling in comparative censuses. Ecology, 65, 1006–15.

    Google Scholar 

  • Slooff, R. & Herath, P. R. J. (1980). Ovarian development and biting frequency in Anopheles culicifacies Giles in Sri Lanka. Trop. geogr. Med., 32, 306–11.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, A. & Carter, I. D. (1984). ‘International transportation of mosquitoes of public health importance’, pp 1–17. In Commerce and the Spread of Pests and Disease Vectors (edit. M. Laird). Praegar Scientific, New York, xiv + 354 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, G. E., Watson, R. B. & Crowell, R. L. (1941). Observations on the flight range of Anopheles quadrimaculatus, Say. Am. J. Hyg., 34, 102–13.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, G. F., Geib, A. F. & Isaak, L. W. (1956). Investigations of a recurrent flight pattern of flood water Aedes mosquitoes in Kern county, California. Mosquito News, 16, 251–6.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smittle, B. J. & Focks, D. A. (1986). Laboratory and field studies with 32P labeled Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus. J. Am. Mosq. Contr. Ass., 2, 474–7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smittle, B. J. & LaBrecque, G. C. (1969). Comparison of photographic films for insect autoradiography. J. econ. Ent., 62, 1242–4.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smittle, B. J. & Patterson, R. S. (1970). Transfer of radioactivity to eggs and larvae by female Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say. Mosquito News, 30, 93–4.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smittle, B. J. & Seawright, J. A. (1983). Transfer of radioactivity to individual eggs by female Aedes aegypti treated as larvae with 32P. Mosquito News, 43, 329–31.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smittle, B. J., Patterson, R. S. & Lofgren, C. S. (1969). P32-labeling of common malaria mosquitoes: assimilation by larvae and retention and transfer during mating. J. econ. Ent., 62, 851–3.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smittle, B. J., Lowe, R. E., Ford, H. R. & Weidhaas, D. E. (1973). Techniques for 32P labeling and assay of egg rafts from field-collected Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say. Mosquito News, 33, 215–20.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smittle, B. J., Lowe, R. E., Patterson, R. S. & Cameron, A. L. (1975). Winter survival and oviposition patterns of 14C-labeled Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say in northern Florida. Mosquito News, 35, 54–6.

    Google Scholar 

  • Southwood, T. R. E. (1978). Ecological Methods with Particular Reference to the Study of Insect Populations. Chapman & Hall, London, xxiv + 524 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sparks, A. N., Jackson, R. D., Carpenter, J. E. & Muller, R. A. (1986). Insects captured in light traps in the Gulf of Mexico. Ann. ent. Soc. Am., 79, 132–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Staniland, L. N. (1959). Fluorescent tracer techniques for the study of spray and dust deposits. J. agric. Engng Res., 4, 110–25.

    Google Scholar 

  • Subra, R. (1972). Études ecologiques sur Culex pipiens fatigans Wiedemann, 1828 (Diptera: Culicidae) dans une zone urbaine de savane soudanienne ouest-africaine, Longévité et déplacements d’adultes marqués avec des poudres flourescentes. Cah. ORSTOM, sér. Entomol. méd. Parasit., 10, 3–36.

    Google Scholar 

  • Suzuki, T. (1978). Preliminary studies on blood meal interval of Aedes polynesiensis in the field. Jap. J. sanit. Zool., 29, 169–74.

    Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, L. R., French, R. A. & Macaulay, E. D. M. (1973). Low-altitude migration and diurnal flight periodicity; the importance of Plusia gamma L. (Lepidoptera: Plusiidae). J. Anim. Ecol., 42, 751–60.

    Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, R. A. J. (1978). The relationship between density and distance of dispersing insects. Ecol. Ent., 3, 63–70.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thurman, D. C. & Husbands, R. C. (1951). ‘Preliminary Report on Mosquito Flight Dispersal Studies with Radioisotopes in California, 1950.’ Comm. Dis. Center Bull. (U.S. Publ Hlth Serv.), No. 10, 9 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Traniello, J. F. A., Rosengaus, R. B. & Levy, C. K. (1985). Single and double isotope labeling of social insect colonies. Gamma-emitting radionuclides as individually identifiable markers. Entomologia exp. appl., 38, 87–92.

    Google Scholar 

  • Trpis, M. (1971). ‘Seasonal Variation in the Adult Populations of Aedes aegypti in the Dar es Salaam Area, Tanzania.’ WHO/VBC 71.291, 29 pp. (mimeographed.)

    Google Scholar 

  • Trpis, M. (1973). Adult population estimate of Toxorhynchites brevipalpis. Bull. Wld Hlth Org., 48, 756–7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Trpis, M. & Hatisermann, W. (1975). Demonstration of differential domesticity of Aedes aegypti (L.) in Africa by mark-release-recapture. Bull. ent. Res., 65, 199–208.

    Google Scholar 

  • Trpis, M. & Hatisermann, W. (1978). Genetics of house-entering behaviour in East African population of Aedes aegpyti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) and its relevance to speciation. Bull. ent. Res., 68, 521–32.

    Google Scholar 

  • Trpis, M. & Hatisermann, W. (1986). Dispersal and other population parameters of Aedes aegypti in an African village and their possible significance in epidemiology of vector-borne diseases. Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg., 35, 1263–79.

    Google Scholar 

  • Turncock, W. J., Gerber, G. H. & Bicks, M. (1979). The applicability of X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy to the identification of populations of red turnip beetle, Entomoscelis americana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Can. Ent., Ill, 113–25.

    Google Scholar 

  • Umbarger, C. J. & Malanify, J. J. (1972). Insect tagging—natural versus laboratory-grown screwworm flies. Int. J. appl. Radiat. Isotopes, 23, 381–2.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vail, P. V., Howland, A. F. & Henneberry, T. J. (1966). Fluorescent dyes for mating and recovery studies with cabbage looper moths. J. econ. Ent., 59, 1093–7.

    Google Scholar 

  • van Steenwyk, R. A., Ballmer, T. J., Page, A. L. & Reynolds, H. T. (1978). Marking pink bollworm with rubidium. Ann. ent. Soc. Am., 71, 81—4.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vargas, A. & Friere, F. (1940). Novos processos para avaliar a area de vôos dos anofeles. Anais paul. Med. Cirurg., 39, 3–7 (In Portuguese).

    Google Scholar 

  • Viswanathan, D. K., Ramachandra Rao, T. & Rama Rao, T. S. (1945). The behaviour of Anopheles fluviatilis. Part IV. Experiments on the behaviour of gravid females. J. Malar. Inst. India, 6, 243–5.

    Google Scholar 

  • von Frisch, K. (1923). Uber die “Sprache” der Bienen. Eine tierpsychologische Untersuchang. Zool. Jb., Abt. allg. Zool. Physiol., 40, 1–186.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wada, Y., Kawai, S., Oda, T., Miyagi, I., Suenaga, O., Nishigaki, J., Omori, N., Takahashi, K., Matsuo, R., Itoh, T. & Takatsuki. Y. (1969). Dispersal experiments of Culex tritaeniorhynchus in Nagasaki area (Preliminary Report). Trop. Med., 11, 37–44.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wada, Y., Suenaga, O. & Miyagi, I. (1975a). Dispersal experiment of Aedes togoi. Trop. Med., 16, 137–46.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wada, Y., Oda, T., Mogi, M., Mori, A., Omori, N. Fukumi, H., Hayashi, K., Mifune, K., Shichijo, A. & Matsuo, S. (19756). Ecology of Japanese encephalitis virus in Japan. II. The population of vector mosquitoes and the epidemic of Japanese encephalitis. Trop. Med., 17, 111–27.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wadley, F. M. & Wolfenbarger, D. O. (1944). Regression of insect density on distance from center of dispersion as shown by a study of the smaller European elm bark beetle. J. agric. Res., 69, 299–308.

    Google Scholar 

  • Walker, E. D., Copeland, R. S., Paulson, S. L. & Munstermann, L. E. (1987). Adult survivorship, population density, and body size in sympatric populations of Aedes triseriatus and Aedes hendersoni (Diptera: Culicidae). J. med. Entomol., 24, 485–93.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wallace, B. (1970). ‘Observations on the microdispersion of Drosophila melanogaster’, pp. 381–99. In Essays in Evolution and Genetics Presented in Honour of Theodorius Dobzhansky (edit. M. K. Hecht & W. C. Steere). North-Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam, xv + 594 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Walsh, J. F. (1977). ‘Problem of migration of vectors of onchocerciasis in control programmes. Proc. 3rd scient. Mtg. ICIPE, Lagos, 23–26 November 1976, 70–84.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wang, C. H. & Willis, D. L. (1965). Radiotracer Methodology in Biological Science. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, xvii + 382 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Weathersbee, A. A. & Hasell, P. G. (1938). On the recovery of stain in adults developing from anopheline larvae stained in vitro. Am. J. trop. Med., 18, 531–43.

    Google Scholar 

  • Weathersbee, A. A. & Meisch, M. V. (1990). Dispersal of Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Arkansas ricefields. Env. Ent., 19, 961–5.

    Google Scholar 

  • Weidhaas, D. E., Smittle, B. J., Patterson, R. S., Ford, H. R. & Lofgren, C. S. (1973). Survival, reproductive capacity, and migration of adult Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say. Mosquito News, 33, 83–7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wharton, R. H., Eyles, D. E. & Warren, McW. (1963). The development of methods for trapping the vectors of monkey malaria. Ann. trop. Med. Parasit., 57, 32–46.

    Google Scholar 

  • White, D. J. & Morris, C. D. (1985). Bionomics of anthropophilic Simuliidae (Diptera) from the Adirondack mountains of New York State, USA. 1. Adult dispersal and longevity. J. med. Entomol., 22, 190–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • White, E. G. (1970). A self-checking coding technique for mark-recapture studies. Bull, ent. Res., 60, 303–7.

    Google Scholar 

  • White, E. G. (1971a). A versatile FORTRAN computer program for the capture-recapture stochastic model of G. M. Jolly. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can., 28, 443–6.

    Google Scholar 

  • White, E. G. (19716). ‘A Computer Program for Capture-Recapture Studies of Animal Populations. A FORTRAN Listing for the Stochastic Model of G. M. Jolly.’ Tussock Grasslands and Mountain Lands Institute, Lincoln College, Christchurch, N.Z. Special Publication, No. 8, 33 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • White, G. C., Anderson, D. R., Burnham, K. P. & Otis, D. L. (1982). ‘Capture-recapture and removal methods for sampling closed populations’. LA-8781—NERP, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Williams, C. B. (1961). Studies on the effect of weather conditions on the activity and abundance of insect populations. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, 244, 331–78.

    Google Scholar 

  • Williams, D. F., Patterson, R. S. & LaBrecque, G. C. (1979). Marking large numbers of stable flies Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) for a sterile release program. Mosquito News, 39, 146–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Woldseth, R. (1973). ‘All You Ever Wanted to Know About X-ray Energy Spectrometry’. Kevex Corporation, Burlingame, California, various pages.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wolfinsohn, M. & Galun, R. (1953). A method for determining the flight range of Aedes aegypti (Linn). Bull. Res. Coun. Israel, 2, 433–6.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wright, R. E. (1918). The distance mosquitoes can fly. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc., 25, 511–12.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yasuno, M. (1979). An improved device for the self-marking of mosquitoes. Jap. J. sanit. Zool., 30, 292.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yasuno, M. & Rajagopalan, P. K. (1977). Population estimation of Culex fatigans in Delhi villages. J. Commun. Dis., 9, 172–83.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yasuno, M. & Tonn, R. J. (1970). A study of biting habits of Aedes aegypti in Bangkok, Thailand. Bull. Wld Hlth Org., 43, 319–25.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yasuno, M., Rajagopalan, P. K. & LaBrecque, G. C. (1972a). ‘Migration of Culex fatigans from Surrounding Fields to Villages in the Delhi Area.’ WHO/VBC 72.364 6 pp. (mimeographed).

    Google Scholar 

  • Yasuno, M., Rajagopalan, P. K., Rüssel, S. & LaBrecque, G. C. (19726). ‘Dispersal of Culex fatigans in Delhi Villages.’ WHO/VBC 72.352, 13 pp. (mimeographed).

    Google Scholar 

  • Yasuno, M., Rajagopalan, P. K., Rüssel, S. & LaBrecque, G. C. (1973a). Influence of seasonal changes in climate on dispersal of released Culex pipiens fatigans. A study in villages in Delhi Union Territory, India. Bull. Wld Hlth Org., 48, 317–21.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yasuno, M., Rüssel, S. & Rajagopalan, P. K. (19736). An application of the removal method to the population estimation of Culex fatigans resting indoors. WHO/VBC/ 73–458, 9 pp. (Unpublished mimeographed document).

    Google Scholar 

  • Yates, W. W, Gjullin, C. M., Lindquist, A. W. & Butts, J. S. (1951). Treatment of mosquito larvae and adults with radioactive phosphorous. J. econ. Ent., 44, 34–7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yoho, T. P., Butler, L. & Weaver, J. E. (1971). Photodynamic effect of light on dye-fed house flies: preliminary observations of mortality. J. econ. Ent., 64, 972–3.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zacharuk, R. Y. (1963). Vital dyes for marking living elaterid larvae. Can. J. Zool., 41, 991–6.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zetek, J. (1913). Determining the flight of mosquitoes. Ann. ent. Soc. Am., 6, 5–21.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zippin, C. (1956). An evaluation of the removal method of estimating animal populations. Biometrics, 12, 163–89.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zippin, C. (1958). The removal method of population estimation. J. Wldl. Mgmt, 22, 82–90.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zukel, J. W. (1945). Marking Anopheles mosquitoes with fluorescent compounds. Science, N.Y., 102, 157.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 1993 Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Service, M.W. (1993). Mark-Recapture Techniques and Adult Dispersal. In: Mosquito Ecology. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-1868-2_9

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-1868-2_9

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Dordrecht

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-85166-798-7

  • Online ISBN: 978-94-011-1868-2

  • eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive