Plant growth response to salt stress

  • E. V. Maas
Part of the Tasks for vegetation science book series (TAVS, volume 27)

Abstract

Plant response to salinity and various constituent ions in the soil solution and irrigation waters varies widely among plant species. Salt tolerance data may be used to select crops with the highest potential for agronomic production with highly saline waters. Soil, water, and climatic factors affect the plant’s capability to tolerate soluble salts in the root medium. Plant response to salt stress also changes during growth and development. Recent results show that cereal crops are especially sensitive to salt stress during the vegetative and early reproductive stages. Growth responses of several crops during sensitive stages of growth and the specific yield components that are affected by salt stress are being quantified.

Keywords

salinity salt tolerance environmental factors edaphic factors biological factors growth stage yield response function 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abul-Naas, A.A., Omran, M.S. 1974. Salt tolerance of seventeen cotton cultivars during germination and early seedling development. Acker und Pflanzenbau 140: 229–236.Google Scholar
  2. Aceves, N.E., Stolzy, L.H. & Mehuys, G.R. 1975. Combined effects of low oxygen and salinity on germination of a semi-dwarf Mexican wheat. Agron. J. 67: 530–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahi, S.M. & Powers, W.L. 1938. Salt tolerance of plants at various temperatures. Plant Physiol. 13: 767–789.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmad, I. & Wainwright, S.J. 1977. Tolerance to salt, partial anaerobiosis, and osmotic stress in Agrostis stolonifera. New Phytol. 79: 605–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Akbar, M. & Yabuno, T. I977. Breeding for saline-resistant varieties of rice. IV. Inheritance of delayed-type panicle sterility induced by salinity. Japan J. Breed. 27: 237–240.Google Scholar
  6. Aubertin, G.M., Rickman, R.W. & Letey, J. 1968. Differential salt-oxygen levels influence plant growth. Agron. J. 60: 345–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ayers, A.D., Brown, J.W. & Wadleigh, C.H. 1952. Salt tolerance of barley and wheat in soil plots receiving several salinization regimes. Agron. J. 44: 307–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ayoub, A.T. 1977. Some primary features of salt tolerance in senna (Cassia acutifolia). J. Exptl. Bot. 28: 484–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bastianpillai, V.A., Stark, C. & Unger, J. 1982. Growth, organogenesis, and yield formation in wheat under NaCl stress in greenhouse trials. Beitrage Trop. Landwirtsch. Veterinarmed. 20: 359–363.Google Scholar
  10. Bernstein, L. 1962. Salt-affected soils and plants. In: Problems of the Arid Zones, 18th, pp. 139–174. Proc. UNESCO Symp., Paris, France.Google Scholar
  11. Bernstein, L., François, L.E. 1973. Comparisons of drip, furrow and sprinkler irrigation. Soil Sci. 115: 73–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bernstein, L. & François, L.E. 1975. Effects of frequency of sprinkling with saline waters compared with daily drip irrigation. Agron. J. 67: 185–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bernstein, L., François, L.E. & Clark, R.A. 1974. Interactive effects of salinity and fertility on yields of grains and vegetables. Agron. J. 66: 412–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bernstein, L. & Hayward, H.E. 1958. Physiology of salt tolerance. Ann. Rev. Plant. Physiol. 9: 25–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Busch, C.D. & Turner, E. Jr. 1967. Sprinkler irrigation with high salt-content water. Trans. ASAE 10: 494–496.Google Scholar
  16. Dumbroff, E.B. & Cooper, A.W. 1974. Effects of salt stress applied in balanced nutrient solutions at several stages during growth of tomato. Bot. Gaz. 135: 219–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Flowers, T.J., Hajibagheri, M.A. & Clipson, N.J.W. 1986. Halophytes. Quart, Rev. Biol. 61: 313–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Flowers, T.J., Troke, R.F. & Yeo, A.R. 1977. The mechanism of salt tolerance in halophytes. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 28: 89–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. François, L.E. 1987. Salinity effects on asparagus yield and vegetative growth. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 112: 432–436.Google Scholar
  20. François, L.E., Donovan, T.J., Lorenz, K. & Maas, E.V. 1989. Salinity effects on rye grain yield, quality, vegetative growth, and emergence. Agron. J. 81: 707–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. François, L.E., Donovan, T.J. & Maas, E.V. 1984. Salinity effects on seed yield, growth, and germination of grain sorghum. Agron. J. 76: 741–744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. François, L.E., Donovan, T.J. & Maas, E.V. 1990. Salinity effects on emergence, vegetative growth, and seed yield of guar. Agron. J. 82: 587–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. François, L.E., Donovan, T.J., Maas, E.V. & Rubenthaler, G.L. 1988. Effect of salinity on grain yield and quality, vegetative growth, and germination of triticale. Agron. J. 80: 642–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. François, L.E., Maas, E.V., Donovan, T.J. & Youngs, V.L. 1986. Effect of salinity on grain yield and quality, vegetative growth, and germination of semi-dwarf and durum wheat. Agron. J. 78: 1053–1058.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gallagher, J.L. 1985. Halophytic crops for cultivation at seawater salinity. In: D. Pasternak & A. San Pietro (eds), Biosalinity in Action: Bioproduction with Saline Water, pp. 323–336. Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Goldberg, D. & Shumeli, M. 1971. Sprinkle and trickle irrigation of green pepper in an arid zone. Hort. Sci. 6: 559–562.Google Scholar
  27. Goodin, J.R., Epstein, E., McKell, CM. & O’Leary, J.W. 1990. Saline agriculture. Salt-tolerant plants for developing countries. Board Sci. Tech. Int. Develop., Office Int. Affairs, Nat. Res. Council. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  28. Gornat, B, Goldberg, D., Rimon, R. & Ben-Asher, J. 1973. The physiological effect of water quality and method of application on tomato, cucumber, and pepper. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 98: 202–205.Google Scholar
  29. Hassan, N.A.K., Drew, J.V., Knudsen, D. & Olson, R.A. 1970. Influence of soil salinity on production of dry matter and uptake and distribution of nutrients in barley and corn: I. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Agron. J. 62: 43–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Heeman, D.P., Lewin, L.G. & McCaffery, D.W. 1988. Salinity tolerance in rice varieties at different growth stages. Aust. J. Expt. Agric. 28: 343–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Helal, H.M. & Mengel, K. 1981. Interaction between light intensity and NaCl salinity and their effects on growth, CO2 assimilation, and photosynthate conversion in young broad beans. Plant Physiol. 67: 999–1002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hoffman, G.J. & Jobes, J.A. 1978. Growth and water relations of cereal crops as influenced by salinity and relative humidity. Agron. J. 70: 765–769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hoffman, G.J., Jobes, J.A. & Alves, W.J. 1983. Response of tall fescue to irrigation water salinity, leaching fraction and irrigation frequency. Agric. Water Manage. 7: 439–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hoffman, G.J. & Rawlins, S.L. 1970. Design and performance of sunlit climate chambers. Trans. ASAE 13: 656–660.Google Scholar
  35. Hoffman, G.J. & Rawlins, S.L. 1971. Growth and water potential of root crops as influenced by salinity and relative humidity. Agron. J. 63: 877–880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hoffman, G.J., Rawlins, S.L., Garber, M.J. & Cullen, E.M. 1971. Water relations and growth of cotton as influenced by salinity and relative humidity. Agron. J. 63: 822–826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hoffman, G.J., Maas, E.V., Prichard, T. & Meyer, J.L. 1983. Salttolerance of com in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California. Irrig. Sci. 4: 31–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jobes, J.A., Hoffman, G.J. & Wood, J.D. 1981. Leaching requirement for salinity control. II. Oat, tomato, and cauliflower. Agric. Water Manage. 4: 393–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. John, C.D., Limpinuntana, V. & Greenway, H. 1977. Interaction of salinity and anaerobiosis in barley and rice. J. Exptl. Bot. 28: 133–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kaddah, M.T. 1963. Salinity effects on growth of rice at the seedling and inflorescence stages of development. Soil Sci. 96: 105–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kaddah, M.T. & Ghowail, S.I. 1964. Salinity effects on the growth of corn at different stages of development. Agron. J. 56: 214–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kaddah, M.T., Lehman, W.F., Meek, B.D. & Robinson, F.E. 1975. Salinity effects on rice after the boot stage. Agron. J. 67: 436–439.Google Scholar
  43. Kaddah, M.T., Lehman, W.F. & Robinson, F.E. 1973. Tolerance of rice (Oryza sauva L.) to salt during boot, flowering and grain-filling stages. Agron. J. 67: 845–847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kottenmeier, W., Chang, H., Siegel, S.M., & Siegel, B.Z. 1983. Stimulation of growth in papaya and other plants by dilute salt solutions. Water Air Soil Pollut. 20: 447–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Staff. 1976. Hortus Third. A Concise Dictionary of Plants Cultivated in the United States and Canada. MacMillan Publishing Co., New York.Google Scholar
  46. Linthurst, R.A. & Seneca, E.D. 1981. Aeration, nitrogen and salinity as determinants of Spartina alterniflora Loisel. growth response. Estuaries 4: 53–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lunin, J., Gallatin, M.H. & Batcheler, A.R. 1961. Effect of stage of growth at time of salinization on growth and chemical composition of beans: I. Total salinization accomplished in one irrigation. Soil Sci. 91: 194–202.Google Scholar
  48. Lunin, J., Gallatin, M.H. & Batcheler, A.R. 1963. Saline irrigation of several vegetable crops at various growth stages. I. Effect on yields. Agron. J. 55: 107–114.Google Scholar
  49. Lunt, O.R., Oertli, J.J. & Kohl, H.C. Jr. 1960. Influence of environmental conditions on the salinity tolerance of several plant species. 7th Intern Cong. Soil Sci. VI. 20: 560–570.Google Scholar
  50. Maas, E.V. 1990. Crop salt tolerance. In: K.K. Tanji (ed), Agricultural Salinity Assessment and Management. ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No. 71, pp. 262–304. Amer. Soc. Civil Eng., New York.Google Scholar
  51. Maas, E.V., Clark, R.A. & François, L.E. 1982a. Sprinkling-induced foliar injury to pepper plants: Effects of irrigation frequency, duration and water composition. Irrig. Sci. 3: 101–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Maas, E.V., Grattan, S.R. & Ogata, G. 1982b. Foliar salt accumulation and injury in crops sprinkled with saline water. Irrig. Sci. 3: 157–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Maas, E.V. & Grieve, CM. 1990. Spike and leaf development in saltstressed wheat. Crop Sci. 30: 1309–1313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Maas, E.V. & Hoffman, G.J. 1977. Crop salt tolerance — current assessment. J. Irrig. and Drainage Div., ASCE 103(IR2): 115–134.Google Scholar
  55. Maas, E.V., Hoffman, G.J., Chaba, G.D., Poss, J.A. & Shannon, M.C. 1983. Salt sensitivity of corn at various growth stages. Irrig. Sci. 4: 45–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Maas, E.V. & Poss, J.A. 1989. Salt sensitivity of wheat at various growth stages. Irrig. Sci. 10: 29–40.Google Scholar
  57. Maas, E.V. & Poss, J.A. 1989. Sensitivity of cowpea to salt stress at three growth stages. Irrig. Sci. 10: 313–320.Google Scholar
  58. Maas, E.V., Poss, J.A. & Hoffman, G.J. 1986. Salinity sensitivity of Sorghum at three growth stages. Irrig. Sci. 7: 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Magistad, O.C., Ayers, A.D., Wadleigh, C.H. & Gauch, H.F. 1943. Effect of salt concentration, kind of salt, and climate on plant growth in sand cultures. Plant Physiol. 18: 151–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. McElgrunn, J.D. & Lawrence, T. 1973. Salinity tolerance of altai wild ryegrass and other forage grasses. Can. J. Plant Sci. 53: 303–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Meiri, A., Hoffman, G.J., Shannon, M.C. & Poss, J.A. 1982. Salt tolerance of two muskmelon cultivars under two radiation levels. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 107: 1168–1172.Google Scholar
  62. Narale, R.P., Subramanyam, T.K. & Muckherjee, R.K. 1969. Influence of salinity on germination, vegetative growth, and grain yield of rice (Oryza sativa var. Dular). Agron. J. 61: 341–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nieman, R.H. & Poulsen, L.L. 1967. Interactive effects of salinity and atmospheric humidity on the growth of bean and cotton plants. Bot. Gaz. 128: 69–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. O’Leary, J.W. 1984. The role of halophytes in irrigated agriculture. In: R.C. Staples & G.H. Toennissen (eds), Salinity Tolerance in Plants — Strategies for Crop Improvement, pp. 285–300. John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  65. Pasternak, D., De Malach, Y. & Borovic, I. 1986. Irrigation with brackish water under desert conditions VII. Effect of time of application of brackish water on production of processing tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Agric. Water Manage 12: 149–158.Google Scholar
  66. Pearson, G.A. (1959). Factors influencing salinity of submerged soils and growth of Caloro rice. Soil Sci. 87: 198–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pearson, G.A., Ayers, A.D. & Eberhard, D.L. (1966). Relative salt tolerance of rice during germination and early seedling development. Soil Sci. 102: 151–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pearson, G.A. & Bernstein, L. 1959. Salinity effects at several growth stages of rice. Agron. J. 51: 654–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ravikovitch, S. & Yoles, D. 1971. The influence of phosphorus and nitrogen on millet and clover growing in soils affected by salinity. I. Plant development. Plant and Soil 35: 555–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Saini, G.R. 1972. Seed germination and salt tolerance of crops in coastal alluvial soils of New Brunswick, Canada. Ecology 53: 524–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Salim, M. 1989. Effects of salinity and relative humidity on growth and ionic relations of plants. New Phytol. 113: 13–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Shalhevet, J, Reiniger, P. & Shimshi, D. 1969. Peanut response to uniform and non-uniform soil salinity. Agron. J. 61: 384–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Shalhevet, J. & Yaron, B. 1973. Effect of soil and water salinity on tomato growth. Plant and Soil 39: 285–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Shannon, M.C. 1982. Genetics of salt tolerance: New challenges. In: A. San Pietro (ed), Biosaline Research: A Look to the Future, pp. 271–282. Plenum Pub. Corp.Google Scholar
  75. Shannon, M.C. & Noble, C.L. 1990. Genetic approaches for developing economic salt-tolerant crops. In: K.K. Tanji (ed), Agricultural Salinity Assessment and Management. ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No. 71, pp. 161–185. Amer. Soc. Civil Eng., New York.Google Scholar
  76. Somers, G.F. 1982. Food and economic plants: General review. In: A. San Pietro (ed), Biosaline Research — A Look to the Future, pp. 127–148. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  77. Strogonov. B.P. 1964. Physiological Basis of Salt Tolerance of Plants (as affected by various types of salinity). Acad. Sci. USSR (translated from Russian by the Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem). 279pp.Google Scholar
  78. Udovenko, G.V. & Alekeseeva, L.I. 1973. Effect of salinization on initial stages of plant growth. Sov. Plant Physiol. 20: 228–235.Google Scholar
  79. United States Salinity Laboratory Staff. 1954. Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils. U.S. Dept. Agr. Handbook 60. 160pp.Google Scholar
  80. Van Genuchten, M.Th. 1983. Analyzing crop salt tolerance data: Model description and user’s manual. USDA-ARS-USSL Research Report No. 120. 50pp.Google Scholar
  81. Van Genuchten, M.Th. & Hoffman, G.J. 1984. Analysis of crop salt tolerance data. In: I. Shainberg & J. Shalhevet (eds), Soil Salinity under Irrigation — Process and Management Ecological Studies 51: 258–271. Springer-Verlag, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. West. D.W. & Taylor, J.A. 1980. The response of Phaseolus vulgaris L. to root-zone anaerobiosis, waterlogging and high sodium chloride. Ann. Bot. 46: 51–60.Google Scholar
  83. Yeo, A.R. & Flowers, T.J. 1980. Salt tolerance in the halophy te Suaeda maritima L. Dum.: Evaluation of the effect of salinity upon growth. J. Exp. Bot. 31: 1171–1183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. V. Maas
    • 1
  1. 1.Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Salinity LaboratoryUnited States Department of AgricultureRiversideUSA

Personalised recommendations