Soil aeration as an ecological factor governing mangrove zonation
The growth of both Rhizophora mangle L. and Rhizophora mucronata Lamk. in saline sand was highly promoted by flooded, reducing conditions in comparison to drained, aerobic conditions, showing the strong tolerance of Rhizophora seedlings to waterlogging and salinity. Under well-drained conditions, both shoot and root systems of the plants showed strongly retarded and reduced growth and a profound inverse proportionality was also found between root growth and pot volume; roots of both species were distorted and showed lack of capillary rootlets. The morphology of the root systems was greatly affected by the culture conditions providing evidence for the ecological adaptability of the Rhizophora root system to a wide variety of environmental conditions. The results obtained are in good agreement with their position in the lower, flooded zone of natural mangrove communities.
Keywordsaerobic/anaerobic soil conditions mangroves Rhizophora seedling growth soil aeration
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Baltzer, F. 1969. Les formations végétales associées au delta de la Dumbea. Cah. Orstrom, Ser. Geol. 1(1): 59–84.Google Scholar
- Boto, K.G. 1984. Waterlogged saline soils. In: S.C. Snedaker & J.G. Snedaker (eds), The Mangrove Ecosystem, Research Methods, pp. 114–130. UNESCO Publication.Google Scholar
- Brouwer, R. 1967. Beziehungen zwischen Spross-und Wurzelwachstum. Angewandte Botanik 41: 244–254.Google Scholar
- Chapman, V.J. 1976. Mangrove vegetation. J. Cramer. In der A.R. Gantner Verlag Kommanditgesellschaft, FL-9490 Vaduz.Google Scholar
- Davis, J.H. Jr. 1940. The ecology and geologic role of mangroves in Florida. Carnegie Institute, Washington Publication 517: 303–412.Google Scholar
- De Haan, J.H. 1931. Het een en ander over de Tjilatjapsche Vloed-bosschen. Tectona 24: 39–75.Google Scholar
- Jackson, M.B. 1982. Ethylene as a growth promoting hormone under flooded conditions. In: P.F. Wareing (ed), Plant Growth Substances, pp. 291–303. Academic Press, London, New York, Paris.Google Scholar
- Walter, H. & Steiner, M. 1936. Die Oekologie der Ostafrikanischen Mangroven. Z. Bot. 30: 65–193.Google Scholar
- Watson, J.G. 1928. Mangrove forests of the Malay Peninsula. Malay For. Res. 6: 275.Google Scholar