Advertisement

Optical Bistability in Semiconductor Laser Devices

Chapter
  • 223 Downloads
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSE, volume 226)

Abstract

In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the development of all-optical switching systems able to self-route communication information from source to required destination. Investigations of these systems have highlighted the need for efficient fast digital optical gates able to change the state of an optical signal or to hold it in memory ready for further processing. The need for efficient memory elements, with their inherent ability to provide pulse shaping and regeneration has led to much emphasis being placed on methods of obtaining bistable optical operation.

Keywords

Laser Device Laser Amplifier Bistable Switching Bistable State Bistable Device 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    H. M. Gibbs,(1985) Optical Bistability: Controlling light with light, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. Haug,(1988) Optical Nonlinearities and Instabilities in Semiconductors, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chelma, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, A. C. Gossard and W. Wiegmann,(1985), IEEE Jour. Quant. Elect., QE-21, p. 1462.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    L. Thylen,(1989) OSA Proc. on Photonic Switching, 3, p. 101.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. Kawaguchi,(1987), Opt and Quantu Elect, 19, Si.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. J. Adams, H. J. Westlake, M. J. O’Mahony and I. D. Henning, IEEE Jour. Quant. Elect.,(1985), QE-21, 1498.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    D. F. G. Gallagher, I. H. White, J. E. Carroll and R. G. Plumb, IEEE Jout Lightwave Tech.,(1987), LT-5, 1391.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. E. Carroll and I. H. White, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London,(1984), A313, 333.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, IEEE Jour. Quant. Elect.,(1980) 16, 347.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Y. C. Chen and J. M. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett.,(1985), 46, 16.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Y. Arakawa and A. Yariv, IEEE Jour. Quant. Elect.,(1986), QE-22, 1887.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. Yariv, IEEE Circuits Devices Mag.,(1989), 5, 25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    K. Iga, F. Koyama and S. Kinoshita, IEEE Jour. Quant. Elect.,(1988), QE-24, 1845.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Y. H. Lee, J. L. Jewell, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, J. P. Harbison and L. T. Florez, Elect. Lett.,(1989), 25, 1377.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. Parke, R. Waarts, D. F. Welch, A. Hardy and W. Streifer, Elect. Lett.,(1990), 26, p. 125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. Lasher, Solid State Electron.,(1964), 7, 707.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. I. Nathan, J. C. Marinace, R. F. Rutz, A. E. Michael and G. J. Lasher, J. Appl. Phys.,(1965), 36, 473.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    H. Kressel and H. Nelson, RCA Rev.,(1969), 30, 106.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    I. Hayashi, M. B. Panish and P. W. Foy, IEEE Jour. Quant. Elect.,(1969), QE-5, 211.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zh. I. Alferov, V. M. Andreev, E. L. Portnoi and M. K. Trukan, Sov. Phys. Semicond.,(1970), 3, 1107.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    R. Dingle, W. Wiegmann and C. H. Henry, Phys. Rev. Let.,(1974), 33, 827.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    K. Kojima and K. Kyuma, Appl. Phys. Lett.,(1988), 53, 1357.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    I. W. Marshall, M. J. O’Mahony, D. M. Cooper, P. J. Fiddyment, J. C. Regnault and W. J. Devlin presented at IQEC, Tokyo 1988.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    K. Otsuka and H. Iwamura, IEEE Jour. Quant. Elect.,(1983), QE-19, 1184.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    K. Otsuka and H. Iwamura, Elect. Lett.,(1983), 19, 262.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    J. T. Verdeyen, Laser Electronics, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs,(1981).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    T. Nakai, N. Ogasawara and R. Ito, Jpn. Jour. Appl. Phys.,(1983), 22, L310.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    H. J. Westlake, M. J. Adams and M. J. O’Mahony, Elect. Lett.,(1985), 21, 992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    W. F. Sharfin and M. Dagenais, Appl. Phys. Lett.,(1986), 48, 321.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    H. Kawaguchi, K. Inoue, T. Matsuoka and K. Otsuka, IEEE Jour. Quant. Elect.,(1985), QE-21, 1314.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    D. MacLean, I. H. White, J. E. Carroll, C. J. Armistead and R. G. Plumb, Opt and Quant. Elect., 1987, 19, S103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    V. YU Bazhenov, A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, O. G. Oknotnikov, G. T. Pak, M. P. Rakhvalsky, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Tarenko and K. A. Kairetdinov, IEE Proc., Pt-I,(1982), 192, 77.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    P. Glas and R. Muller, Opt and Quant. Elect.,(1982), 14, 375.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    G. H. B. Thompson, Physics of Semiconductor Laser Devices, Wiley,(1980).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    G. P. Agrawal and N. K. Dutta, Long-wavelength semiconductor lasers, Van Nostrand,(1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    N. B. Abraham, Laser Focus,(1983), 73–81.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    D. A. B. Miller, C. T. Seaton, M. E. Prise and S. D. Smith, Phys. Rev.,(1981), 47, 197.ADSGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    N. G. Basov, IEEE Jour. Quant. ELect.,(1968), 4, 688.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    T. P. Lee, R. H. R. Roldan, ibid.,(1970), 6, 339.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    K. Y. Lau, CH. Harder and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett.,(1982), 40, 198.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    J. K. Carney and C. G. Fonstad, Appl. Phys. Lett.,(1981), 38,303.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    H. Kawaguchi, Elect. Lett.,(1981), 17, 741.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    H. Kawaguchi, Proc IEE Pt. I,(1984), 129, 141.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    C. H. Henry, R. A. Logan and F. R. Merritt, J. Appl. Phys.,(1980), 51, 3042.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    I. S. Goldobin, V. D. Kurnosov, V. N. Luk’yanov, A. T. Semenov, S. M. Sapozhnikov, N. V. Shelkov and S. D. Yakubovich, Sov. Jour. Quant. Elect.,(1980), 10, 1452Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    H. Ito, N. Onodera, K. Gen-ei and H. Inaba, Elect. Lett.,(1981), 17, 15.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    CH. Harder, K. Y. Lau and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett.,(1981), 39, 382.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ch. Harder, K. Y. Lau and A. Yariv, IEEE Jour. Quant. ELect.,(1982), 18, 1351ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ch. Harder, K. Y. Lau and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett.,(1982), 40, 124.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ch. Harder, J. S. Smith, K. Y. Lau and A. Yariv, ibid.,(1983), 42, 772.ADSGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    K. Y. Lau, Ch. Harder and A. Yariv, ibid., 1982, 40,369.ADSGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Y. Idagiri, K. Komatsu and S. Suzuki, Proc. Conf. on Lasers Electrooptics,(1984), Anaheim, CA Paper THJ3.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    H. Kawaguchi, Appl. Phys. Lett.,(1982), 41, 702.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    H. Kawaguchi and G. Iwane, Elect. Lett.,(1981), 17, 167.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    A. Kucharska, P. Blood, E. D. Fletcher and P. J. Hulyer, IEE Proc Pt. J,(1988), 135, 31.Google Scholar
  56. 55a.
    S. Tarucha and H. Okamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett.,(1986) 49, 543.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 56.
    P. Blixt and U. Ohlander, IEEE Photonics Tech. Letters,(1990), 2, 175.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 57.
    W. A. Stallard and D. J. Bradley, Appl. Phys. Lett.,(1983), 42, 858.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 58.
    S. Suzuki, T. Terakado, K Komatsu, K. Nagashima, A. Suzuki and M. Kondo, Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications, IO0C-ECOC ‘85(1985), 3, 69.Google Scholar
  60. 59.
    M. C. Perkins, R. F. Ormondroyd and T. E. Rozzi, IEE Proc., Pt. J,(1986), 133, 283Google Scholar
  61. 60.
    T. Odagawa, T. Sanada and T. Yamakoshi, 20th Conf. on SWolid State Devices,(1988), D-5–1, 331.Google Scholar
  62. 61.
    H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, T. N. C. Venkatesan, A. C. Gossard, A. Passner and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett.,(1979), 35, 451.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 62.
    D. A. B. Miller, S. D. Smith and A. Johnston, ibid.,(1979), 35, 658.ADSGoogle Scholar
  64. 63.
    H. M. Gibbs, S. S. Tarng, J. L. Jewell, D. A. Weinberger, T. Tai, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner and W. Wiegmann, ibid.,(1982), 41, 221.ADSGoogle Scholar
  65. 64.
    D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chelma, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood and C. A. Burrus, ibid.,(1984), 45, 13.ADSGoogle Scholar
  66. 65.
    T. Y. Chang, Optical Engineering,(1981), 20, 220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 66.
    J. Rees, J. Phys. Chem. Sol.(1967), 29, 143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 67.
    D. A. BMiller, D. S. Chelma, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood and C. A. Burrus, Phys. Rev. Let.,(1984), 53, 2173.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 68.
    A. Mysyrowicz, D. Hulin, A. Antonetti, A. Migus, W. T. Masselink and H. Morok, Phys. Rev.,(1986), 56, 2748.ADSGoogle Scholar
  70. 69.
    O. Mikami and H. Nakagome, Elect. Lett.,(1984), 20, 228.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 70.
    R. H. Stolen, Nonlinear properties of optical fibres in “optical fibre telecommunications” ed S. E. Miller and A. G. Chynoweth, Academic Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  72. 71.
    J. Kim, G. Radhakrishhnan, A. Nouhi, J. K. Liu, R. J. Lang and J. Katz, Jap. J. of Appl. Phys.,(1989), 28, 791.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 72.
    J. Manning, R. Olshansky and C. B. Su, IEEE Jour. Quant. Elect.,(1983), QE-19, 1525.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 73.
    N. W. Ashcroft and N. D. Mermin, Solid State Physics, Saunders College Philadelphia,(1976), 626.Google Scholar
  75. 74.
    D. A. B. Miller, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond.(1984), A313, 289.Google Scholar
  76. 75.
    K. Otsuka and H. Kawaguchi, Phys. Rev.,(1984), A29, 2953.ADSGoogle Scholar
  77. 76.
    P. Glas and R. Muller, Opt and Quant Elect.,(1987), 17, S61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 77.
    N. A. Olsson, W. T. Tang, R. A. Logan, I. P Kaminow and J-S. Ko, Appl. Phys. Lett.,(1984), 44, 375.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 78.
    P. Phelan, L. Reekie, D. J. Bradley and W. A. S tallard, Opt. Quant. Elect.,(1986), 18, 35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 79.
    B. Garrett, I. H. White and D. F. G. Gallagher, Elect. Lett.,(1987), 23, 1193.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 80.
    M. Nakamura, K. Aiki, N. Chinone, R. Ito, and J. Umeda, J. Appl. Phys.,(1978), 49, 4644.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 81.
    M. Yamada and Y. Suematsu, IEEE Jour. Quant. Elect.,(1979), 15, 743.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 82.
    R. F. Kazarinov, C. H. Henry and R. A. Logan, Jour. Appl. Phys.,(1982), 53, 4631.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 83.
    K. Seki, T. Kamiya and H. Wanai, IEEE Jour. Quant. Elect.,(1981), 17, 706.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 84.
    J. A. Copeland, ibid.,(1980), 16, 721.ADSGoogle Scholar
  86. 85.
    K. Kojima, K. Kyuma, S. Noda, J. Ohta and K. Hamanaka, Appl. Phys. Lett.,(1988), 52, 942.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 86.
    M. J. Adams, H. J. westlake and M. J. O’Mahony, Optical bistability in semiconductor laser amplifiers in Optical nonlinearities and instabilities in semiconductors, ed. H. Haug,(1988), Academic.Google Scholar
  88. 87.
    M. J. Adams, IEE Proc. PO,(1985), 123, 343.Google Scholar
  89. 88.
    M. J. Adams, Opt and Quant. Elect.,(1989), 21, S15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 89.
    M. J. Adams, Opt and Quant. Elect.,(1987), 19, 837.Google Scholar
  91. 90.
    H. J. Westlake, M. J. Adams and M. J. O’Mahony, Elect. Lett.,(1986), 22, 541.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 91.
    D. Mace, Private communication, 1990.Google Scholar
  93. 92.
    M. Okuda and K. Onaka, Jpn. Jour. Appl. Phys.,(1977), 16, 769.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 93.
    R. Wyatt and M. J. Adams, CLE0’86,(1986), San Francisco, MB5.Google Scholar
  95. 94.
    J. E. Carroll and I. H. White, Jpn. Jour. Appl. Phys.,(1989), 28, 155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 95.
    Ch. Harder and A. Yariv, Bistability in semiconductor laser diodes, in Optical Nonlinearities and instabilities insemiconductors, ewd. H. Haug, Academic, 1988.Google Scholar
  97. 96.
    G. H. B. Thompson, D. F. Lovelace and S. E. H. Turley, IEE Proc Pt. I,(1978), 2, 12.Google Scholar
  98. 97.
    K. A. Shore, Opt. and Quant. Elect.,(1982), 14, 321.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 98.
    I. H. White, J. E. Carroll and R. G. Plumb, Proc. Iee Pt-I,(1982), 129,261.Google Scholar
  100. 99.
    I. H. White, and J. E. Carroll, Proc. IEE, Pt. H,(1984), 131, 309.Google Scholar
  101. 100.
    I. H. White, J. E. Carroll and R. G. Plumb, Elect. Lett.,(1983), 19, 558.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 101.
    M. Watanabe, I. H. White and J. E. Carroll, IEEE Jour. Quant. Elect.,(1990), QE-26, 1942.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 102.
    I. H. White, R. S. Linton, J. E. Carroll and R. G. Plumb, IEE Proc-J,(1988), 135, 25.Google Scholar
  104. 103.
    D. A. O. Davies, I. H. White and J. E. Carroll, IEE Proc. Pt. J,(1989), 136, 6.Google Scholar
  105. 104.
    T. Ikegami, IEEE Jour. Quant. Elect.,(1972), QE-8, 470.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 105.
    G. P. Agrawal and N. K. Dutta, Appl. Phys. Lett.,(1985), 46, 213.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 106.
    G. P. Bava, P. L. Debernardi, I. Montrosset and M. Scrivanti, IEE Proc., Pt. J,(1988), 135, 159.Google Scholar
  108. 107.
    H. Kobayashi, H. Iwamura, T. Saku and K. Otsua, Elect. Lett.,(1983), 19, 166.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 108.
    N. B. Patel, J. E. Ripper and P. Brosson, IEEE Jour. Quant. Elect.,(197), QE-9, 338.Google Scholar
  110. 109.
    P. A. Kirkby, P. R. Selway and L. D. Westbrook, J. Appl. Phys.,(1979), 50, 4567.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 110.
    N. B. Patel and J. E. Ripper, IEEE Jour. Quant. Elect.,(1973), 9, 338.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 111.
    D. C. Craft, N. K. Dutta and W. R. Wagner, Appl. Phys. Lett.,(1984), 44, 823.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 112.
    Y. C. Chen and J. M. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett.,(1984), 45, 604.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 113.
    M. Neil, I. H. White and J. E. Carroll, Proc. SPIE on Neural networks, San Diego,(1989).Google Scholar
  115. J. M. Liu and Y. C. Chen, IEEE Jour. Quant. Elect.,(1985), QE-21, 271.Google Scholar
  116. 115.
    Y. C. Chen and J. M. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett.,(1985), 46, 16.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 116.
    M. C. Amann and B. Stegmuller, J. Appl. Phys.,(1988), 63, 1824.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 117.
    M. C. Amann, Appl. Phys. Lett.,(1987), 50, 1038.Google Scholar
  119. 118.
    T. Wolf, F. Kappeler, B. Stegmuller and M. C. Amann, IEE Proc. Pt. J,(1988), 135, 5.Google Scholar
  120. 119.
    T. Wolf and F. Kappeler, IEE Proc. Pt. J(1989), 137, 49Google Scholar
  121. 120.
    T. Fujita, A. Schremer and C. L. Tang, Elect. Lett.,(1987), 23, 803.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 121.
    T. Fujita, A. Schremer and C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett.,(1987), 51, 392ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 122.
    R. S. Linton, I. H. White, J. E. Carroll, J. Singh, M. J. Adams, and I. D. Henning, Elect. Lett.,(1988), 24, 1232.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 123.
    D. A. O. Davies, I. H. White and J. E. Carroll, Jpn. Jour. Appl. Phys.,(1989), 28, 379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 124.
    H. Ito, H. Yokoyama, S. Murata and H. Inaba, IEEE Jour. Quant. Elect.,(1981), QE-17, 663.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 125.
    H-F. Liu, M. Fukazawa, Y. Kawai and T. Kamiya, IEEE Jour. Quant. Elect.,(1989), QE-25, 1417.Google Scholar
  127. 126.
    T. Shimoe, S. Kurogoyanagi, K. Murakami, H. Rokugawa, N. Mekada and T. Odagawa, Proc. Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, Salt Lake City(1989), FC2–1.Google Scholar
  128. 127.
    S. Masuda, N. Fujimoto, H. Rokugawa, K. Yamaguchi and S. Yakoshi, ibid.,(1989), FC5–1.Google Scholar
  129. 128.
    R. P. Webb, Opt and Quant. Elect.,(1987), 19, S57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 129.
    H. Kawaguchi, H. Tani and K. Inoue, Opt. Lett.,(1987), 12, 513.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 130.
    K. Iga, F. Koyama and S. Kinoshita, IEEE Jour. Quant. Elect.,(1988), QE-24, 1845.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 131.
    R. S. Geels, S. W. Corzine, J. W. Scott, D. B. Young and L. A. Coldren, IEEE Photonics. Tech. Lett.,(1990), PT-2, 234ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 132.
    K. Matsuda, K. Takimoto, J. Shibata and T. Kajiwara, IQEC’89,(1989), Kobe, 20C32.Google Scholar
  134. 133.
    H. Kawaguchi, K. Inoue, T. Matsuoka and K. Otsuka, IEEE Jour. Quant. Elect.,(1985), QE-21, x1314.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 134.
    Y. C. Chen and J. M. Liu, Opt. and Quant. Elect.,(1987), 19, S93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 135.
    M J Adams, H J Westlake, M J O’Mahony and I D Henning, IEEE Jour. Quant. Elect.(1985), QE-21, 1498.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of PhysicsUniversity of BathBathEngland, UK

Personalised recommendations