Advertisement

Horse-flies, deer-flies and clegs (Tabanidae)

  • John E. Chainey

Abstract

The Tabanidae form a large family of about 4000 described species found throughout the world. Although they are generally called horse-flies, several other vernacular names are used, including gadflies, stouts, elephant-flies, buffalo-flies, mooseflies, clegs (genus Haematopota), deer-flies (genus Chrysops) and greenheads (for Nearctic species of salt-marsh Tabanus). Many species bite man, but few are proven vectors of human disease and the only parasite cyclically transmitted among humans by tabanids is the filarial worm Loa loa carried by Chrysops. As mechanical vectors of pathogens, the flies are primarily of veterinary importance, but in certain circumstances they can apparently transmit to man diseases such as anthrax, tularaemia and (possibly) Lyme disease.

Keywords

Lyme Disease British Museum Discal Cell Equine Infectious Anaemia Virus Maxillary Palp 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbassian-Lintzen, R. 1964. Tabanidae (Diptera) of Iran X. List, keys and distribution of species occurring in Iran. Annales de Parasitologie humaine et comparée 39: 285–327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Amoudi, M. A. and Leclercq, M. 1988. Tabanus riyadhae (Diptera: Tabanidae), a new species from Saudi Arabia. Journal of Medical Entomology 25: 399–401.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, J. F. 1985. The control of horse flies and deer flies (Diptera: Tabanidae). Myia 3: 547–598.Google Scholar
  4. Andreeva, R. V. 1990. Identification of the larvae of horse-flies from the European part of the USSR, the Caucasus and Central Asia. 171 pp. Naukova Dumka, Kiev. [In Russian.]Google Scholar
  5. Bequaert, J. 1940. The Tabanidae of the Antilles (Dipt.). Revista de Entomologia (Rio de Janeiro) 11: 253–369.Google Scholar
  6. Burger, J. F. 1974a. The horse flies of Arizona. I. Introduction and zoogeography (Diptera: Tabanidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 76: 99–118.Google Scholar
  7. Burger, J. F. 1974b. Horse flies of Arizona.II. Notes on and keys to the adult Tabanidae of Arizona, subfamilies Pangoniinae and Chrysopsinae (Diptera). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 76: 247–269.Google Scholar
  8. Burger, J. F. 1974c. The horse flies of Arizona. III. Notes on and keys to the adult Tabanidae of Arizona, subfamily Tabaninae, except Tabanus. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 76: 428–443.Google Scholar
  9. Burger, J. F. 1975. Horse flies of Arizona IV. Notes on and keys to the adult Tabanidae of Arizona, subfamily Tabaninae, genus Tabanus. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 77: 15–33.Google Scholar
  10. Burger, J. F. 1977. The biosystematics of immature Arizona Tabanidae (Diptera). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 103: 145–258.Google Scholar
  11. Burger, J. F. 1981. A review of the horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Sri Lanka (Ceylon). Entomologica Scandinavica (Supplement) 11: 81–123.Google Scholar
  12. Burger, J. F. and Pechuman, L. L. 1986. A review of the genus Haematopota (Diptera: Tabanidae) in North America. Journal of Medical Entomology 23: 345–352.Google Scholar
  13. Burton, J. J. S. 1978. Tabanini of Thailand above the Isthmus of Kra (Diptera: Tabanidae). 165 pp. Entomological Reprint Specialists, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  14. Chainey, J. E. 1987. Afrotropical Tabanidae (Diptera): the genus Rhigioglossa Wiedemann, 1828 (including Mesomyia Macquart, 1850, as a subgenus). Annals of the Natal Museum 28: 137–159.Google Scholar
  15. Chainey, J. E. and Oldroyd, H. 1980. Family Tabanidae. Pp. 275–308 in Crosskey, R. W. (ed.), Catalogue of the Diptera of the Afrotropical region. 1437 pp. British Museum (Natural History), London.Google Scholar
  16. Chvála, M. 1988. Family Tabanidae. Pp. 97–171 in Soós, A. and Papp, L. (eds), Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera: vol. 5, Athericidae-Asilidae. 446 pp. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  17. Chvála, M., Lyneborg, L. and Moucha, J. 1972. The horse flies of Europe (Diptera, Tabanidae). 500 pp. Entomological Society of Copenhagen, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  18. Coscarón, S. and González, C. R. 1991. Tabanidae de Chile: lista de especies y clave para los generos conocidos de Chile (Diptera: Tabanidae). Acta Entomologica Chilena 16: 125–150.Google Scholar
  19. Coscarón, S. and Philip, C. B. 1967. Revision del genero ′Dasybasis′ Macquart en la region neotropical (Diptera-Tabanidae). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” (Entomologia) 2:15–266.Google Scholar
  20. Coscarón, S. and Philip, C. B. 1979. A revision of Mycteromyiini (“genus Mycteromyia” of authors), anew tribe of Neotropical horse flies (Diptera, Tabanidae). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (4) 41: 427–452.Google Scholar
  21. Cruz, J. de la and Garcia Avila, I. 1974. Los Tábanos (Diptera: Tabanidae) de Cuba. Poeyana 125: 1–91.Google Scholar
  22. Dias, J. A. Travassos Santos 1960. Nova contribução ao estudo dos tabanídeos (Diptera: Tabanidae) de Angola. Publicações Culturais de Companhia de Diamantes de Angola 53: 1–125.Google Scholar
  23. Dias, J. A. Travassos Santos 1966. Tabanídeos (Diptera-Tabanidae) de Moçambique. Contribução para o seu conhecimento. xvi + 1283 pp. Lourenço, Marques [= Maputo].Google Scholar
  24. Daniels, G. 1989. Family Tabanidae. Pp. 277–294 in Evenhuis, N. L. (ed.), Catalog of the Diptera of the Australasian and Oceanian regions. 1155 pp. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu, and E. J. Brill, Leiden.Google Scholar
  25. Duke, B. O. L. 1972. Behavioural aspects of the life cycle of Loa. Pp. 97–107 in Canning, E. U. and Wright, C. A. (eds), Behavioural aspects of parasite transmission, xi + 219 pp. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  26. Fairchild, G. B. 1966. Notes on Neotropical Tabanidae VI. A new species of Lepiselaga Macq. with remarks on related genera. Psyche 72 (1965): 210–217.Google Scholar
  27. Fairchild, G. B. 1969. Notes on Neotropical Tabanidae XII. Classification and distribution, with keys to genera and subgenera. Arquivos de Zoologia, São Paulo 17: 199–255.Google Scholar
  28. Fairchild, G. B. 1971. A catalogue of the Diptera of the Americas South of the United States. 28. Family Tabanidae. 163 pp. Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo.Google Scholar
  29. Fairchild, G. B. 1976. Notes on Neotropical Tabanidae XVI. The Tabanus trivittatus complex. Studia Entomologica 19: 237–261.Google Scholar
  30. Fairchild, G. B. 1983. Notes on Neotropical Tabanidae (Diptera) XIX. The Tabanus lineola complex. Entomological Society of America Miscellaneous Publications 57: 1–51.Google Scholar
  31. Fairchild, G. B. 1984. Notes on Neotropical Tabanidae (Diptera) XX. The larger species of Tabanus of eastern and South America. Contributions of the American Entomological Institute 21 (3): 1–50.Google Scholar
  32. Fairchild, G. B. 1986. The Tabanidae of Panama. Contributions of the American Entomological Institute 22 (3): 1–139.Google Scholar
  33. Fairchild, G. B. and Philip, C. B. 1960. A revision of the Neotropical genus Dichelacera, subgenus Dichelacera, Macquart (Diptera, Tabanidae). Studia Entomologica 3: 1–96.Google Scholar
  34. Foil, L. D. 1989. Tabanids as vectors of disease agents. Parasitology Today 5: 88–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Goodwin, J. T. 1982. The Tabanidae (Diptera) of Mali. Entomological Society of America Miscellaneous Publications 13: 1–141.Google Scholar
  36. Goodwin, J. T., Mullens, B. A. and Gerhardt, R. R. 1985. The Tabanidae of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 642: ix + 1–73.Google Scholar
  37. Hayakawa, H. 1980. Biological studies on Tabanus iyoensis group of Japan, with special reference to their blood-sucking habits (Diptera, Tabanidae). Tohoku National Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 62: 131–321.Google Scholar
  38. Hayakawa, H. 1985. A key to the females of Japanese tabanid flies with a checklist of all species and subspecies (Diptera, Tabanidae). Japanese Journal of Sanitary Zoology 36: 15–23. [In English with Japanese summary.]Google Scholar
  39. Hoppe, K. L., Dillwith, J. W., Wright, R. E. and Szumlas, D. E. 1990. Identification of horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) by analysis of cuticular hydrocarbons. Journal of Medical Entomology 27: 480–486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Inaoka, T., Hori, E., Yamaguchi, K., Watanabe, M., Yoneyama, Y. and Ogunba, E. O. 1988. Morphology and identification of Chrysops larvae from Nigeria. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 2: 141–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Ivanishchuk, P. P. 1983. On the taxonomic status of two forms of Chrysops caecutiens (Tabanidae). Parazitologiya 17: 223–228. [In Russian with English summary.]Google Scholar
  42. Jacobson, N. R., Hansens, E. J., Vrijenhoek, R. C., Swofford, D. L. and Berlocher, S. H. 1981. Electrophoretic detection of a sibling species of the salt marsh greenhead, Tabanus nigrovittatus. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 74: 602–605.Google Scholar
  43. Jobling, B. 1987. Anatomical drawings of biting flies. 119 pp. British Museum (Natural History) and Wellcome Trust, London.Google Scholar
  44. Jones, C. M.and Anthony, D. W. 1964. The Tabanidae (Diptera) of Florida. United States Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 1295: 1–85.Google Scholar
  45. Krinsky, W. L. 1976. Animal disease agents transmitted by horse flies and deer flies (Diptera: Tabanidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 13: 225–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Leclercq, M. 1960. Révision systématique et biogéographique des Tabanidae (Diptera) paléarctiques. I. Pangoniinae et Chrysopinae. Mémoires. Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique (2) 63: 1–77.Google Scholar
  47. Leclercq, M. 1966. Révision systématique et biogéographique des Tabanidae (Diptera) paléarctiques. II. Tabaninae. Mémoires. Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique (2) 80: 1–237.Google Scholar
  48. Mackerras, I. M. 1954. The classification and distribution of Tabanidae (Diptera). Australian Journal of Zoology 2: 431–454.Google Scholar
  49. Mackerras, I. M. 1955a. The classification and distribution of Tabanidae (Diptera). II. History: morphology: classification: subfamily Pangoniinae. Australian Journal of Zoology 3: 439–511.Google Scholar
  50. Mackerras, I. M. 1955b. The classification and distribution of Tabanidae (Diptera). III. Subfamilies Scepsidinae and Chrysopinae. Australian Journal of Zoology 3: 583–633.Google Scholar
  51. Mackerras, I. M. 1956a. The Tabanidae (Diptera) of Australia. I. General review. Australian Journal of Zoology 4: 376–407.Google Scholar
  52. Mackerras, I. M. 1956b. The Tabanidae (Diptera) of Australia. II. Subfamily Pangoniinae, tribe Pangoniini. Australian Journal of Zoology 4: 408–443.Google Scholar
  53. Mackerras, I. M. 1957. Tabanidae (Diptera) of New Zealand. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 84: 581–610.Google Scholar
  54. Mackerras, I. M. 1959. An annotated catalogue of described Australian Tabaninae (Diptera, Tabanidae). Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 84: 160–185.Google Scholar
  55. Mackerras, I. M. 1960. The Tabanidae (Diptera) of Australia. III. Subfamily Pangoniinae, tribe Scionini and supplement to Pangoniini. Australian Journal of Zoology 8: 1–152.Google Scholar
  56. Mackerras, I. M. 1961. The Tabanidae (Diptera) of Australia. IV. Subfamily Chrysopinae. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 827–905.Google Scholar
  57. Mackerras, I. M. 1964. The Tabanidae (Diptera) of New Guinea. Pacific Insects 6: 69–210.Google Scholar
  58. Mackerras, I. M. 1971. The Tabanidae (Diptera) of Australia V. Subfamily Tabaninae, tribe Tabanini. Australian Journal of Zoology (Supplementary Series) 4: 1–54.Google Scholar
  59. Mackerras, I. M. and Rageau, J. 1958. Tabanidae (Diptera) du Pacifique Sud. Annales de Parasitologic humaine et comparée 33: 671–742.Google Scholar
  60. McAlpine, J.F., Peterson, B.V., Shewell, G.E., Teskey H.J., Vockeroth, J.R. and Wood, D.M. 1981. Manual of Nearctic Diptera: vol.1, vi + 674 pp. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada (Monograph No.27).Google Scholar
  61. Middlekauff, W. W. and Lane, R. S. 1980. Adult and immature Tabanidae (Diptera) of California. Bulletin of the California Insect Survey 22: 1–99.Google Scholar
  62. Minter, D. M. 1987. Tabanidae. Horse flies, clegs, deer flies. Pp. 1437–1447 in Manson-Bahr, P. E. C. and Bell, D. R. (eds), Manson′s tropical diseases. Nineteenth edition, xvii + 1557 pp. Baillière Tindall, London.Google Scholar
  63. Moucha, J. 1976. Horse-flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of the world. Synoptic catalogue. Acta entomologica Musei nationalis Pragae (Supplementum) 7: 1–319.Google Scholar
  64. Murdoch, W. P. and Takahasi, H. 1969. The female Tabanidae of Japan, Korea and Manchuria. The life history, morphology, classification, systematics, distribution, evolution and geologic history of the family Tabanidae (Diptera). Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Washington 6: 1–230.Google Scholar
  65. Oldroyd, H. 1952. The horse-flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of the Ethiopian region. I. Haematopota and Hippocentrum. ix + 226 pp. British Museum (Natural History), London.Google Scholar
  66. Oldroyd, H. 1954. The horse-flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of the Ethiopian region. II. Tabanus and related genera. x + 341 pp. British Museum (Natural History), London.Google Scholar
  67. Oldroyd, H. 1957. The horse-flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of the Ethiopian region. III. Subfamilies Chrysopinae, Scepsidinae and Pangoniinae and a revised classification, xii + 489 pp. British Museum (Natural History), London.Google Scholar
  68. Oldroyd, H. 1969. Diptera Brachycera Section (a) Tabanoidea and Asiloidea. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects 9 (4): 1–132.Google Scholar
  69. Oldroyd, H. 1973. Tabanidae (horse-flies, clegs, deer-flies, etc.). Pp. 195–202 in Smith, K. G. V.(ed.), Insects and other arthropods of medical importance, xiv + 561 pp. British Museum (Natural History, London.Google Scholar
  70. Olsuf′ev, N. G. 1977. Horse-flies. Family Tabanidae. Fauna of the USSR. New Series. No. 113, Insects, Diptera 7 (2). 434 [+2] pp. Izdatel′stvo ′Nauka′, Leningrad. [In Russian.]Google Scholar
  71. Pechuman, L. L. 1973. The insects of Virginia: No. 6. Horse flies and deer flies of Virginia (Diptera: Tabanidae). Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Research Division Bulletin 81: 1–92.Google Scholar
  72. Pechuman, L. L. 1981. The horse flies and deer flies of New York (Diptera, Tabanidae). Second edition. Search: Agriculture 18: 1–68.Google Scholar
  73. Pechuman, L. L. and Teskey, H. J. 1981. Tabanidae. Pp. 463–478 in McAlpine, J. F., Peterson, B. V., Shewell, G. E., Teskey, H. J., Vockeroth, J. R. and Wood, D. M. Manual of Nearctic Diptera: vol. 1, vi + 674 pp. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada (Monograph No. 27).Google Scholar
  74. Pechuman, L. L., Teskey, H. J. and Davies, D. M. 1961. The Tabanidae (Diptera) of Ontario. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario 91 (1960): 77–121.Google Scholar
  75. Pechuman, L. L., Webb, D. W. and Teskey, H. J. 1983. The Diptera, or true flies, of Illinois. I. Tabanidae. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 33: 1–121.Google Scholar
  76. Philip, C. B. 1954. New North American Tabanidae. VIII. Notes on and keys to the genera and species of Pangoniinae exclusive of Chrysops. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 2: 13–60.Google Scholar
  77. Philip, C. B. 1955. New North American Tabanidae. IX. Notes on and keys to the genus Chrysops Meigen. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 3: 47–128.Google Scholar
  78. Philip, C. B. 1959. Philippine Zoological Expedition 1946–1947. Tabanidae (Diptera). Fieldiana: Zoology 33: 543–625.Google Scholar
  79. Philip, C. B. 1960. Malaysian parasites XXXVI. A summary review and records of Tabanidae from Malaya, Borneo, and Thailand. Studies from the Institute for Medical Research, Federation of Malaya 29: 33–78.Google Scholar
  80. Philip, C. B. 1965. Family Tabanidae. Pp. 319–342 in Stone, A., Sabrosky, C. W., Wirth, W. W., Foote, R. H. and Coulson, J. R. (eds), A catalog of the Diptera of America North of Mexico. Agriculture Handbook 276, iv + 1696 pp. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  81. Philip, C. B. 1978. New North American Tabanidae (Insecta, Diptera) XXIV. Further comments on certain Pangoniinae in Mexico with special reference to Esenbeckia. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (4) 41: 345–356.Google Scholar
  82. Philip, C. B. and Fairchild, G. B. 1956. American biting flies of the genera Chlorotabanus Lutz and Cryptotylus Lutz (Diptera, Tabanidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 49: 313–324.Google Scholar
  83. Rodhain, F. 1980. Hypothèses concernant l′écologie dynamique des infections à Loa. Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie exotique 73: 182–191.Google Scholar
  84. Schuurmans Stekhoven, J. H. 1926. The bloodsucking arthropods of the Dutch East Indian archipelago VII. The tabanids of the Dutch East Indian archipelago (including those of some neighbouring countries). Treubia 6 (Supplement): 1–552.Google Scholar
  85. Senior-White, R. 1927. Catalogue of Indian insects: Part 12, Tabanidae. 70 pp. Government of India, Calcutta.Google Scholar
  86. Stone, A. 1938. The horseflies of the subfamily Tabaninae of the Nearctic region. United States Department of Agriculture Miscellaneous Publication 305: 1–171.Google Scholar
  87. Stone, A. 1975. Family Tabanidae. Pp. 43–81 in Delfinado, M. D. and Hardy, D. E. (eds), A catalog of the Diptera of the Oriental region: vol. 2, Suborder Brachycera through Division Aschiza, suborder Cyclorrhapha. 459 pp. University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu.Google Scholar
  88. Stone, A. and Philip, C. B. 1974. The Oriental species of the tribe Haemotopotini (Diptera, Tabanidae). United States Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 1489: 1–240.Google Scholar
  89. Tendeiro, J. 1965. Novas observações sobre tabanídeos da Guiné Portuguesa. Revista dos Estudos Gerais Universitários de Moçambique (4, Ciências Veterinarias) 1 (1964): 1–256.Google Scholar
  90. Teskey, H. J. 1969. Larvae and pupae of some eastern North American Tabanidae (Diptera). Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 63: 1–147.Google Scholar
  91. Teskey, H. J. 1990. The insects and arachnids of Canada. Part 16. The horse flies and deer flies of Canada and Alaska: Diptera: Tabanidae. Research Branch Agriculture Canada Publication 1838: 1–381.Google Scholar
  92. Theodor, O. 1965. Tabanidae of Israel. Israel Journal of Zoology 14: 241–257.Google Scholar
  93. Tidwell, M. A. 1973. The Tabanidae (Diptera) of Louisiana. Tulane Studies in Zoology and Botany 18: 1–95.Google Scholar
  94. Usher, P. J. 1972. A review of the South African horsefly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae). Annals of the Natal Museum 21: 459–507.Google Scholar
  95. Wang, Z.-m. 1983. Economic insect fauna of China. 26. Diptera Tabanidae. vi + 128 pp. Science Press, Beijing. [In Chinese.]Google Scholar
  96. Wilkerson, R. C. 1979. Horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of the Colombian Departments of Choco, Valle, and Cauca. Cespedesia 8: 89–433. [Pp. 89–98 comprise a title page and keys in Spanish: a repeated title and the remainder of the work, pp. 99–433, are in English.]Google Scholar
  97. Wilkerson, R. C. and Coscarón, S. 1984. A review of South American Scaptia (Pseudoscione) (Diptera: Tabanidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 21: 213–236.Google Scholar
  98. Wilkerson, R. C. and Fairchild, G. B. 1982. Five new species of Diachlorus (Diptera: Tabanidae) from South America with a revised key to species and new locality records. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 84: 636–650.Google Scholar
  99. Wilkerson, R. C. and Fairchild, G. B. 1983. A review of the South American species of Esenbeckia subgenus Esenbeckia (Diptera: Tabanidae). Journal of Natural History 17: 519–567.Google Scholar
  100. Wilkerson, R. C., Butler, J. F. and Pechuman, L. L. 1985. Swarming, hovering, and mating behavior of male horse flies and deer flies (Diptera: Tabanidae). Myia 3: 515–546.Google Scholar
  101. World Health Organization 1989. Geographical distribution of arthropod-borne diseases and their principal vectors. WHO/VBC/89.967,134 pp. World Health Organization, Geneva.Google Scholar
  102. Xu, R.-m. 1982. Identification of important Tabanidae in China. Pp. 237–342 in Lu, B. S. (ed.), Identification handbook for medially important animals in China. 956 pp. People′s Health Publishing Company, Beijing. [In Chinese.]Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • John E. Chainey

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations