Advertisement

The Immune Response to Virus Infection

  • A. A. Nash
  • J. G. P. Sissons
Part of the Immunology and Medicine Series book series (IMME, volume 25)

Abstract

Viruses are obligate intracellular pathogens and the capacity to resist them is critically important to all multicellular organisms. This requirement to resist intracellular pathogens has been a particular force in the evolution of the vertebrate immune system: equally the study of the immune response to viruses has led to many advances in understanding basic mechanisms of the immune response.

Keywords

West Nile Virus Adoptive Transfer Measle Virus Equine Infectious Anaemia Virus Obligate Intracellular Pathogen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Yokoyama WM, Seaman WE. Ly-49 and NKR-P1 gene families encoding lectin like receptors on NK cells. Annu Rev Immunol. 1993; 11: 613–636.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bukowski JF, Warner JF, Dennert G, Welsh RM. Adoptive transfer studies demonstrating the antiviral effects of NK cells in vivo. J Exp Med. 1985; 161: 40–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Biron CA, Byron KS, Sullivan JS. Severe herpes virus infections in an adolescent without natural killer cells. N Engl J Med. 1989; 320: 1731–1735.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Janeway CA. A primitive immune system. Nature. 1989; 351: 108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Joklik WK. Interferons. In: Fields BN, Knipe DM, eds. Virology. New York: Raven Press, 1990; 384–410.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Farrar AR, Schreiber R. The molecular cell biology of IFNy and its receptor. Annu Rev Immunol. 1993; 11: 571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Scalzo AA, Fitzgerald NA, Wallace CR, Gibbons AE, Smart YC, Burton RC, Shellam GR. The effect of the Cmv-1 gene, which is linked to the natural killer cell gene complex, is mediated by NK cells. J Immunol. 1992; 149: 581–589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Porterfield JS. Antibody dependent enhancement of viral infectivity. Adv Virus Res. 1986; 31: 335–355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Greve JM, David G, Meyer AM, Forte CP, Yost SC, Morlan CW, Karnack ME, McClelland A. The major human rhinovirus receptor is ICAM-1. Cell. 1989; 56: 839–847.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Staunton DE, Merluzzi VJ, Rothlein R, Barton R, Martin SD, Springer TA. A cell adhesion molecule, ICAM-1, is the major surface receptor for rhinoviruses. Cell. 1989; 56: 849–853.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mendelsohn CL, Wimmer E, Racanielo VR. Cellular receptor for poliovirus: molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence and expression of a new member of the immunoglobulin super family. Cell. 1989; 56: 855–865.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dalgleish AG, Beverley PCL, Clapham PR et al. The CD4 (T4) antigen is an essential component of the receptor for the AIDS retrovirus. Nature. 1984; 312: 763–767.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Weiss W, Brown JH, Cusacks S, Paulson JC, Skelhel JJ, Wiley DC. Structure of the influenza virus haemagglutinin complexed with its receptor, sialic acid. Nature. 1988; 333: 426–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Clements JE, Dederson FS, Narayan O et al. Genomic changes associated with antigenic variations of visna virus during persistent infection. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA. 1980; 77: 4454–4458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Payne S, Parekh B, Montelaro RC, Issel CJ. Genomic alterations associated with persistent infection by equine infectious anaemia virus, a retrovirus. J Gen Virol. 1984; 65: 1395–1399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rossman MJ, Palmenberg AC. Conservation of the putative receptor attachment site on picornaviruses. Virology. 1988; 164: 373–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gollins SW, Porterfield JS. A new mechanism for the neutralization of enveloped viruses by antiviral antibody. Nature. 1986; 321: 244–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dimmock NJ. Neutralization of animal viruses. Curr Top Microbiol Imunol. 1993; 183.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mandel B. Mechanisms of virus neutralization. In: Oldstone MBA, Notkins AL, eds. Concepts in Viral Pathogenesis. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1984; 32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cooper NR. Humoral immunity to viruses. In: Fraenkel-Conrat H, Wagner RR, eds. Comprehensive Virology. New York: Plenum Press, 1979: 123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bartholomew RM, Esser AF, Müller-Eberhard HJ. Lysis of oncornaviruses by human serum: Isolation of the viral complement (CI) and identification as p15E. J Exp Med. 1978; 147: 844–853.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hirsch RL, Winkelstein JA, Griffin DE. The role of complement in viral infection. J Immunol. 1980; 124: 2507–2510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lachmann PJ, Rosen FS. Genetic defects of complement in man. Semin Immunopathol. 1979; 1: 339–353.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sissons JGP. Antibody and complement-dependent lysis of virus-infected cells. In: Oldstone MBA, Notkins AL, eds. Concepts in Viral Pathogenesis. New York: Springer Verlag, 1984: 39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Trinchieri G. Biology of natural killer cells. Adv Immunol. 1989; 47: 187–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Crowe JE, Murphy BR, Channock RM, Williamson RA, Barbas CF, Burton DR. Recombinant human respiratory syncitial virus (RSV) monoclonal antibody Fab is effective therapeutically when introduced directly into the lungs of RSV infected mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1994; 91: 1386–1390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kohl S. Role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in defense against herpes simplex virus infection. Rev Infect Dis. 1991; 13: 108–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Levine B, Hardwick JM, Trapp BD, Crawford TO, Bollinger RC, Griffin DE. Antibody-mediated clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons. Science. 1991; 254: 856–860.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fujinami RS, Oldstone MBA. Alterations in expression of measles virus polypeptides by antibody: molecular events in antibody-induced antigenic modulation. J Immunol. 1980; 125: 78–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Halstead SB. Pathogenesis of Dengue: challenges to molecular biology. Science. 1988; 239: 476–481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kapoor AK, Nash AA, Wildy P, Phelan J, McLean CS, Field HJ. Pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus in congenitally athymic mice: the relative roles of cell-mediated and humoral immunity. J Gen Virol. 1982; 60: 225–233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jacobson S, Richart JR, Biddison WE, Satinsky A, Hartzman RJ, McFarland HF. Measles virus-specific T4 + human cytotoxic T cell clones are restricted by class II HLA antigens. J Immunol. 1984; 133; 754–757.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yasukawa M, Zarling JM. Human cytotoxic T cell clones directed against herpes simplex virus-infected cells. Lysis restricted by HLA class II MB and DR antigens. J Immunol. 1984; 133: 422–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lukacher AE, Morrison LA, Brachiale VL, Malissen B, Brachiale TJ. Expression of specific cytolytic activity by H-21 region-restricted, influenza-specific T lymphocyte clones. J Exp Med. 1985; 162: 171–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Scherle PA, Gerhard W. Functional analysis of influenza-specific helper T cell clones in vivo. T cells specific for internal viral proteins provide cognate help for B cell responses to the haemagglutinin. J Exp Med. 1986; 164: 1114–1128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jacobson S, Sekaly RP, Jacobson CL, McFarland HF, Long EO. HLA class II-restricted presentation of cytoplasmic measles virus antigens to cytotoxic T cells. J Virol. 1989; 63: 1756–1762.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Long EO, Jacobson S. Pathways of viral antigen processing and presentation to CTL. Immunol Today. 1989; 10: 45–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Koszinowski UH, Keil GM, Schwarz H, Schickendanz J, Reddehase MJ. A nonstructural polypeptide encoded by immediate-early transcription unit 1 of murine cytomegalovirus is recognised by cytolytic T lymphocytes. J Exp Med. 1987; 166: 289–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Borysiewicz LK, Hickling JK, Graham S, Sinclair J, Cranage MP, Smith GL, Sissons JGP. Human cytomegalovirus-specific cytotoxic T cells. Relative frequency of stage specific CTL recognizing the 72 kD immediate early protein and glycoprotein B expressed by recombinant vaccinia virus. J Exp Med. 1988; 168: 919–932.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Reddehase MJ, Rothbard JB, Koszinowski UH. A pentapeptide as minimal antigenic determinant for MHC class I-restricted T lymphocytes. Nature. 1989; 337: 651–653.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Welsh PRJ, Tonks P, Nash AA, Blakemore WF. The effect of L3T4 T cell depletion on the pathogenesis of Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus infection in CBA mice. J Gen Virol. 1987; 68: 1659–1667.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Borrow P, Tonks P, Welsh CJR, Nash AA. The role of CD8 + T cells in the acute and chronic phases of Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced disease in mice. J Gen Virol. 1992; 73: 1861–1865.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nash AA, Cambouropoulos P. The immune response to herpes simplex virus. Semin Virol. 1993; 4: 181–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wu L, Morahan PS. Macrophages and other nonspecific defenses: role in modulating resistance against herpes simplex virus. In: Rouse BT, ed. Herpes simplex virus pathogenesis, immunobiology and control. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1992: 89.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Doherty PC. Virus infections in mice with targeted gene disruptions. Curr Opinion Immunol. 1993; 5: 479–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ceredig R, Allan J, Tabi Z, Lynch F, Doherty PC. Phenotypic analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory exudate in murine lymphocytic choromeningitis. J Exp Med. 1987; 165: 1539–1551.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Openshaw PJM. Pulmonary epithelial T cells induced by viral infection express T cell receptors a/ß. Eur J Immunol. 1991; 21: 803–806.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Doherty PC, Allan W, Eichelberger M. Roles of aß and yb T cell subsets in viral immunity. Annu Rev Immunol. 1992; 10: 123–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. A. Nash
  • J. G. P. Sissons

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations