Current and Future Approaches to Vaccination Against Virus Diseases

  • C. R. Howard
Part of the Immunology and Medicine Series book series (IMME, volume 25)


The control of infectious diseases by vaccination has been applied to an ever-increasing number of veterinary and human viral pathogens since Jenner’s observation that smallpox can be prevented by prior inoculation of individuals with cowpox. The eradication of smallpox over a decade ago is the most notable example of a successful vaccination programme, achieved by employing a stable product and a well-coordinated programme of delivery and surveillance. Particular reasons for this success include the probable absence of an animal reservoir, absence of multiple serotypes and ease of vaccine delivery. This is not always the case, however. For example, zoonotic infections (those with a natural host species other than man) can be controlled at best, and cannot be effectively eliminated. Rabies is a good example: Pasteur’s use of formaldehyde for the inactivation of live rabies virus was a novel approach that is still widely used in vaccine production (Table 1). Another good example of a virus that cannot be eliminated is yellow fever: continuing vigilance for the emergence of infections from the natural monkey host is required. Here the approach has been to develop strains by passage in vitro to a degree whereby growth is restricted to non-target organs and tissues. Vaccination strategies are often hampered, however, by the tendency of viruses to undergo rapid antigenic variations in response to increasing levels of herd immunity (e.g. influenza), by the stability of existing vaccine materials (e.g. measles virus) or by changes in social behaviour e.g. hepatitis B human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).


Human Immunodefieieney Virus Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Subunit Vaccine Herd Immunity Measle Vaccine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Minor PD, Evans DMA, Ferguson M, Schild GC, Westrop G, Almond JW. Principal and subsidiary antigenic sites of VP1 involved in the neutralisation of poliovirus type 3. J Gen Virol. 1985; 65: 1159–1165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schlesinger JJ, Brandriss MW, Cropp CB, Monath TP. Protection against yellow fever virus nonstructural protein NS1. J Virol. 1986; 60: 1153–1155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wiley DC, Skehel JJ. The structure and function of the haemagglutinin membrane glycoprotein of influenza virus. Annu Rev Biochem. 1987; 56: 365–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Halstead SB. Pathogenesis of dengue: challenges to molecular biology. Science. 1988; 239: 476–481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Takeda A, Ennis FA, Sweet RA. Model for enhancement of HIV-1 infection by antibody. In: Brown F, Channock RM, Ginsberg HS, Lerner RA, eds. Vaccines 90: modern approaches to new vaccines including the prevention of AIDS. New York: Cold Spring Harbor, 1989: 333–337.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hurwitz JL, Hackett CJ, McAndrew EC, Gerhard W. Murine Th response to influenza virus: Recognition of haemagglutinin, Neuraminidase, matrix and nucleoproteins. J Immunol. 1985; 134: 1994–1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Scherle PA, Gerhard W. Functional analysis of influenza-specific helper T cell clones in vivo: T cell specific for internal proteins provide cognate help for B cell responses to haemagglutinin. J Exp Med. 1986; 164: 1114–1128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    World Health Organisation. Status report on polio eradication. World Immunization News. 1992; 8: 16–17.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Theiler M. The virus. In: Strode GK, ed. Yellow fever. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1951: 39–137.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nakano JH, Hatch MH, Thieme ML, Nottay B. Parameters for differentiating vaccine-derived and wild poliovirus strains. Prog Med Virol. 1978; 24: 178–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Linneman CC, Hutchinson L, Rotte TC, Hegg ME, Schiff GM. Stability of the rabbit immunogenic marker of RA 27/3 rubella vaccine virus after human passage. Infect Immun 1974; 9: 547–549.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Provost PJ, Emini EA, Lewis JA, Gerety RJ. Progress towards the development of a hepatitis A vaccine. In: Zuckerman AJ, ed. Viral hepatitis and liver disease. New York: Alan R Liss, 1988: 83–86.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Purcell RH. Approaches to immunization against hepatitis A virus. In: Hollinger FB, Lemon SM, Margolis HS, eds. Viral hepatitis and liver disease. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1991: 41–46.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Evans DMA, Dunn G, Minor PD, Schild GC, Cann AJ, Stanway G, Almond JW, Currey K, Maizel JV. Increased neurovirulence associated with a single nucleotide change in a noncoding region of the Sabin type 3 poliovirus vaccine. Nature. 1985; 314: 548–550.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nathanson N, Langmuir AD. The Cutter incident. Poliomyelitis following formaldehyde-inactivated poliovirus vaccination in the United States. Am J Hyg. 1963; 78: 16–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hovi T, Huovilainen A, Kuronen T, Poyry T, Salama N, Cantell K, Kinnumen E, Lapinleimu K, Roivainen M, Stenvik M, Silander A, Thoden C-J, Salminen S, Weckstrom P. Outbreak of poliomyelitis in Finland: Widespread circulation of antigenically altered poliovirus type 3 in a vaccinated population. Lancet. 1986; i: 1427–1432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fulginiti VA, Eller JJ, Downie AW, Kempe CH. Atypical measles in children previously immunised with inactivated measles virus vaccine. JAMA. 1967; 202: 1075–1080.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kapikian AZ, Mitchell RH, Chanock RM, Shvedoff RA, Stewart CE. An epidemiologic study of altered clinical reactivity to respiratory syncytial (RS) virus infection in children previously vaccinated with an inactivated RS virus vaccine. Am J Epidemiol. 1969; 89: 404–421.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hadler SC, Francis DP, Maynard JE, Thompson SE, Judson FN, Echenberg DF, Ostrow DG, O’Malley PM, Penley KA, Altman NL, Braff E, Shipman GF, Coleman PJ, Madel EJ. Long-term immunogenicity and efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine in homosexual men. New Engl J Med. 1986; 315: 209–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jilg W, Schmidt M, Deinhardt F. Decline of anti-HBs after hepatitis B vaccination and timing of revaccination. Lancet. 1990; 335: 173–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Persson MAA, Brown SE, Steward MW, Hammarstrom L, Smith CIE, Howard CR. Binding characteristics of human specific antibodies of the various IgG subclasses. J Immunol. 1988; 140: 3875–3879.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dienstag JL Immunologic mechanisms in chronic hepatitis. In: Vyas GN, Dienstag JL, Hoofnagle JH, eds. Viral hepatitis and liver disease. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1984: 135.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jilg W, Schmidt M, Deinhardt F. Immune responses to hepatitis B vaccination. J Med Virol. 1988; 24: 377–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Coursaget P, Adamowicz P, Bourdil C, Yvonnet B, Buisson Y, Barres J-L, Saliou P, Chiron J-P, Mar ID. Anti-preS2 antibodies in natural hepatitis B virus infection and after immunisation. Vaccine. 1988; 6: 357–361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Harrison TJ, Valliammai T, Hopes EA, Oor CJ, Zuckerman AJ. A hepatitis B virus antibody escape mutant from Singapore. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1993; 8: S80 - S82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Karthigesu V, Allison LMC, Fortuin M, Mendy M, Whittle HC, Howard CR. A novel hepatitis B variant in the sera of immunised children. J Gen Virol. 1994; 75: 443–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lanford RE, Luckow V, Kennedy RC, Dreesman GR, Notvall L, Summers MD. Expression and characterisation of hepatitis B virus surface antigen polypeptides in insect cells with a baculovirus expression system. J Virol. 1989; 63: 1549–1557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hu S-L, Kosowski SG, Schaaf KF. Expression of envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus by an insect virus vector. J Virol. 1987; 61: 3617–3620.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rusche JR, Lynn DL, Robert-Guroff M, Langlois AJ, Lyerly HK, Carson H, Krohn K, Ranki A, Gallo RC, Bolognesi DP, Putney SD, Matthews TJ. Humoral response to the entire human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein made in insect cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1987; 64: 6924–6928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gregoriados G. Immunological adjuvants: a role for liposomes. Immunol Today. 1990; 11: 89–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Höglund S, Dalsgaard K, Lövgren K, Sundquist B, Osterhaus A, Morein B. ISCOMs and immunostimulation with viral antigens. In: Harris JR, ed. Subcellular biochemistry, vol. 15: virally-infected cells. New York: Plenum, 1989: 39–68.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Howard CR, Frew A, Sundquist B, Morein B. Iscoms (immune-stimulating complexes) and the presentation of synthetic peptides. In: Meheus A, Spier RA, eds. Vaccines for sexually-transmitted diseases. London: Butterworths, 1989: 134–138.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Takahashi H, Takeshita T, Morein B, Putney S, Germain RN, Berzofsky JA. Induction of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells by immunisation with purified HIV-1 envelope protein in ISCOMS. Nature. 1990; 344: 873–875.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Eldridge JH, Staas JK, Meulbrook JA, McGhee JR, Tice TR, Gilley RM. Biodegradable microspheres as a vaccine delivery system. Mol Immunol. 1991; 28: 287–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Moss B, Flexner C. Vaccinia virus expression vectors. Annu Rev Immunol. 1987; 5: 305–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Blancou J, Kieny MP, Lathe R, Lecocq JP, Pastoret PP, Soulebat JP, Desmettre P. Oral vaccination of the fox against rabies using a live vaccinia virus. Nature. 1986; 322: 373–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Yilma T, Hsu D, Jones L, Owen S, Grubman M, Mebus C. Protection of cattle against rinderpest with vaccinia recombinants expressing the HA or F gene. Science. 1988; 242: 1058–1061.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Morin JE, Lubeck MD, Barton JE, Conley Ai, Davies AR, Hung PP. Recombinant adenovirus induces antibody response to hepatitis B surface antigen in hamsters. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1987; 84: 4625–4630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Stanway G, Hughes PJ, Westrop GD, Evans DMA, Dunn G, Minor PD, Schild GC, Almond JW. Construction of poliovirus intertypic recombinants by use of cDNA. J Virol. 1986; 57: 1187–1190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Burke KL, Dunn G, Ferguson M, Minor PD, Almond JW. Antigen chimeras of poliovirus as potential new vaccines. Nature. 1988; 332: 81–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Evans D, Mckeating J, Meredith J, Burke KL, Matrak K, Johns A, Minor PD, Weiss RA. An engineered poliovirus chimaera with broadly reactive HIV-1 neutralising antibodies. Nature. 1989; 339: 385–387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rice CM, Grakoui A, Galler R, Chambers TJ. Transcription of infectious yellow fever virus RNA from full-length cDNA templates produced by in vitro ligation. New Biol. 1990; 1: 1–25.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Argos P, Fuller S. A model for the hepatitis B virus core protein: prediction of antigenic sites and relationship to RNA virus capsid proteins. EMBO J. 1988; 7: 819–824.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Clarke BE, Newton SE, Carroll AR, Francis MJ, Appleyard G, Syned AD, Highfield PE, Rowlands DJ, Brown F. Improved immunogenicity of a peptide epitope after fusion to hepatitis B core protein. Nature. 1987; 330: 81–82.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Thanavala YM, Brown SE, Howard CR, Roitt IM, Steward MW. A surrogate hepatitis B virus antigenic epitope represented by a synthetic peptide and an internal image antiidiotype antibody. J Exp Med. 1986; 164: 227–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Steward MW, Howard CR. Synthetic peptides: a next generation of vaccines? Immunol Today. 1987; 8: 51–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bittle JL, Houghton RA, Alexander H, Schinnick TM, Sutcliffe JG, Lerner RA, Rowlands DJ, Brown F. Protection against foot and mouth disease virus by immunisation with a chemically synthesised protein predicted from the viral nucleotide sequence. Nature. 1982; 298: 30–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Achaya R, Fry E, Stuart DI, Fox G, Rowlands DJ, Brown F. The three-dimensional structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus at 2.9A. Nature. 1989; 337: 709–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    LaRosa GJ, Davide JP, Weinhold K, Waterbury JA, Profy AT, Lewis JA, Langlois AJ, Dressman GR, Boswell RN, Shadduck P, Holley LH, Karplus M, Bolognesi DP, Matthews TJ, Emini EA, Putney SD. Conserved sequence and structural elements in HIV-1 principal neutralisation determinant. Science. 1990; 249: 932–935.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Guyander M, Emerman M, Sonigo P, Clavel F, Montagnier I, Alizon M. (1987). Genome and organisation and transactivation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2. Nature. 1987; 326: 662–669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    von Gegerfelt A, Albert J, Morfeldt-Manson L, Broliden K, Fenyo EM. Isolate-specific neutralising antibodies in patients with progressive HIV-1 related disease. Virology. 1991; 185: 12–168.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Letvin N, Daniel M, Sehgal P, Desrosiers RC, Hunt RD, Waldron LM, Mackey JJ, Schmidt DK, Chalifoux LV, King NM. Induction of AIDS-like disease in Macaque monkeys with T-cell tropic retrovirus. STLV-III. Science. 1985; 230: 71–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sutjipto S, Pederson NC, Gardner MB, Hanson CV, Gettie A, Jennings M, Higgins J, Marx PA. Inactivated simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine failed to protect rhesus macaques from intravenous or genital mucosal infection but delayed disease in intravenously exposed animals. J Virol. 1990; 64: 2290–2297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Murphey-Corb M, Martin LN, Davidson-Fairburn B, Montelaro RC, Miller M, West M, Ohkawa S, Baskin GB, Zhang JY, Putney SD, Allison AC, Eppstein DA. A formalininactivated whole SIV vaccine confers protection in macaques. Science. 1987; 246: 1293–1297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Baltimore D. Intracellular immunisation. Nature. 1988; 335: 395–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Marcus PI, Gaccione C. Interferon induction by viruses. XIX. Vesicular stomatitis virus-New Jersey: High multiplicity passages generate interferon-inducing, defective-interfering particles. Virology. 1989; 171: 630–633.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sarver N, Cantin EM, Chang PS, Zaia JA, Ladne PA, Stephens DA, Rossi JJ. Ribozymes as potential anti-HIV1 therapeutic agents. Science. 1990; 247: 1222–1225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Xing Z, Whitton JL. An anti-lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus ribozyme expressed in tissue culture cells diminishes viral RNA levels and leads to a reduction in infectious virus yield. J Virol. 1993; 67: 1840–1847.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Wolff JA, Malone P, Williams WCG, Acsadi A, Jani A, Felger PL. Direct gene transfer into mouse muscle in vivo. Science. 1990; 247: 1465–1468.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Robinson HL, Hunt LA, Webster RG. Protection against a lethal influenza virus challenge by immunization with a haemagglutinin-expressing plasmid DNA. Vaccine. 1993; 11: 957–960.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ulmer JB, Donnelly JJ, Parker SE, Rhodes GH, Felger PL, Dwarki VJ, Gromkowski SH, Deck BR, DeWitt CM, Friedman A, Haw LA, Leander KR, Martinez D, Perry HC, Shiver JW, Montgomery DL, Liu MA. Heterologous protection against influenza by injection of DNA encoding a viral protein. Science. 1993; 259: 1745–1749.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Stirk HJ, Thornton J, Howard CR. A topological model of hepatitis B surface antigen. Intervirology. 1992; 33: 148–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. R. Howard

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations