The Spinal Route of Analgesia: Opioids and Future Options

  • M. J. Cousins
  • L. E. Mather
  • N. Smart
  • D. White
Part of the Developments in Critical Care Medicine and Anesthesiology book series (DCCA, volume 29)


The demonstration by Yaksh and Rudy (1) that intrathecal morphine in rats produced long-lasting, dose-dependent, and naloxonereversible analgesia led to the first use of spinal opioids in humans by Wang et al. (2) in 1979. Within months after the publication of this study of intrathecal morphine in cancer patients, Behar et al. (3) reported the epidural use of morphine in 10 patients and Cousins et al. (4) reported epidural use of meperidine. In the latter study, it was found that the time course of analgesia correlated with that of CSF rather than plasma meperidine concentrations, thus indicating a spinal site of action.


Dorsal Horn Respiratory Depression Antinociceptive Effect Epidural Morphine Intrathecal Morphine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. J. Cousins
  • L. E. Mather
  • N. Smart
  • D. White

There are no affiliations available

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