Advertisement

Utilization of Arachis species as forage

  • B. G. Cook
  • I. C. Crosthwaite
Part of the World Crop Series book series

Abstract

Legumes are no less important in the nutrition of grazing animals than they are in human nutrition. They serve a dual role: firstly as a source of high protein fodder in the animal diet, and secondly to inject nitrogen into the forage system by virtue of the symbiotic relationship between many leguminous species and the bacterial genera, Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium. Nitrogen input from the legume is one of the prime determinants of the productivity of a mixed grass/forb pasture, and high levels can only be achieved through maintaining a healthy, productive legume component in the pasture. While nitrogen can also be supplied as a constituent of chemical fertilizers, there is often farmer resistance to such practice based on economic and environmental considerations. Legumes vary in their capacity to fix nitrogen, as well as in their general suitability as forages in terms of productivity, palatability, toxicity, growth habit and adaptation to environment. Further, the legume flora varies considerably from country to country and region to region. Where there is a natural dearth of suitable forage legumes, researchers draw germplasm from similar environments elsewhere in an endeavour to provide more productive, stable pasture systems.

Keywords

Late Leaf Spot International Crop Research Institute Arachis Species Agricultura Tropical Peanut Stunt Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abou-Raya, A.K., Abou-El-Hassanand, A. and Al-Rehab, F.A. (1971) The feeding value of peanut hay and its response to alkali treatment and addition of urea. United Arab Republic Journal of Animal Production, 11(2), 291–93.Google Scholar
  2. Addy, B.L. and Thomas, D. (1977) Intensive fattening of beef cattle by stall feeding on the Lilongwe Plain, Malawi. 2. Utilisation of crop residues, crop by-products and leucaena. Tropical Animal Health and Production 9(4), 191–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adjei, M.B. and Prine, G.M. (1976) Establishment of perennial peanuts (Arachis glabrata Benth.). Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida Proceedings, 35, 50–53.Google Scholar
  4. Aduku, A.O., Okoh, P.N., Njoku, P.C. et al. (1986) Evaluation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) haulms as feedstuff s for weanling rabbits in a tropical environment (Nigeria). Journal of Applied Rabbit Research, 9(4), 178–180.Google Scholar
  5. Ahmed, F.A. and Pollett, G.E. (1979) The performance of yearling Kenana (Sudan Zebu) calves given three levels of crude protein as a concentrate supplement to ad libitum groundnut hay. Tropical Animal Production, 4(1), 65–72.Google Scholar
  6. Aiyadurai, S.G. (1959) Wild species of Arachis as forage and soil binding plants. Indian Oilseeds Journal, 3(3), 149–51.Google Scholar
  7. Anon. (1966) Plant Inventory No. 164, January 1 to December 31, 1956, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland.Google Scholar
  8. Anon. (1967) Plant Inventory No. 169, January 1 to December 31 1961, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland.Google Scholar
  9. Anon. (1970) Plant Inventory No. 176, January 1 to December 31, 1968, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland.Google Scholar
  10. Anon. (1982) Groundnut Cultivation in China. Chap 19, Utilisation of Groundnut.Google Scholar
  11. Anon. (1989a) Plant pathology, in Annual Report 1988, Tropical Pastures, Working Document No. 58, Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Cali, Colombia, p. 4.34.Google Scholar
  12. Anon. (1989b) Agronomy Cerrados, in Annual Report 1988, Tropical Pastures, Working Document No. 58, Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Cali, Colombia, p. 7.20.Google Scholar
  13. Anon. (1989c) Agronomy Central America and the Caribbean, in Annual Report 1988, Tropical Pastures, Working Document No. 58, Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Cali, Colombia, p. 9.17.Google Scholar
  14. Anon. (1990a) Agronomy humid tropics, in Annual Report 1989, Tropical Pastures, Working Document No. 70, Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Cali, Colombia, pp. 9.21–23.Google Scholar
  15. Anon. (1990b) Agronomy Central America and the Caribbean, in Annual Report 1989, Tropical Pastures, Working Document No. 70, Centro Internacional de Agricultura, Cali, Colombia, p. 8.3.Google Scholar
  16. Anon. (1990c) Virus detection in forage legumes, in CIAT Report 1990 — Report on 1989 Highlights, CIAT Publication No. 162, Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Cali, Colombia, pp. 129–33.Google Scholar
  17. Anon. (1991) Banana cover crop shows promise, but has its problems. Commercial Horticulture, Autumn, 24–25.Google Scholar
  18. Asakawa, N.M. and Ramírez R., C.A. (1989) Metodología para la inoculación y siembra de Arachis pintoi. Pasturas tropicales, 11(1), 24–26.Google Scholar
  19. Ayoade, J.A. and Njewa, B.J. (1983/84) Utilisation of agricultural residues by livestock. (I) Physical forms as a factor affecting the utilisation of bean and groundnut haulms by goats. Research Bulletin, Bunda College of Agriculture, University of Malawi, 12, 61–68.Google Scholar
  20. Baltensperger, D.D., Prine, G.M. and Dunn, R.A. (1986) Root-knot nematode resistance in Arachis glabrata. Peanut Science, 13, 78–80.Google Scholar
  21. Beaty, E.R., Powell, J.D. and Stanley, R.L. (1968) Production and persistence of wild annual peanuts in bahia and bermudagrass sods. Journal of Range Management, 21(5), 331–33.Google Scholar
  22. Bell, M. (1986). Effect of sowing date on growth and development of irrigated peanuts, Arachis hypogaea L. cv. Early Bunch, in a monsoonal tropical environment. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 37 (4), 361–373.Google Scholar
  23. Beltranena, R., Breman, J. and Prine, G.M. (1981) Yield and quality of Florigraze rhizome peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) as affected by cutting height and frequency. Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida Proceedings, 40, 153–156.Google Scholar
  24. Blickensderfer, C.B., Haynsworth, H.J. and Roush, R.D. (1964) Wild peanut is promising forage legume for Florida. Crops and Soils, 17(2), 19–20.Google Scholar
  25. Blue, W.G., Njwe, R.M., Nair, K.P.P. et al .(1989) Forage legume response to lime and phosphorus on the highland soils of northwest Cameroon. Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida Proceedings, 48, 68–71.Google Scholar
  26. Bogdan, A.V. (1977) Tropical Pasture and Fodder Plants (Grasses and Legumes), Longman, London and New York, p. 323.Google Scholar
  27. Bredon, R.M., Steward, P.G. and Dugmore, T.J. (1987) A manual on the nutritive value and chemical composition of commonly used South African Farm Feeds. Natal Region,Department of Agriculture and Water Supply, South Africa.Google Scholar
  28. Burke, E.P. (1850) Reminiscences of Georgia, James M. Fitch, Ohio, cited by Higgins (1951a).Google Scholar
  29. Burtnik, O.J. and Mroginski, K.A. (1985) Regeneratión de plantas de Arachis pintoi (Leguminosae) por cultivo in vitro de tejidos foliares. Oléagineux, 40(12), 609–611.Google Scholar
  30. Caldwell, A.G., Morris, D.R., Joost, R.E. et al. (1991) Perennial peanut, a summer legume for Louisiana. Louisiana Agriculture, 43(2), 14–18.Google Scholar
  31. Campbell, W.V., Wynne, J.C. and Stalker, H.T. (1982) Screening groundnut for Heliothis resistance, in Proceedings of the International Workshop on Heliothis Management, 15–20 November 1981, ICRISAT, Patancheru, A.P., India, pp. 267–75.Google Scholar
  32. Canudas-Lara, E.G., Quesenberry, K.H., Teem, D.H. and Prine, G.M. (1984) Sethoxydim and dalapon application to rhizomes for common bermudagrass control in rhizome peanut. Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida Proceedings, 43, 174–77.Google Scholar
  33. Canudas, E.G., Quesenberry, K.H., Sollenberger, L.E. and Prine, G.M. (1989) Establishment of two cultivars of rhizoma peanut as affected by weed control and planting rate. Tropical Grasslands, 23(3), 162–169.Google Scholar
  34. Castillo, M.B., Morrison, L.S., Russell, C.C. and Banks, D.J. (1973) Resistance to Meloidogyne hapla in peanut. Journal of Nematology, 5, 281–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Chandrasekhar, N.R. (1980) Forachis — a perennial forage groundnut, in National seminar on the application of genetics to improvement of groundnut, 16–17 July, 1980, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India.Google Scholar
  36. Chesson, J. (1983) The estimation and analysis of preference and its relationship to foraging models. Ecology, 64, 1297–1304.Google Scholar
  37. Collins, E.R. and Morris, H.D. (1941) Soil fertility studies with peanuts. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Stations Bulletin 330.Google Scholar
  38. Colwell, J.D. (1963) The estimation of phosphorus fertilizer requirements of wheat in southern New South Wales by soil analysis. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 3, 190–97.Google Scholar
  39. Combellas, J., Centeno, A., Mazzini, B. and Combellas, J. (1972) Use of the aerial parts of groundnut. 2. Making into hay, intake and digestibility in vivo. Agronomia Tropical, 22(3), 281–285.Google Scholar
  40. Cook, B.G. and Franklin, T.G. (1988) Crop management and seed harvesting of Arachis pintoi, Krap et Greg. nom. nud. Journal of Applied Seed Production, 6, 26–30.Google Scholar
  41. Corby, H.D.L. (1981) The systematic value of leguminous root nodules, in Advances in Legume Systematics (eds R.M. Polhill and P.H. Raven), Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, pp. 657–69.Google Scholar
  42. Dextre, R. (1984) Requerimientos nutricionales de Arachis pintoi CIAT 17434). Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Cali, Colombia (Mimeograph).Google Scholar
  43. Diulgheroff, S., Pizarro, E.A., Ferguson, J.E. and Argel, P.J. (1990) Multiplicación de semillas de especies forrajeras tropicales en Costa Rica. Pasturas tropicales, 12(2), 15–23.Google Scholar
  44. Drammeh, S. (1990). Groundnut improvement, production, management, and utilisation in the Gambia, in Summary Proceedings of the First ICRISAT Regional Groundnut Meeting for West Africa, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India, pp. 41–4.Google Scholar
  45. Dunavin, L.S. (1990) Cool season forage crops seeded over dormant rhizoma peanut. Journal of Production Agriculture, 3(1), 112–14.Google Scholar
  46. Dunavin, L.S. (1992) Florigraze rhizoma peanut in association with warm-season perennial grasses. Agronomy Journal, 84(2), 148–151.Google Scholar
  47. Durga Prasad, R.D., Prasad, D.A. and Ramachandra Reddy, R. (1986) Evaluation of complete rations containing groundnut haulms for lambs. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 56(2), 258–261.Google Scholar
  48. Dwyer, G.T., O’Hare, P.J. and Cook, B.G. (1989) Pinto’s peanut: a ground cover for orchards. Queensland Agricultural Journal, 115(3), 153–54.Google Scholar
  49. Easby, W.B. (1851) Letter to Commissioner of Patents. Report Commissioner of Patents 1851 (21), 353–55, cited by Higgins (1951a).Google Scholar
  50. Essomba, N.B., Mekontchou, T. and Iroume, R.N. (1990) Groundnut production and research in Cameroon, in Summary Proceedings of the First ICRISAT Regional Groundnut Meeting for West Africa, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India, pp 37–39.Google Scholar
  51. Gelaye, S., Amoah, E.A. and Guthrie, P. (1990) Performance of yearling goats fed alfalfa and florigraze rhizoma peanut hay. Small Ruminant Research, 3, 353–61.Google Scholar
  52. Gregory, M.P. and Gregory, W.C. (1979) Exotic germ plasm of Arachis L. interspecific hybrids. The Journal of Heredity, 70, 185–93.Google Scholar
  53. Gregory, W.C., Gregory, M.P., Krapovickas, A. et al. (1973) Structure and genetic resources of peanuts, in Peanuts — Culture and Uses, American Peanut Research and Education Association, Inc., Stillwater, Oklahoma.Google Scholar
  54. Gregory, W.C., Krapovickas, A. and Gregory, M.P. (1980) Structure, variation, evolution, and classification in Arachis, in Advances in Legume Science (eds R.J. Summerfield and A.H. Bunting), University of Reading, England, pp. 469–81.Google Scholar
  55. Grof, B. (1985) Forage attributes of the perennial groundnut Arachis pintoi in a tropical savanna environment in Colombia, in Proceedings of the XV International Grasslands Congress, Kyoto, Japan, Science Council of Japan and Japanese Society of Grassland Science, Nishi-nasuno, Japan, pp. 168–70.Google Scholar
  56. Halevy, J. and Hartzook, A. (1988) Dry matter accumulation and nutrient uptake of high-yielding peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) grown in a sandy soil. Peanut Science, 15, 5–8.Google Scholar
  57. Hallock, D.L. and Martens, D.C. (1974) Content of eight nutrients in central stem leaf segments of ten peanut cultivars and lines. Peanut Science, 1 (2), 53–56.Google Scholar
  58. Hartley, W. (1949) Plant collecting expedition to subtropical South America 1947–8, Divisional Report No. 7, CSIRO Division of Plant Industry.Google Scholar
  59. Herbert, T.T. and Stalker, H.T. (1981) Resistance to peanut stunt virus in cultivated and wild Arachis species. Peanut Science, 8, 45–47.Google Scholar
  60. Higgins, B.B. (1951a) Economic Importance of Peanuts, in The Peanut — the Unpredictable Legume, The National Fertiliser Association, Washington, DC, pp. 3–17.Google Scholar
  61. Higgins, B.B. (1951b) Origin and early history of the peanut, in The Peanut — the Unpredictable Legume, The National Fertilizer Association, Washington, DC, pp. 18–27.Google Scholar
  62. Ikhatua, U.J. and Adu, I.F. (1984) A comparative evaluation of the utilisation of groundnut haulms and Digitaria smutsii hay by Red Sokoto goats. Journal of Animal Production Research, 4(2), 145–152.Google Scholar
  63. Jamarun, N. (1984) The voluntary intake and digestibility of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) top hay and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) hay in combination with ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de Wit) fed to Philippine native goat. Thesis (MS in Animal Science), University of the Philippines at Los Banos College, Laguna, Philippines.Google Scholar
  64. Jones, R.M. and Rees, M.C. (1972) Persistence and productivity of pasture species at three localities in subcoastal south east Queensland. Tropical Grasslands, 6(2), 119–34.Google Scholar
  65. Kaligis, D.A. and Sumolang, C. (1991) Forage species for coconut plantations in North Sulawesi, in Forages for Plantation Crops (eds H.M. Shelton and W.W. Stür),Proceedings of a Workshop, Sanur Beach, Bali, Indonesia 27–29.6.1990, ACIAR Proceedings No. 32 (in press).Google Scholar
  66. Krapovickas, A. (1973) Evolution of the genus Arachis in Agricultural Genetics — Selected Topics (ed. R. Moav), John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 135–51.Google Scholar
  67. Krapovickas, A. (1990) A taxonomic summary of the genus Arachis, in Report of a Workshop on the Genetic Resources of Wild Arachis Species, held at CI AT, Cali, Colombia, 29 February to 2 March 1989, International Crop Network Series 2, IBPGR, Rome, p. 9.Google Scholar
  68. Kretschmer, A.E., Jr, and Wilson, T.C. (1988) A new seed-producing Arachis sp. With potential as forage in Florida. Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida Proceedings, 44, 229–33.Google Scholar
  69. Krishna Mohan, D.V.G., Murthy, P.R.S., Naidu, C.M. et al. (1985) Performance of weaner lambs fed rations containing different proportions of groundnut straw. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 55(6), 464–467.Google Scholar
  70. Kvien, C.S. and Bergmark, C.L. (1987) Growth and development of the Florunner peanut cultivar as influenced by population, planting date and water availability. Peanut Science, 14, 11–16.Google Scholar
  71. Lascano, CE. and Thomas, D. (1988) Forage quality and animal selection of Arachis pintoi in association with tropical grasses in eastern plains of Colombia. Grass and Forage Science, 43, 433–39.Google Scholar
  72. Leche, T.F., Groenendyk, G.M., Westwood, N.H. and Jones, M.W. (1982) Composition of Animal Feedstuff s in Australia, Australian Feeds Information Centre, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia, p. 124.Google Scholar
  73. Lu, J., Mayer, A. and Pickersgill, B. (1990) Stigma morphology and pollination in Arachis L. (Leguminosae). Annals of Botany, 66, 73–82.Google Scholar
  74. Martinez, B.F. de and Blue, W.G. (1978) Effects of calcium carbonate on chemical characteristics of three Florida soils and response of some agronomic plants. Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida Proceedings, 37, 188–92.Google Scholar
  75. Canudas, E.G., Quesenberry, K.H., Sollenberger, L.E. and Prine, G.M. (1989) Establishment of two cultivars of rhizoma peanut as affected by weed control and planting rate. Tropical Grasslands, 23(3), 162–169.Google Scholar
  76. Castillo, M.B., Morrison, L.S., Russell, C.C. and Banks, D.J. (1973) Resistance to Meloidogyne hapla in peanut. Journal of Nematology, 5, 281–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Chandrasekhar, N.R. (1980) Forachis — a perennial forage groundnut, in National seminar on the application of genetics to improvement of groundnut, 16–17 July, 1980, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India.Google Scholar
  78. Chesson, J. (1983) The estimation and analysis of preference and its relationship to foraging models. Ecology, 64, 1297–1304.Google Scholar
  79. Collins, E.R. and Morris, H.D. (1941) Soil fertility studies with peanuts, North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Stations Bulletin 330.Google Scholar
  80. Colwell, J.D. (1963) The estimation of phosphorus fertilizer requirements of wheat in southern New South Wales by soil analysis. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 3, 190–97.Google Scholar
  81. Combellas, J., Centeno, A., Mazzini, B. and Combellas, J. (1972) Use of the aerial parts of groundnut. 2. Making into hay, intake and digestibility in vivo. Agronomia Tropical, 22(3), 281–285.Google Scholar
  82. Cook, B.G. and Franklin, T.G. (1988) Crop management and seed harvesting of Arachis pintoi, Krap et Greg. nom. nud. Journal of Applied Seed Production, 6, 26–30.Google Scholar
  83. Corby, H.D.L. (1981) The systematic value of leguminous root nodules, in Advances in Legume Systematics (eds R.M. Polhill and P.H. Raven), Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, pp. 657–69.Google Scholar
  84. Dextre, R. (1984) Requerimientos nutricionales de Arachis pintoi CIAT 17434). Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Cali, Colombia (Mimeograph).Google Scholar
  85. Diulgheroff, S., Pizarro, E.A., Ferguson, J.E. and Argel, P.J. (1990) Multiplicación de semillas de especies forrajeras tropicales en Costa Rica. Pasturas tropicales, 12(2), 15–23.Google Scholar
  86. Drammeh, S. (1990). Groundnut improvement, production, management, and utilisation in the Gambia, in Summary Proceedings of the First ICRISAT Regional Groundnut Meeting for West Africa, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India, pp. 41–44.Google Scholar
  87. Dunavin, L.S. (1990) Cool season forage crops seeded over dormant rhizoma peanut. Journal of Production Agriculture, 3(1), 112–14.Google Scholar
  88. Dunavin, L.S. (1992) Florigraze rhizoma peanut in association with warm-season perennial grasses. Agronomy Journal, 84(2), 148–151.Google Scholar
  89. Durga Prasad, R.D., Prasad, D.A. and Ramachandra Reddy, R. (1986) Evaluation of complete rations containing groundnut haulms for lambs. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 56(2), 258–261.Google Scholar
  90. Dwyer, G.T., O’Hare, P.J. and Cook, B.G. (1989) Pinto’s peanut: a ground cover for orchards. Queensland Agricultural Journal, 115(3), 153–54.Google Scholar
  91. Easby, W.B. (1851) Letter to Commissioner of Patents. Report Commissioner of Patents 1851 (21), 353–55, cited by Higgins (1951a).Google Scholar
  92. Essomba, N.B., Mekontchou, T. and Iroume, R.N. (1990) Groundnut production and research in Cameroon, in Summary Proceedings of the First ICRISAT Regional Groundnut Meeting for West Africa, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India, pp 37–39.Google Scholar
  93. Gelaye, S., Amoah, E.A. and Guthrie, P. (1990) Performance of yearling goats fed alfalfa and florigraze rhizoma peanut hay. Small Ruminant Research, 3, 353–61.Google Scholar
  94. Gregory, M.P. and Gregory, W.C. (1979) Exotic germ plasm of Arachis L. interspecific hybrids. The Journal of Heredity, 70, 185–93.Google Scholar
  95. Gregory, W.C., Gregory, M.P., Krapovickas, A. et al. (1973) Structure and genetic resources of peanuts, in Peanuts — Culture and Uses, American Peanut Research and Education Association, Inc., Stillwater, Oklahoma.Google Scholar
  96. Gregory, W.C., Krapovickas, A. and Gregory, M.P. (1980) Structure, variation, evolution, and classification in Arachis, in Advances in Legume Science (eds R.J. Summerfield and A.H. Bunting), University of Reading, England, pp. 469–81.Google Scholar
  97. Prine, G.M., Dunavin, L.S., Moore, J.E. and Roush, R.D. (1981) ‘Florigraze’ rhizome peanut, a perennial forage legume, (Agricultural Experiment Station Circular S-275, University of Florida, Gainesville.Google Scholar
  98. Queensland Department of Primary Industries (1985) A Handbook of Plant Diseases in Colour, Vol. 2, Field Crops, 2nd edn Information Series Q185016, Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane, Australia.Google Scholar
  99. Ramanatha Rao, V. (1987) Origin, distribution, and taxonomy of Arachis and sources of resistance to groundnut rust (Puccinia arachidis Speg.), in Groundnut rust disease: Proceedings of a Discussion Group Meeting, 24–28 September 1984, ICRISAT, Patancheru, A.P., India, pp. 3–15.Google Scholar
  100. Reed, R.L. and Ocumpaugh, W.R. (1991) Screening rhizome peanut for adaptation to calcareous soils. Journal of Plant Nutrition 14(2), 163–74.Google Scholar
  101. Resslar, P.M. (1980) A review of the nomenclature of the genus Arachis L. Euphytica, 29, 813–17.Google Scholar
  102. Rika, I.K., Mendra, I.K., Gusti Oka, M. and Oka Nurjaya, M.G. (1991) New forage species for coconut plantations in Bali, in Forages for Plantation Crops (eds H.M. Shelton and W.W. Stür), Proceedings of a Workshop, Sanur Beach, Bali, Indonesia 27–29.6.1990, ACIAR Proceedings No. 32 (in press).Google Scholar
  103. Robles, A.Y. and Capitan, F.H. (1985) Growth performance of peanut hayfed goats in combination with ipil-ipil, in Management, nutrition and reproduction studies for improved goat production in the Philippines (ed. A.Y. Robles), Philippine Council for Agriculture and Resources Research and Development, Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines, pp. 231–235.Google Scholar
  104. Romero, F. (1986) Nutritional evaluation of Florida 77 alfalfa and ‘Florigraze’ rhizoma peanut as forages for dairy cattle. Dissertation Abstracts International, 47(4), 1343-B.Google Scholar
  105. Romero, F., Van Horn, H.H., Prine, G.M. and French, E.C. (1987) Effect of cutting interval upon yield, composition and digestibility of Florida 77 alfalfa and Florigraze rhizoma peanut. Journal of Animal Science, 65, 786–96.Google Scholar
  106. Saldivar, A.J., Ocumpaugh, W.R., Gildersleeve, R.R. and Moore, J.E. (1990) Growth analysis of ‘Florigraze’ rhizoma peanut: forage nutritive value. Agronomy Journal, 82, 473–77.Google Scholar
  107. Saldivar, A.J., Ocumpaugh, W.R., Gildersleeve, R.R. and Prine, G.M. (1992a) Total nonstructural carbohydrates and nitrogen of ‘Florigraze’ rhizoma peanut. Agronomy Journal, 84(3), 439–444.Google Scholar
  108. Saldivar, A.J., Ocumpaugh, W.R., Gildersleeve, R.R. and Prine, G.M. (1992b) Growth analysis of ‘Florigraze’ rhizoma peanut: shoot and rhizome dry matter production. Agronomy Journal, 84(3), 444–449.Google Scholar
  109. Shukla, P.C., Talpada, P. M., Desai, M. C. et al. (1985) Composition and nutritive value of groundnut haulm as an industrial by-product. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2(2), 89–90.Google Scholar
  110. Simpson, C.E. (1990) Collecting wild Arachis in South America past and future, in Report of a Workshop on the Genetic Resources of Wild Arachis Species, held at CIAT, Cali, Colombia, 29 February to 2 March 1989, International Crop Network Series 2, IBPGR, Rome, pp. 10–17.Google Scholar
  111. Sollenberger, L.E., Prine, G.M. and Jones, C.S. (1987) Animal performance on perennial peanut pastures. Agronomy Abstracts, 145–46.Google Scholar
  112. Stafleu, F.A. (Chm., Ed. Comm.) (1978) International code of botanical nomenclature. Adopted by the 12 International Botanical Congress, Leningrad, July 1975. Bohn, Scheltema, and Holkema, Utrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  113. Stalker, H.T. and Moss, J.P. (1987) Speciation, cytogenetics, and utilization of Arachis species. Advances in Agronomy, 41, 1–40.Google Scholar
  114. Stalker, H.T. and Campbell, W.V. (1983) Resistance of wild species of peanut to an insect complex. Peanut Science, 10, 30–33.Google Scholar
  115. Stür W.W. (1991) Screening forage species for shade tolerance — a preliminary report, in Forages for Plantation Crops (eds H.M. Shelton and W.W. Stür), Proceedings of a Workshop, Sanur Beach, Bali, Indonesia 27–29.6.1990, ACIAR Proceedings No. 32 (in press).Google Scholar
  116. Sylvester-Bradley, R., Mosquera, D. and Méndez, J.E. (1988) Selection of rhizobia for inoculation of forage legumes in savanna and rainforest soils of tropical America, in Nitrogen fixation by legumes in mediterranean agriculture, (eds D. P. Beck and L. A. Materon), Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrech, The Netherlands, pp. 225–34.Google Scholar
  117. Tounkara, N.B. (1990) Groundnut production in the Republic of Guinea, in Summary Proceedings of the First ICRISAT Regional Groundnut Meeting for West Africa, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India, pp. 49–51.Google Scholar
  118. Turnour, J.P. (1987) A glasshouse assessment of the effect of a number of different elements and shading on chlorosis in Arachis pintoi grown on a Mt Cotton red-yellow podzolic using Macroptilium atropurpureum cv. Siratro as a test plant. Department of Agriculture, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland (Mimeograph).Google Scholar
  119. Valentim, J.F., Ruelke, O.C. and Prine, G.M. (1986) Yield and quality responses of tropical grasses, a legume and grass-legume associations as affected by fertilizer nitrogen. Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida Proceedings, 45, 138–43.Google Scholar
  120. Valentim, J.F., Ruelke, O.C. and Prine, G.M. (1988) Evaluation of forage yield, quality, and botanical composition of a dwarf elephantgrass-rhizoma peanut association as affected by nitrogen fertilization. Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida Proceedings, 47, 237–42.Google Scholar
  121. Vails, J.F.M., Ramanatha Rao, V., Simpson, C.E. and Krapovickas, A. (1985) Current status of collection and conservation of South American groundnut germplasm with emphasis on wild species of Arachis in Proceedings of an International Workshop on Cytogenetics of Arachis, 31 October-2 November 1983, ICRISAT, Patancheru, A.P., India, pp. 15–35.Google Scholar
  122. Valls, J.F.M. (1983) Collection of Arachis germplasm in Brazil. Plant Genetic Resources-Newsletter, 53, 9–14.Google Scholar
  123. Velasquez, G. and Gonzalez, E. (1972) The nutritive value of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) straw. Agronomia Tropical, 22(3), 287–290.Google Scholar
  124. Vinijisanum, T., Irwin, J.A.G., and Cameron, D.F. (1987) Host range of three strains of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from tropical pasture legumes, and comparative histological studies of interactions between type B disease-producing strains and Stylosanthes scabra (non-host) and S. guianensis (host). Australian Journal of Botany, 35(6), 665–77.Google Scholar
  125. Vos, G. and Jones, R.M. (1986) The role of stolons and rhizomes in legume persistence. CSIRO Division of Tropical Crops and Pastures Annual Report, Brisbane, Australia, pp. 70–71.Google Scholar
  126. Williams, M.J., Hammond, A.C., Kunkle, W.E. and Spreen, T.H. (1991) Stocker performance on continuously grazed mixed grass — rhizoma peanut and bahiagrass pastures. Journal of Production Agriculture, 4(1), 19–24.Google Scholar
  127. Wright, G.C., Hubick, K.T. and Farquhar, G.C. (1991) Physiological analysis of peanut cultivar response to timing and duration of drought stress. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 42, 453–470.Google Scholar
  128. York, E.T., Jr and Colwell, W.E. (1951) Soil Properties, Fertilisation and Maintenance of Soil Fertility, in The Peanut — the Unpredictable Legume, The National Fertilizer Association, Washington, DC, pp. 122–172.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. G. Cook
  • I. C. Crosthwaite

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations