Physiological and Molecular Studies on the Response of Cyanobacteria to Changes in the Ambient Inorganic Carbon Concentration
The ability of cyanobacteria to adapt to a wide range of ambient CO2 concentrations involves modulation of the activity of an inorganic carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM), as well as other changes at various cellular levels including the biosynthetic pathway of purines. Studies of high-CO2-requiring mutants have identified several of the genes involved in the operation of the CCM and in the ability to grow under changing ambient CO2 concentration. In the case of Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 most of these genes have been mapped in the genomic region of the rbcLS operon. Higher levels of detectable transcripts originating from some of these genes have been observed after exposure of the cells to low CO2 concentration. Studies of mutants have confirmed quantitative models postulating crucial roles for carboxysomes and carboxysome-located carbonic anhydrase (CA) in cyanobacterial photosynthesis. A central role is also proposed for cytoplasmic-membrane-associated CA activity: CA may function to scavenge escaping CO2 by intracellular conversion to bicarbonate against the chemical potential.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Badger MR (1987) The CO2-concentrating mechanism in aquatic phototrophs. In: The Biochemistry of Plants, Vol 10, pp 219–274. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Codd GA (1988) Carboxysomes and ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. In: Ross AH and Tempest DW (eds) Advances in Microbial Physiology, Vol 29, pp 115–164. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
- Eaton-Rye J, Blubaugh DJ and Govindjee (1986) Action of bicarbonate on photosynthetic electron transport in the presence or absence of inhibitory anions. In: Barber J, Papa S and Papageorgiou G (eds) Ion Interactions in Energy Transport Systems, pp 263–278. Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Friedberg D, Kaplan A, Ariel R, Kessel M and Seijffers J (1989) The 5’ flanking region of the gene encoding the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase is crucial for growth of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC7942 in air level of CO2. J Bacteriol 171: 6069–6076.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaplan A, Schwarz R, Ariel R and Reinhold L (1990) The ‘CO2 concentrating mechanism’ of cyanobacteria: physiological molecular and theoretical studies. In: Kanai R, Katoh S and Miyachi S (eds) Regulation of Photosynthetic Processes. Bot Mag (special issue) 2: 53–72.Google Scholar
- Mayo MP, Elrifi IR and Turpin DH (1989) The relationship between ribulose bisphosphate concentration, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) transport and DIC-limited photosynthesis in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus leopoliensis grown at different concentrations of inorganic carbon. Plant Physiol 90: 720–727.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mi H, Endo T, Schreiber U, Ogawa T and Asada K (1992) Electron donation from cyclic and respiratory flow to the photosynthetic intersystem chain is mediated by pyridine nucleotide dehydrogenase in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803. Plant Cell Physiol 33: 1233–1238.Google Scholar
- Ogawa T (1993) Molecular analysis of the CO2-conccntrating mechanism in cyanobacteria. In: Yamamoto H and Smith C (eds) Photosynthetic Responses to the Environment, pp 113–125. American Society of Plant Physiology, Rockville, MDGoogle Scholar
- Peschek GA (1987) Respiratory and electron transport. In: Fay P and Van Baalen C (eds) The Cyanobacteria, pp 119–161. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
- Price GD and Badger MR (1989b) Isolation and characterization of high-CO2 requiring mutants of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC7942. Two phenotypes that accumulate inorganic carbon but are apparently unable to generate CO2 within the carboxysomes. Plant Physiol 91: 514–525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Reinhold L, Zviman M and Kaplan A (1989). A quantitative model for inorganic carbon fluxes and photosynthesis in cyanobacteria. Plant Physiol and Biochem 27: 945–954.Google Scholar
- Schwarz R, Lieman-Hurwitz J, Marco E, Ronen-Tarazi M, Ohad N, Hassidim M, Gabay C, Reinhold L and Kaplan A (1992b) The CO2-concentrating mechanism of cyanobacteria: elucidation with the aid of high-CO2-requiring mutants. In: Murata N (ed) Research in Photosynthesis, Vol III, pp 437–440. Kluwer, Dordrecht.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yu L, Golbeck JH, Zhao J, Schluchter WM, Muehlenhoff U and Bryant D (1992) The PsaE protein is required for cyclic electron flow around photosystem I in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7002. In: Murata N (ed) Research in Photosynthesis, Vol I, pp 565–568. Kluwer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar