A history of low vision and blind rehabilitation in the United States
The author presents a history of services for the blind and those with low vision in the United States focusing on the areas of orientation and mobility, and rehabilitation teaching. The controversies involving the development of these specialties are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the role of Father Thomas Carroll in the establishment of low vision and blind services for the military and veterans administrations. Published data regarding the past role of ophthalmologists in obtaining low vision services for patients is reviewed. The opportunity for a more active role for ophthalmologic involvement in the rehabilitation of the low vision and blind patient is discussed.
Key wordsHistory Vision rehabilitation Low vision Blindness
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Bledsoe CW. Originators of orientation and mobility training. In: RL Welsh, Blasch BB (eds) Foundations of Orientation and Mobility. American Foundation for the Blind, 1980, 581–624.Google Scholar
- 3.Carroll RTJ. Blindness: What It Is, What It Does and How to Live With It. Little, Brown and Co., Boston, Massachusetts, 1961.Google Scholar
- 4.Cholden L. A Psychiatrist Works with Blindness. American Foundation for the Blind, New York, NY, 1958.Google Scholar
- 5.Council NAE. Report of the Low Vision and Rehabilitation Panel. In: Vision Research: A National Plan 1994–1998. Government Printing Office, 1994, 305–321.Google Scholar
- 6.Crews JE, Luxton L. Rehabilitation teaching for older adults. In: AL Orr (ed) Vision and Aging: Crossroads for Service Delivery. American Foundation for the Blind, 1992, 233–253.Google Scholar
- 10.Hanson T. Rehabilitation teachers: who are we? The New Outlook 1976; 70: 299–303.Google Scholar
- 11.Kirchner C, Phillips B. Report of a survey of U.S. low vision services. In: C Kirchner (ed) Data on Blindness and Visual Impairment in the U.S. 2nd ed. American Foundation for the Blind, 1988,285–293.Google Scholar
- 12.Kubler-Ross E: On Death and Dying. Collier-Macmillan, Ltd, London, 1969.Google Scholar
- 13.Leja JA. Job roles of rehabilitation teachers of blind persons. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness 1990; 84: 155–159.Google Scholar
- 15.Muldoon JF. Carroll revisited: innovations in rehabilitation, 1938–1971. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness 1986; 80: 617–626.Google Scholar
- 17.Nilsson UL. Visual rehabilitation of patients with advanced diabetic retinopathy. A follow-up study at the Low Vision Clinic, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Linkoping. Documenta Ophthalmologica 1986; 62: 369–82.Google Scholar
- 21.Orr AL. An overview of the blindness system. In: AL Orr (ed) Vision and Aging: Crossroads for Service Delivery. American Foundation for the Blind, 1992, 159–183.Google Scholar