Advertisement

Stress pp 323-357 | Cite as

Stress in Education

  • Clifford B. Dobson

Abstract

French et al. (1976) have defined stress as ‘any characteristic of the job environment which poses a threat to the individual — either excessive demands or insufficient supplies to meet his needs’. The literature on occupational stress invariably comments on the multidimensional nature of stress, yet tests which have been used to measure the construct have generally concluded that items correlate significantly with the overall stress index, but inter-item correlations are weak. This suggests that there is an underlying source of stress. In their study of stress in school administrators, Tung and Koch (1980) sought to develop an instrument which would take into account the multidimensional aspects of stress within this type of organizational setting. This study merits closer examination.

Keywords

Disruptive Behaviour School Administrator Occupational Stress Public Examination School Life 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aaron, D. S. (1976). Social—Psychological Correlates of Teacher Absenteeism — a Multivariate Study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University (Xerox University Microfilm 77–10, 517 )Google Scholar
  2. Alban Metcalfe, R. J. and Dobson, C. B. (1982). Student Stress Inventory (Middle School Version). (Awaiting publication)Google Scholar
  3. Andrews, A. G. (1977). Ground rules for ‘the great debate’. Cambridge J. Educ., 7, 90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blake, W. S. (1955). Study skills programs. J. Higher Educ., 26, 97–9, 114Google Scholar
  5. Blishen, E. (1971). This right soft lot. ( London: Panther )Google Scholar
  6. Breslow, L. and Buell, P. (1960). Mortality from coronary heart diseases and physical activity of work in California. J. Chron. Dis., 11, 615PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chan, K. B. (1977). Individual differences in reactions to stress and their personality and situational determinants: some implications for community mental health. Soc. Sci. Med., 11, 89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Child, D. (1969). A comparative study of personality, intelligence and social class in a technological university. Br. J. Educ. Psychol., 39, 40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Child, D. (1970). Some aspects of study habits in higher education. Int. J. Educ. Sci., 4, 11Google Scholar
  10. Coates, T. J. and Thorensen, C. E. (1976). Teacher anxiety: a review with recommendations. Rev. Educ. Res., 46, 159Google Scholar
  11. Coddington, D. R. (1972a). The significance of life-change events as etiologic factors in diseases of children. A study of a normal population. J. Psychosom. Res., 16, 7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Coddington, D. R. (1972b). The significance of life-change events as etiologic factors in diseases of children. A study of a normal population. II. J. Psychosom. Res., 16, 205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cohen, L. and Child, D. (1969). Some sociological and psychological factors in university failure. Durham Res. Rev., 22, 365Google Scholar
  14. Comber, L. C. and Whitfield, R. C. (1979). Action on Indiscipline: a Practical Guide for Teachers. ( Hemel Hempstead: National Association of Schoolmasters and Union of Women Teachers )Google Scholar
  15. Cooper, C. L. and Marshall, J. (1976). Occupational sources of stress: a review of the literature relating to coronary heart disease and mental ill health. J. Occup. Psychol., 49, 11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cox, T. (1977). The nature and management of stress in schools. In Clwyd County Council (ed.) The Management of Stress in Schools, pp. 5–29. ( Clwyd: Clwyd County Council Department of Education Conference Report )Google Scholar
  17. Cox, T., Mackay, C. J., Watts, C. and Brockley, T. (1978). Stress and wellbeing in schoolteachers. Paper presented to the Ergonomics Society Conference: Psychophysiological Response to Occupational Stress’, Nottingham University, Nottingham (September )Google Scholar
  18. Dobson, C. B. (1980). Sources of sixth form stress. J. Adol., 3, 65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dobson, C. B. and Alban Metcalfe, R. J. (1982). Reliability and validity of the Student Stress Inventory (Sixth Form Version). (In press)Google Scholar
  20. Dobson, C. B. Student Stress Inventory (Fifth Form Version). (Currently in progress)Google Scholar
  21. Doyal, G. R. and Forsyth, R. A. (1973). Relationship between teacher and student anxiety levels. Psychol. in Schools,10, 231Google Scholar
  22. Dunham, J. (1976). Stress situations and responses. In National Association of Schoolmasters and Union of Women Teachers (ed.) Stress in Schools, pp. 19–47. ( Hemel Hempstead: NAS/UWT )Google Scholar
  23. Edgerton, S. K. (1977). Teachers in role conflict: the hidden dilemma. Phi Delta Kappan, 59, 120Google Scholar
  24. Entwistle, N. J. (1969). The relationships between personality, study methods and academic performance. Br. J. Educ. Psychol., 40, 132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Entwistle, N. J., Nisbet, J., Entwistle, D. and Cowell, M. D. (1971). The academic performance of students. I. Prediction from scales of motivation and study methods. Br. J. Educ. Psychol., 41, 258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Flecker, R. (1959). Characteristics of passing and failing students in first year university mathematics. The Educand, 3, 3Google Scholar
  27. French, J. R. P., Cobb, S., Caplan, R. D., Van Harrison, R. and Pinneau, S. R. (1976). ‘Job Demands and Worker Health’, a symposium presented at the 84th Annual Conference of the American Psychological Association, SeptemberGoogle Scholar
  28. Fuller, F. F. (1969). Concerns of teachers: a developmental conceptualization. Am. Educ. Res.J, 6, 207Google Scholar
  29. Fuller, T. (1642). The Holy State. As quoted in Ure, P. (ed.) (1956) Seventeenth Century Prose, 1620–1700. ( Harmondsworth: Penguin )Google Scholar
  30. Furneaux, W. D. (1961) The Chosen Few. (Oxford: Oxford University Press)Google Scholar
  31. Gabriel, J. (1957) An Analysis of the Emotional Problems of Teachers in the Classroom. (London: Angus Robertson)Google Scholar
  32. Geen, R. G. (1976). Personality. (St. Louis: Mosby )Google Scholar
  33. Grace, G. R. (1972). Role Conflict and the Teacher. ( London: Routledge Kegan Paul )Google Scholar
  34. Hargreaves, D. (1976). The real battle of the classroom. New Society, 35, 207Google Scholar
  35. Hargreaves, D. (1978). What teaching does to teachers. New Society, 43, 540Google Scholar
  36. Hendrickson, B. (1979). Is ‘exhausted’ an apt description of your present state of mind? You may be suffering from teacher burnout. But don’t despair; you ‘re not alone, and there is a cure. Learning, 7, 37Google Scholar
  37. Henry, E. (1971). Transforming the public image. Times Educational Supplement, 20 AugustGoogle Scholar
  38. Hudson, L. (1966). Contrary Imaginations. ( Harmondsworth: Penguin )Google Scholar
  39. Indik, B., Seashore, S. E. and Slesinger, J. (1964). Demographic correlates of psychological strain.J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol., 69, 26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Josephs, A. P. and Smithers, A. G. (197). Personality characteristics of syllabus-bound and syllabus-free sixth formers. Br. j. Educ. Psychol., 45, 29Google Scholar
  41. Joyce, C. R. B. and Hudson, L. (1968). Students’ style and teacher style. Br.J. Med. Educ., 2, 28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kidd, C. B. (1965). Psychiatric morbidity among students. Br. J. Prey. Soc. Med., 19, 143Google Scholar
  43. Kyriacou, C. (1980). Sources of stress among British teachers: the contribution of job factors and personality factors. In Cooper, C. L. and Marshall, J. (eds) White Collar and Professional Stress. ( London: Wiley )Google Scholar
  44. Kyriacou, C. and Sutcliffe, J. (1977). The prevalence of stress among teachers in medium-sized mixed comprehensive schools. Res. Educ., 18, 75Google Scholar
  45. Kyriacou, C. and Sutcliffe, J. (1978a). A model of teacher stress. Educ. Stud., 4, 1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kyriacou, C. and Sutcliffe, J. (1978b). Teacher stress: prevalence’, sources and symptoms. Br.,. Educ. Psychol., 48, 159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kyriacou, C. and Sutcliffe, J. (1979a). Teacher stress and satisfaction. Educ. Res., 21, 89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kyriacou, C. and Sutcliffe, J. (1979). A note on teacher stress and locus of control.J. Occup. Psychol., 52, 227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lavin, D. E. (1965). The Prediction of Academic Performance. ( New York: Russell Sage Foundation )Google Scholar
  50. Lawrence, D. H. (1961). The Rainbow. ( Harmondsworth: Penguin )Google Scholar
  51. Lawrence, J., Steed, D. and Young, P. (1977). Disruptive behaviour in a secondary school. Univ. Lond. Goldsmith’s Coll. Educ. Stud. Monogr., No. 1Google Scholar
  52. Le Bow, J. A. (1975). Evaluating the seriousness of adolescent adjustment reactions. Primary Care, 2, 281Google Scholar
  53. Levenson, H. (1972). Distinctions within the concept of internal—external control: development of a new scale. Proceedings of the 80th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association Google Scholar
  54. Lowenstein, L. F. (1972). Violence in Schools and its Treatment. ( Hemel Hempstead: National Association of Schoolmasters )Google Scholar
  55. Lowenstein, L. F. (1975). Violent and Disruptive Behaviour in Schools. ( Hemel Hempstead: National Association of Schoolmasters and Union of Women Teachers )Google Scholar
  56. Lynn, R. (1959). Two personality characteristics related to academic achievement. Br.J. Educ. Psychol., 29, 213Google Scholar
  57. Mace, C. A. (1968). The Psychology of Study. ( Harmondsworth: Penguin )Google Scholar
  58. Malleson, N. B. (1958). Student performance at University College, London. 1948–51. Universities Quarterly, 12Google Scholar
  59. Mechanic, D. (1978). Students under Stress. (University of Wisconsin Press)Google Scholar
  60. Mettlin, C. and Woelfel, J. (1974). Interpersonal influence and symptoms of stress.J. Health Soc. Behay., 15, 311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Neill, S. B. (1978). Violence and vandalism: dimensions and correctives. Phi Delta Kappan, 59, 302Google Scholar
  62. Newman, P. (1976). Social settings and their significance for adolescent development. Adolescence, 11, 405Google Scholar
  63. Odiorne, G. S. (1973). Management and the Activity Trap. ( New York: Harper Row )Google Scholar
  64. Parsons, J. S. (1973). Assessment of Anxiety about Teaching using the Teaching Anxiety Scale: Manual and Research Report. (Austin, Texas: Research andGoogle Scholar
  65. Development Center for Teacher Education, University of Texas) Pincherle, G. (1972). Fitness for work. Proc. R. Soc. Med., 65, 321Google Scholar
  66. Pratt, J. (1976). Perceived stress among teachers: an examination of some individual and environmental factors and their relationship to reported stress. Unpublished MA thesis, University of SheffieldGoogle Scholar
  67. Pratt, J. (1978). Perceived stress among teachers: the effects of age and background of children taught. Educ. Rev., 30, 3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychol. Monogr., 80, Whole No. 609Google Scholar
  69. Rudd, W. G. A. and Wiseman, S. (1962). Sources of dissatisfaction among a group of teachers. Br.J. Educ. Psychol., 32, 275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ryle, A. (1973). Student Casualties. ( Harmondsworth: Penguin )Google Scholar
  71. Sarason, S. B., Davidson, K. S., Lighthall, F. F., Waite, R. R. and Ruebush, B. K. (1960). Anxiety in Elementary School Children: a Report of Research. ( New York: Wiley )Google Scholar
  72. Styles, K. and Cavanagh, G. (1977). Stress in teaching and how to handle it. Engl.J., 66, 76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Taylor, J. K. and Dale, J. R. (1971). A Survey of Teachers in their First Year of Service. (University of Bristol)Google Scholar
  74. Teachers. General Studies Project: Education. (York: Longman Resources Unit)Google Scholar
  75. Tung, R. L. and Koch, J. L. (1980). School administrators: sources of stress and ways of coping with it. In Cooper, C. L. and Marshall, J. (eds) White Collar and Professional Stress. ( London: Wiley )Google Scholar
  76. Vaughan, M. (1971). Compulsory school-prison sentence. Times Educational Supplement, 15 OctoberGoogle Scholar
  77. Wankowski, J. A. (1969). ‘Some aspects of motivation in success and failure at university’. Paper presented at the 4th Annual Conference of the Society for Research into Higher Education, December 1968, pp. 1–39Google Scholar
  78. Wankowski, J. A. (1970). ‘Some non-intellective influences in success and failure of the random sample students’. Paper prepared for the British Psychological Society ConferenceGoogle Scholar
  79. Wardell, W. L., Human, M. and Hahnson, C. B. (1970). Stress and coronary heart disease in three field studies. J. Chron. Dis., 22, 281Google Scholar
  80. Warr, P. and Wall, T. (1975). Work and well-being. ( Harmondsworth: Penguin )Google Scholar
  81. Weitz, H., Clarke, M. and Jones, O. (1955). The relationship between choice of major field of study and academic preparation and performance. Educ. Psychol. Meas., 15, 28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Weitz, H. and Colver, R. M. (1959). The relationship between the educational goal and the academic performance of women — a confirmation. Educ. Psychol. Meas., 19, 373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Yeaworth, R. C., York, J., Hussey, M. A., Ingle, M. E. and Goodwin, T. (1980). The development of an adolescent life change event scale. Adolescence, 15, 91PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Clifford B. Dobson 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clifford B. Dobson
    • 1
  1. 1.BradfordUK

Personalised recommendations