Plants and insects have been co-evolving for at least 300 million years; during this time plant species have been under continuous selection pressure from herbivorous insect predators, and, in the absence of the ability to avoid predators by movement, have been forced to rely on physical and chemical defensive mechanisms. Physical mechanisms include the presence of hairs on the surfaces of plant tissues, spines, exuded gums and toughened surface layers, such as hardened seed coats. Chemical defensive mechanisms include all the cases where a plant metabolite present in the plant tissues is toxic to predators, or interferes with the normal growth and development of predators, or deters predators by its taste or smell (Norris and Kogan, 1980).
- Transgenic Plant
- Trypsin Inhibitor
- Transgenic Tobacco Plant
- Insect Resistance
- Chemical Insecticide
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Gatehouse, J.A., Hilder, V.A., Gatehouse, A.M.R. (1991). Genetic engineering of plants for insect resistance. In: Grierson, D. (eds) Plant Genetic Engineering. Plant Biotechnology Series. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-9646-1_4
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