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Radiative Equilibrium of a Gaseous Nebula

  • Lawrence H. Aller
Chapter
  • 110 Downloads
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library book series (ASSL, volume 112)

Abstract

For radiatively ionized plasmas with densities exceeding about 102 electrons/cm3, the relaxation times of relevant physical processes are such that we can usually regard a given volume element as being in a steady state. If we can neglect mechanical effects, particularly energy gained or lost by compression or expansion, we can impose the condition of radiative equilibrium or energy balance. The amount of energy absorbed in each volume element then equals the amount emitted.

Keywords

Maxwellian Distribution Central Star Dielectronic Recombination Collisional Effect Radiative Equilibrium 
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References

  1. The idea that energy supplied by photoionization processes appears in the excitation of forbidden lines was first applied by Zanstra in one of his methods for obtaining temperatures of central stars of planetary nebula, viz.: Zanstra, H. 1931, Zeits. f. Astrofis., 2, 1.ADSzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. The pioneering papers on energy balance or thermal equilibrium in gaseous nebulae are: Menzel, D.H., Aller, L.H., and Baker, J.G. 1938, Ap. J., 88, 313.ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. The pioneering papers on energy balance or thermal equilibrium in gaseous nebulae are: Baker, J.G., Menzel, D.H., and Aller, L.H. 1938, Ap. J., 88, 422.ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. The pioneering papers on energy balance or thermal equilibrium in gaseous nebulae are: Menzel, D.H., and Aller, L.H. 1941, Ap. J., 94, 30.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Spitzer’s method is described by him in: Spitzer, L. 1948, Ap. J., 107, 6ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Spitzer’s method is described by him in: Spitzer, L. 1949, Ap. J., 109, 337ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Spitzer, L., and Savedoff, M.P. 1950, Ap. J., 111, 593.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. The persistence of a Maxwellian velocity distribution was discussed by: Böhm, D., and Aller, L.H. 1947, Ap. J., 105, 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. See also: Gould, R.J., and Thakur, R.K. 1971, Phys. Fluids, 14, 1701.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. See also: Gould, R.J., and Levy, M. 1976, Astrophys, J., 206, 435.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, Holland 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrence H. Aller
    • 1
  1. 1.University of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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