Physics of Thermal Gaseous Nebulae pp 39-72 | Cite as

# Radiative Excitation, Ionization, Recombination, and Fluorescence

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## Abstract

Before we can calculate rate processes for atomic events in gaseous nebulae, we must derive certain basic equations. Our first concern is with radiative processes involving hydrogen.

## Keywords

Charge Exchange Solar Corona Central Star Planetary Nebula Ground Term
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## Selected Bibliography

- Our discussion of absorption and emission processes involving H is taken from D.H. Menzel, 1937, Ap. J., 85, 330. This and other papers of the Harvard series on physical processes in gaseous nebulae are reprinted in: Physical Processes in Ionized Plasmas, ed. D.H. Menzel (New York: Dover Publications, 1962, hereafter referred to as PPIP).ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hydrogenic line and continuous absorption coefficients have been discussed by: Menzel, D.H., and Pekeris, C.L. 1935, M.N.R.A.S., 96, 77.ADSzbMATHGoogle Scholar
- Hydrogenic line and continuous absorption coefficients have been discussed by: Karzas, W.V., and Latter, R. 1961, Ap. J. Suppl., 6, 167.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hydrogenic line and continuous absorption coefficients have been discussed by: Burgess, A. 1964, M.N.R.A.S., 69, 1.Google Scholar
- The basic theoretical references to the ionization of hydrogen and the formation of H II regions with sharp boundaries are: Stromgren, B. 1939, Ap. J., 89, 526ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- The basic theoretical references to the ionization of hydrogen and the formation of H II regions with sharp boundaries are: Stromgren, B. 1948, Ap. J., 108, 242.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- For a discussion of continuous absorption coefficients for complex atoms see: Burke, P.G. Atomic Processes and Applications, ed. P.G. Burke and B.L. Moiseiwitsch (Amsterdam: North-Holland Publications, 1976).Google Scholar
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- Calculations for individual cross sections have been given by many workers. A few examples of this work are: Henry, R.J.W. 1970, Ap. J., 161, 1153. (G, N, O, Ne).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Calculations for individual cross sections have been given by many workers. A few examples of this work are: Chapman, R.D., and Henry, R.J.W. 1971, Ap. J., 168, 169. (S)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Calculations for individual cross sections have been given by many workers. A few examples of this work are: Chapman, R.D., and Henry, R.J.W. 1972, Ap. J., 173, 243. (Al, Si, Ar)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Calculations for individual cross sections have been given by many workers. A few examples of this work are: Reilman, R.F., and Manson, S.T. 1979, Ap, J. Suppl., 40, 815ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Calculations for individual cross sections have been given by many workers. A few examples of this work are: Reilman, R.F., and Manson, S.T. 1981, Ap, J. Suppl., 46, 115.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Calculations for individual cross sections have been given by many workers. A few examples of this work are: Sakhibullih, N., and Willis, A.J. 1976, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl., 31, 11. (C IV)ADSGoogle Scholar
- Calculations for individual cross sections have been given by many workers. A few examples of this work are: Pradhan, A.K. 1980, M.N.R.A.S., 190, 5P. (Ne II, Ne III, Ne IV)ADSGoogle Scholar
- Radiative recombination of complex atoms has been discussed by: Gould, R.J. 1978, Ap. J., 219, 250.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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- Approximate formulae and coefficients have been given by: Tarter, C.B. 1972, Ap. J., 172, 251.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Approximate formulae and coefficients have been given by: Aldrovandi, S.M.V., and Pequignot, D. 1973, Astron. Astrophys., 25, 137.ADSGoogle Scholar
- The cross sections given by these authors for dielectronic recombination appear to be systematically too small. Dielectronic Recombination. A general review with references to previous work is given by: Seaton, M.J., and Storey, P.G. Atomic Processes and Applications, ed. P.G. Burke and B.L. Moiseiwitsch (Amsterdam: North-Holland Publications, 1976, p. 134).Google Scholar
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- Most of the discussions have pertained to high temperatures as in the solar corona and high densities as in quasars where the effects become more complex. See, e.g.: Burgess, A., and Summers, H.P. 1969, Ap. J., 157, 1008.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Most of the discussions have pertained to high temperatures as in the solar corona and high densities as in quasars where the effects become more complex. See, e.g.: Davidson, K. 1975, Ap. J., 195, 285. (Quasars)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dielectronic recombination rates appropriate to nebular temperatures and densities are discussed, for example, by: Jacobs, V.L., Davis, J., Rogerson, J.E., and Blaha, M. 1979, Ap. J., 230, 627.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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- Dielectronic recombination rates appropriate to nebular temperatures and densities are discussed, for example, by: Nussbaumer, H., and Storey, P.J. 1983, Astron. Astrophys.Google Scholar
- Charge Exchange. A brief summarizing account of the problems of charge exchange, with references to earlier work and timely warnings pertaining to inherent uncertainties in theoretical calculations, is given by: Dalgamo, A. Planetary Nebulae (ed. Y. Terzian, International Astronomical Union Symposium No. 76, Dordrecht, Reidel, 1978, p. 139).Google Scholar
- The astrophysical importance of oxygen-hydrogen charge exchange reactions was noticed by: Chamberlain, J.W. 1956, Ap. J., 124. 390.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Its effect on nebular ionization structure was examined by: Williams, R.E. 1973, M.N.R.A.S., 164, 111.ADSGoogle Scholar
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- The Zanstra method has been applied to planetary nebulae symbiotic stars, Be stars, and diffuse galactic nebulae. See: Zanstra, H. 1930, Publ. Dom. Ap. Obs. vTctoria, 4, 209.ADSGoogle Scholar
- A systematic formulation is given by: Harman, R.J., and Seaton, M.J. 1966, M.N.R.A.S., 132. 15.ADSGoogle Scholar
- A summary of the earlier work with descriptions of investigations by: Ambarzumian (1932), Stoy (1933), Wurm (1951), and others are given by: Aller, L.H., and Liller, W. 1968, Stars and Stellar Systems, 7, 546Google Scholar
- A summary of the earlier work with descriptions of investigations by: Ambarzumian (1932), Stoy (1933), Wurm (1951), and others are given by: Aller, L.H., and Liller, W. 1968, Nebulae and Interstellar Matter, ed. by Barbara Middlehurst and L.H. Aller, Chicago, Univ. Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Modernized versions of the Stoy method are given by: Kaler, J.B. 1976, Ap. J., 210, 843.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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- see also: Pottasch, R. 1983, Planetary Nebulae, Dordrecht, Reidel Publ. Co.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bowen proposed his fluorescent mechanism in: 1935, Ap. J., 81, 1. The earliest theoretical treatments by D.H. Menzel and L.H. Aller, 1941, Ap. J., 94, 436Google Scholar
- W. Unno, 1955, Publ. Astr. Soc. Japan, 7, 81, were hampered by poor atomic and observational data.ADSGoogle Scholar
- The first accurate models were given by R.J. Weymann and R.E. Williams, 1969, Ap. J., 157, 1201ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Replace earlier calculations by H. Nussbaumer, 1969, Astrophys. Lett., 4, 183. A. Dalgarno and A. Sternberg, 1982, Ap. J., discuss the role of charge exchange. The BFM may play a role in many astrophysical sources.ADSGoogle Scholar
- T. Kallman and R. McCray, 1980, Ap. J., 242, 615, discuss its possible importance in X-ray sources where much of the soft X-ray luminosity absorbed by the nebula appears as Lya (He II) which controls the ionization and temperature structure of the plasma until degraded. The BFM is expected to have a major effect on the fate of these He II photons.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

## Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, Holland 1984