Advertisement

Radiative Excitation, Ionization, Recombination, and Fluorescence

  • Lawrence H. Aller
Chapter
  • 111 Downloads
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library book series (ASSL, volume 112)

Abstract

Before we can calculate rate processes for atomic events in gaseous nebulae, we must derive certain basic equations. Our first concern is with radiative processes involving hydrogen.

Keywords

Charge Exchange Solar Corona Central Star Planetary Nebula Ground Term 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Selected Bibliography

  1. Our discussion of absorption and emission processes involving H is taken from D.H. Menzel, 1937, Ap. J., 85, 330. This and other papers of the Harvard series on physical processes in gaseous nebulae are reprinted in: Physical Processes in Ionized Plasmas, ed. D.H. Menzel (New York: Dover Publications, 1962, hereafter referred to as PPIP).ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hydrogenic line and continuous absorption coefficients have been discussed by: Menzel, D.H., and Pekeris, C.L. 1935, M.N.R.A.S., 96, 77.ADSzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. Hydrogenic line and continuous absorption coefficients have been discussed by: Karzas, W.V., and Latter, R. 1961, Ap. J. Suppl., 6, 167.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hydrogenic line and continuous absorption coefficients have been discussed by: Burgess, A. 1964, M.N.R.A.S., 69, 1.Google Scholar
  5. The basic theoretical references to the ionization of hydrogen and the formation of H II regions with sharp boundaries are: Stromgren, B. 1939, Ap. J., 89, 526ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. The basic theoretical references to the ionization of hydrogen and the formation of H II regions with sharp boundaries are: Stromgren, B. 1948, Ap. J., 108, 242.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. For a discussion of continuous absorption coefficients for complex atoms see: Burke, P.G. Atomic Processes and Applications, ed. P.G. Burke and B.L. Moiseiwitsch (Amsterdam: North-Holland Publications, 1976).Google Scholar
  8. Calculations for individual cross sections have been given by many workers. A few examples of this work are: Hidalgo, M.B. 1968, Ap. J., 153, 981. (C, N, O, Ne).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Calculations for individual cross sections have been given by many workers. A few examples of this work are: Henry, R.J.W. 1970, Ap. J., 161, 1153. (G, N, O, Ne).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Calculations for individual cross sections have been given by many workers. A few examples of this work are: Chapman, R.D., and Henry, R.J.W. 1971, Ap. J., 168, 169. (S)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Calculations for individual cross sections have been given by many workers. A few examples of this work are: Chapman, R.D., and Henry, R.J.W. 1972, Ap. J., 173, 243. (Al, Si, Ar)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Calculations for individual cross sections have been given by many workers. A few examples of this work are: Reilman, R.F., and Manson, S.T. 1979, Ap, J. Suppl., 40, 815ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Calculations for individual cross sections have been given by many workers. A few examples of this work are: Reilman, R.F., and Manson, S.T. 1981, Ap, J. Suppl., 46, 115.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Calculations for individual cross sections have been given by many workers. A few examples of this work are: Sakhibullih, N., and Willis, A.J. 1976, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl., 31, 11. (C IV)ADSGoogle Scholar
  15. Calculations for individual cross sections have been given by many workers. A few examples of this work are: Pradhan, A.K. 1980, M.N.R.A.S., 190, 5P. (Ne II, Ne III, Ne IV)ADSGoogle Scholar
  16. Radiative recombination of complex atoms has been discussed by: Gould, R.J. 1978, Ap. J., 219, 250.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Approximate formulae and coefficients have been given by: Tarter, C.B. 1971, Ap. J., 168, 313ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Approximate formulae and coefficients have been given by: Tarter, C.B. 1972, Ap. J., 172, 251.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Approximate formulae and coefficients have been given by: Aldrovandi, S.M.V., and Pequignot, D. 1973, Astron. Astrophys., 25, 137.ADSGoogle Scholar
  20. The cross sections given by these authors for dielectronic recombination appear to be systematically too small. Dielectronic Recombination. A general review with references to previous work is given by: Seaton, M.J., and Storey, P.G. Atomic Processes and Applications, ed. P.G. Burke and B.L. Moiseiwitsch (Amsterdam: North-Holland Publications, 1976, p. 134).Google Scholar
  21. Most of the discussions have pertained to high temperatures as in the solar corona and high densities as in quasars where the effects become more complex. See, e.g.: Burgess, A. 1964, Ap. J., 139, 776. (Corona)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Most of the discussions have pertained to high temperatures as in the solar corona and high densities as in quasars where the effects become more complex. See, e.g.: Burgess, A., and Summers, H.P. 1969, Ap. J., 157, 1008.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Most of the discussions have pertained to high temperatures as in the solar corona and high densities as in quasars where the effects become more complex. See, e.g.: Davidson, K. 1975, Ap. J., 195, 285. (Quasars)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dielectronic recombination rates appropriate to nebular temperatures and densities are discussed, for example, by: Jacobs, V.L., Davis, J., Rogerson, J.E., and Blaha, M. 1979, Ap. J., 230, 627.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dielectronic recombination rates appropriate to nebular temperatures and densities are discussed, for example, by: Storey, P.J. 1981, M.N.R.A.S., 195, 27P. See also I.A.TJ. Symposium No. 103.ADSGoogle Scholar
  26. Dielectronic recombination rates appropriate to nebular temperatures and densities are discussed, for example, by: Nussbaumer, H., and Storey, P.J. 1983, Astron. Astrophys.Google Scholar
  27. Charge Exchange. A brief summarizing account of the problems of charge exchange, with references to earlier work and timely warnings pertaining to inherent uncertainties in theoretical calculations, is given by: Dalgamo, A. Planetary Nebulae (ed. Y. Terzian, International Astronomical Union Symposium No. 76, Dordrecht, Reidel, 1978, p. 139).Google Scholar
  28. The astrophysical importance of oxygen-hydrogen charge exchange reactions was noticed by: Chamberlain, J.W. 1956, Ap. J., 124. 390.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Its effect on nebular ionization structure was examined by: Williams, R.E. 1973, M.N.R.A.S., 164, 111.ADSGoogle Scholar
  30. Some representative calculations of charge exchange coefficients are: Dalgamo, A., Butler, S.E., and Heil, T.G. 1980, Ap. J., 241. 442.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Some representative calculations of charge exchange coefficients are: Dalgamo, A., and Butler, S.E. 1980, Ap. J., 241, 838.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. The Zanstra method has been applied to planetary nebulae symbiotic stars, Be stars, and diffuse galactic nebulae. See: Zanstra, H. 1931, Zeits. f. Astrofis., 2, 1, 329, 1239.ADSzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  33. The Zanstra method has been applied to planetary nebulae symbiotic stars, Be stars, and diffuse galactic nebulae. See: Zanstra, H. 1930, Publ. Dom. Ap. Obs. vTctoria, 4, 209.ADSGoogle Scholar
  34. A systematic formulation is given by: Harman, R.J., and Seaton, M.J. 1966, M.N.R.A.S., 132. 15.ADSGoogle Scholar
  35. A summary of the earlier work with descriptions of investigations by: Ambarzumian (1932), Stoy (1933), Wurm (1951), and others are given by: Aller, L.H., and Liller, W. 1968, Stars and Stellar Systems, 7, 546Google Scholar
  36. A summary of the earlier work with descriptions of investigations by: Ambarzumian (1932), Stoy (1933), Wurm (1951), and others are given by: Aller, L.H., and Liller, W. 1968, Nebulae and Interstellar Matter, ed. by Barbara Middlehurst and L.H. Aller, Chicago, Univ. Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  37. Modernized versions of the Stoy method are given by: Kaler, J.B. 1976, Ap. J., 210, 843.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Modernized versions of the Stoy method are given by: Preite-Martinez, A., and Pottasch, A.S. 1983, Astron. Astrophys., 126, 31.ADSzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  39. The pioneering ultraviolet study (with the ANS satellite is): Pottasch, R., Wesselius, P.R., Wu, C.C., Fieten, H., and van Duinen, R.J. 1979, Astron. Astrophys., 62, 95,ADSGoogle Scholar
  40. see also: Pottasch, R. 1981, Astron. Astrophys., 94, L13.ADSGoogle Scholar
  41. see also: Pottasch, R. 1983, Planetary Nebulae, Dordrecht, Reidel Publ. Co.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. see also: Méndez, R. et al. 1981, Astron. Astrophys., 101, 323.ADSGoogle Scholar
  43. Bowen proposed his fluorescent mechanism in: 1935, Ap. J., 81, 1. The earliest theoretical treatments by D.H. Menzel and L.H. Aller, 1941, Ap. J., 94, 436Google Scholar
  44. T. Hatanaka, 1947, J. Astr. Geophys. Japan, 21, 1Google Scholar
  45. W. Unno, 1955, Publ. Astr. Soc. Japan, 7, 81, were hampered by poor atomic and observational data.ADSGoogle Scholar
  46. The first accurate models were given by R.J. Weymann and R.E. Williams, 1969, Ap. J., 157, 1201ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. J.P. Harrington, 1972, Ap. J., 176. 127.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Improved atomic data by H. Saraph and M.J. Seaton, 1980, M.N.R.A.S., 193, 617ADSGoogle Scholar
  49. Replace earlier calculations by H. Nussbaumer, 1969, Astrophys. Lett., 4, 183. A. Dalgarno and A. Sternberg, 1982, Ap. J., discuss the role of charge exchange. The BFM may play a role in many astrophysical sources.ADSGoogle Scholar
  50. T. Kallman and R. McCray, 1980, Ap. J., 242, 615, discuss its possible importance in X-ray sources where much of the soft X-ray luminosity absorbed by the nebula appears as Lya (He II) which controls the ionization and temperature structure of the plasma until degraded. The BFM is expected to have a major effect on the fate of these He II photons.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, Holland 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrence H. Aller
    • 1
  1. 1.University of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations