Nebular Compositions, Element Building, and Stellar Evolution
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The linkage between nucleogenesis and nebular chemical compositions is best defined for planetaries and a few other objects where we study the ejecta from a single star. How can theories of stellar evolution help us understand these objects?
Although a large fraction of the stellar population probably evolves into planetaries, the role of very massive O, of, and Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars is extremely important because these objects can return highly processed material, either through a stellar wind, through demise as a supernova, or both, and have a possible role in the origin of cosmic rays.
In particular, supernovae (although few in number) have a great effect on the chemistry of the ambient interstellar medium. Especially enlightening are a few objects such as Cas A where the chemical composition of the individual fragments of the detonation can be studied.
KeywordsInterstellar Medium Massive Star Mass Loss Rate Stellar Wind Stellar Evolution
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Stellar Winds With Application to a Star’s Evolutionary History
- In Chapter 10, stellar winds were discussed from the point of view of mechanics and radiative properties of surrounding shells and interstellar bubbles. They also play important roles in stellar evolution. This is a very active field for which we can give only a few references. The fundamental paper is that by Deutsch, A.J.., 1956, Ap. J., 125, 210.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cassinelli, J.P., 1979, 17, 275Google Scholar
- Lamers, H., 1983, p. 53, Diffuse Matter in Galaxies, ed. J. Audouze et al., Dordrecht, Reidel Publ. Co.,Google Scholar
- Late Stages of Stellar Evolution and the Origin of Planetary Nebulae.Google Scholar
- See I.A.U. Symposium No. 103, 1983.Google Scholar
- Wood, P.R., and Faulkner, D.J. 1984, I.A.U. Symp. No. 105, Reidel.Google Scholar
- Iben, I., Kaler, J.B., Truran, J.W., and Renzini, A. 1983, Ap. J., in press.Google Scholar
- Peimbert, M. 1981, Physical Processes in Red Giants, ed. I. Iben and A. Renzini, Dordrecht, Reidel Publ. Co., p. 409.Google Scholar
Early Stages of Planetary Nebula Development
- For a general review of observations of giant and supergiant stars relevant to the formation of PN, see: Zuckerman, B. 1980, Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys., 18, 263, and references cited therein. V1016 Cygni, HM Sge, and HBV 475, which are probably protoplanetary objects, have been studied by many observersGoogle Scholar
- Variability in the Spectrum of a Planetary Nebula was first established definitely for IC 4997. See Liller, W., and Aller, L.H., 1957, Sky and Telescope, 16, 222Google Scholar
- Current views on Wolf-Rayet stars are summarized in Wolf-Rayet Stars: Observations, Physics, Evolution, ed. de Loore, C.W.H., and Willis, A.J., Dordrecht, Reidel Publ. Co., 1982.Google Scholar
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- Chavalier, R.A., and Kirshner, R.P 1979, 233, 154.Google Scholar
- For recent X-ray studies of the spectra of a number of young SNR ejecta, see:Google Scholar
- Chemical Composition Variations Within and Chemical Evolution of Galaxies are topics which have received much attention in recent years. The following articles in Annual Reviews of Astronomy and Astrophysics, and references cited therein, are useful: van den Bergh S., 1975, 13, 217ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Peimbert, M., 1975, 13, 113Google Scholar
- Audouze, J., and Tinsley, B.M., 1976, 14, 43Google Scholar
- Pagel, B.E.J., and Edmonds, M.G., 1981, 19, 77.Google Scholar
- See also: Pagel, B.E.J., 1979, Stars and Stellar Systems ed. B.E. Westerlund, Dordrecht, Reidel Publ. Co.Google Scholar
- Edmunds, M.G., 1977, I.A.U. Colloquium No. 45, p. 67Google Scholar
- Audouze, J., 1983, Diffuse Nebulae in Galaxies, p. 95, ed. Audouze et al., Reidel Publ Co.Google Scholar