Advertisement

Diffuse Nebulae, Wind-Blown Shells, and Planetaries

  • Lawrence H. Aller
Chapter
  • 109 Downloads
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library book series (ASSL, volume 112)

Abstract

In preceding chapters we have reviewed physical processes associated with thermal excitation of spectra of various types of gaseous nebulae, H II regions, planetaries and supernova remnants. We must now examine more carefully some of the distinctive characteristics of these objects. We consider first certain of the classical diffuse galactic nebulae, properties of shells blown by stellar winds, and finally basic statistics, structures, and internal kinematics of planetary nebulae. In Chapter 12 we return to these latter objects in the context of stellar evolution; here we shall be concerned with some fundamental empirical data.

Keywords

Interstellar Medium Molecular Cloud Stellar Wind Supernova Remnant Expansion Velocity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

Relations involving HII regions, excitation parameters, etc., and exciting stars (see Eq. 3) have been given by, for example:

  1. Mezger, P.G., and Henderson, A.P. 1967, Ap. J. 147. 471.Google Scholar
  2. Schraml, J. and Mezger, P.G. 1969, Ap. J. 156. 269.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Felli, M. 1979, in Stars and Stellar Systems, 195, ed. B. Westerlund,Google Scholar
  4. Dordrecht, Reidel Publ. Co., and references therein cited. Georgelin, Y.M., Lortet-Zuckerman, M.C., Monnet, G. 1975, Astron. Astrophys., 42. 273.ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. Pottasch, S.R., Wasselius, P.R., and van Duinen, R.J. 1979, Astron. Astrophys., 77. 189.ADSGoogle Scholar

Nebulosities of extremely low density are discussed, e.g., by:

  1. Kirshner, R.P., Gull, T.R., and Parker, R.A.R. 1978, Astron. Astron. Suppl., 31. 261.ADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Reich, W. 1978, Astron. Astrophys., 64. 407.ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. The Orion Nebula. The standard, comprehensive account of modern work is Goudis, C., 1982, The Orion Complex, A Case Study of Interstellar Matter, Dordrecht, Reidel Publ. Co.Google Scholar
  4. Our summary has been taken mainly from briefer review papers which also contain numerous references: Zuckerman, B. 1973, Ap. J., 183. 863.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balick, B., Gannon, R.H., and Hjellming, R.M. 1974, P.A.S.P., 86. 616.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balick, B., Gull, T.R., and Smith, M.G. 1980, P.A.S.P., 92. 22.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Symposium on the Orion Nebula to Honor Henry Draper, 1982, ed.Google Scholar
  8. A.E. Glassgold, P.J. Huggins, and E.L. Shucking, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar

Sharpless 155 and Cepheus 3 Association; the discussion is from:

  1. Felli, M., Tofani, G., Harten, R.H., and Panagia, N. 1978, Astron. Astrophys., 69, 199, where references to numerous articles pertaining to this complex may be found. Other radiatively excited regions are discussed by, e.g.: Meaburn, J. 1978, Astrophys. Space Sci., 59, 193.ADSGoogle Scholar

Wind-driven Shells and Interstellar Bubbles. For a summarizing review see:

  1. McCray, R. 1983, Highlights of Astronomy 6, ed. R.M. West, Dordrecht, Reidel Publ. Co., and references therein cited. See also:Google Scholar
  2. Castor, J., McCray, R., and Weaver, R. 1975, Ap. J. (Letters), 200. L107.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dyson, J.E. 1977, Astron. Astrophys., 59. 161ADSGoogle Scholar
  4. Dyson, J.E. 1978, Astron. Astrophys.,62., 269.ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. Weaver, R., McCray, R., Castor, J., Shapiro, P., and Moore, R. 1977, Ap. J., 218. 377.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Properties of ring nebulae associated with Of stars are examined by:

  1. Lozinskaya, T.A. 1982, Astrophys. Space Sci., 87. 313, and references therein cited.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

For discussions of expanding rings and shells around Wolf-Rayet stars, see:

  1. Kwitter, K.B. 1981, Ap. J., 245. 154.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chu, Y.H. 1982, Ap. J., 254. 578.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Heckathorn, J.M., Bruhweiler, F.C., and Gull, T.R. 1982, Ap. J., 252, 230.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Johnson, H.M. 1982, Ap. J., 256, 559.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Gum Nebula

  1. Maran, S.P., Brandt, J.C., and Stecher, T.P. 1972, Gum Nebula and Related Problems. NASA SP-322.Google Scholar
  2. Reynolds, R.J. 1976, Ap. J., 203. 151ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Reynolds, R.J. 1976, Ap. J., 206, 679, and references contained therein.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 30 Doradus Google Scholar
  5. Numerous references to basic parameters for this nebula may be found in:Google Scholar
  6. Cantó, J., et al. 1979, M.N.R.A.S., 187, 673ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. Blades, J.C., and Meaburn, J. 1980, M.N.R.A.S., 190, 59P.ADSGoogle Scholar
  8. The spectrum of 30 Doradus is discussed, e.g., by:Google Scholar
  9. Peimbert, M., and Torres-Peimbert, S. 1974, Ap. J., 193. 327.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boeshaar, G.O. et al. 1980, Astrophys. Space Sci., 68, 335, and references cited therein.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

The remarkable nature of R136 is discussed by:

  1. Walborn N. 1973, Ap. J., 182, L21.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Walborn N. 1983, IAU Symposium No. 108 and references cited therein.Google Scholar
  3. Meaburn, J. 1981, M.N.R.A.S., 196. 19P.ADSGoogle Scholar

NGC 604: Supernova remnants, stellar winds, structure and morphology are reviewed by:

  1. Benvenuti, P., D’Odorico, S., and Dumontel, M. 1979, Astron. Space Sci., 66, 39.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Israel, F.P., Gatley, I., Matthewes, K., and Neugebauer, G. 1982, Astron. Astrophys., 105. 229.ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. Rosa, M., and D’Odorico, S. 1982, Astron. Astrophys., 108, 339, and references contained therein.ADSGoogle Scholar
  4. The spectrum of NGC 604 has been studied by a number of observers; see, e.g., Kwitter, K.B., and Aller, L.H. 1981, M.N.R.A.S., 195, 938, and references cited therein.ADSGoogle Scholar

Planetary Nebulae; General Surveys

  1. Older studies and developments up to the mid-1960fs are reviewed in Nebulae and Interstellar Matter; Stars and Stellar Systems, 7, 483, 1968, ed. B. Middlehurst and L.H. Aller, Chicago, University of Chicago Press. See also Planetary Nebulae, I.A.U. Symposium No. 34, 1968, ed. C.R. O’Dell and D. Osterbrock, Dordrecht, Reidel Publ. Co. More recent advances are described by Osterbrock (1973), AGN: Mémoires Société Royal des Sciences de Liege, 6th Series, 5, 1973; I.A.U. Symposium No. 76 (1977) and I.A.U. Symposium No. 103 (1983), Dordrecht, Reidel Publ. Co. An excellent comprehensive treatment is given by: Pottasch, S.R., Planetary Nebulae, 1983, Dordrecht, Reidel Publ. Co.Google Scholar
  2. Of earlier work on PN distances we give as examples: Zanstra, H., 1931, Zeits. f. Astrofis., 2, 329ADSzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. Berman, L., 1937, Lick Obs. Bull., 18, 73Google Scholar
  4. Minkowski, R., and Aller, L.H., 1954, Ap. J., 120, 261ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Shklovsky, I.S., 1956, Astr. J. (USSR), 33, 222, 315Google Scholar
  6. Cahn, J.H., and Kaier, J.B., 1971, Ap. J. Suppl., 22, 319.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Among more recent determinations, examples are:

  1. Acker, A. 1978, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl., 33, 367 (distance scales).ADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Cudworth, K.M. 1974, Astron. J., 73, 1384 (proper motions).Google Scholar
  3. Pottasch, S.R. 1982, I.A.U. Symposium No. 103 (21-cm data).Google Scholar
  4. Milne, D.K. 1982, M.N.R.A.S., 200, 51P.ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. Maciel, W.J., and Pottasch, S.R. 1980, Astron. Astrophys., 88, 1.ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. Daub, C.T. 1982, Ap. J., 260, 612.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. For discussions of galactic orbits and statistics, see, e.g.,Google Scholar
  8. Kiosa, M.N., and Khromov, G.S. 1979, Astrofizika, 15, 105.ADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Purgathofer, A., and Perinotto, M. 1980, Astron. Astrophys., 81, 215.ADSGoogle Scholar
  10. Maciel, W.J. 1982, Astron. Astrophys., 98, 406.ADSGoogle Scholar
  11. Schneider, S.E., Terzian, Y., Purgathofer, A., and Perinotto, M. 1983, I.A.U. Symposium No. 103.Google Scholar
  12. Masses of planetary nebular shells have been discussed by many authors. See, e.g.: Jacoby, G.H., 1981, Ap. J., 244, 903, where a mass determination is given for Abell 35, a large PN deformed by interaction with the interstellar medium.Google Scholar

Internal motions in planetaries; the classical papers are:

  1. Campbell, W.W., and Moore, J.H. 1918, Publ. Lick Obs., 13, 77.Google Scholar
  2. Wilson, O.C. 1950, Ap. J., 111, 279ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Wilson, O.C. 1958, Rev. Mod. Phys., 30, 1025.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. For an assessment of more recent work, see Osterbrock AGN (1973)Google Scholar
  5. Weedman, D.W., 1968, Ap. J., 153, 49ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bohuski, J., and Smith, M., 1974, Ap. J., 193, 197.Google Scholar
  7. Structures of planetary nebulae have been investigated by many workers since the pioneering work of: Curtis, H.D., 1918, Lick Obs. Publ., 13, 57. A frequently quoted classification of PN forms is that given by: Greig, W.E., 1971, Astron. Astrophys., 10, 161. See also Khromov, G.S., and Kohoutek, L., 1968, I.A.U. Symposium No. 34, p. 227, Dordrecht, Reidel Publ. Co.Google Scholar

Attempts to calculate the shapes of planetary nebulae by theoretical means are numerous. A few examples are:

  1. Gurzadyan, G.D. 1969, Planetary Nebulae, London, Gordon and Breach.Google Scholar
  2. Louise, R. 1973, Mem. Roy. Soc. Liege, 6th series, 5, 465.ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. Phillips, J.P., and Reay, N.K. 1977, Astron. Astrophys., 59, 91.ADSGoogle Scholar
  4. The importance of radiation pressure in scouring out the inner regions of PN was pointed out by Matthews, W.G., 1966, Ap. J., 143, 173ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Further examined by Ferch, R.L., and Salpeter, E.E., 1975, Ap. J., 202, 195ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Pikel’ner, S.B., 1973, Astrophys. Lett., 15, 91.ADSGoogle Scholar

Studies of Individual Nebulae involving both kinematical and structural measurements have greatly improved our understanding of these objects: A few examples:

  1. NGC 6543: Phillips, J.P., Reay, N.K., and Worswick, S.P., 1977, Astron. Astrophys., 61. 695; but see also Munch, G. 1968, I.A.U. Symposium, 34, Planetary Nebulae, p. 259.ADSGoogle Scholar
  2. NGC 6720: Osterbrock, D.E., 1950, Ap. J., 131, 541ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Minkowski, R., and Osterbrock, D.E., 1960, Ap. J., 131, 537ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hua, C.T., and Louise, R., 1972, Astron., Astrophys., 21, 193ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. Louise, R., 1974, Astron. Astropnys., 70, 189ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. Attierton, P.D., HLeks, T.R., Reay, N.K., Worswick, S.P., and Hayden-Smith, W. 1978, Astron. Astrophys., 66, 297.ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. NGC 2392: Reay, N.K., Atherton, P.D., and Taylor, K., 1983, M.N.R.A.S., 203. 1087, and references therein cited.ADSGoogle Scholar
  8. NGC 40 and NGC 7026: Sabbadin, E., and Hamzaoglu, E., 1982, Astron. Astrophys., 109. 131.ADSGoogle Scholar
  9. NGC 6853: Goudis, C, McMullan, D., Meaburn, J., Tebbutt, N.J., and Terret, D.L., 1978, M.N.R.A.S., 182, 13.ADSGoogle Scholar
  10. NGC 6302: Meaburn, J., and Walsh, J.R., 1980, M.N.R.A.S., 191, 5PADSGoogle Scholar
  11. NGC 6302: Meaburn, J., and Walsh, J.R., 1980, M.N.R.A.S.,193. 631ADSGoogle Scholar
  12. Phillips, J.P., Reay, N.K., and White, G.J., 1983, M.N.R.A.S., 203, 977.ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. Halo Nebulae: The first examples were found by Duncan, J.C., 1937, Ap. J., 86, 496ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. See: Kaier, J.B., 1974, Astron. J., 79. 594 (multiple shell PN)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Feibelman, W.A., 1981, P.A.S.P., 93, 719 NGC 6826)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jewitt, D.C., Danielson, G.E., and Kupferman, P.N., 1983, Ap. J., xx, xxx.Google Scholar
  17. Bipolar Nebulae: A useful summary is given by: Morris, M., 1961, Ap. J., 249. 572ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. See also: Allen, D.A., and Swings, J.P., 1972, Ap. J., 174, 583ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Zuckerman, B., Gilra, D.R., Turner, B.E., Morris, M., and Palamer, P., 1976, Ap. J., 205. L15ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Calvet, M., and Cohen, M., 1978, M.N.R.A.S., 182, 687ADSGoogle Scholar
  21. Schmidt, G., and Cohen, M., 1981, Ap. J., 246, 444.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, Holland 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrence H. Aller
    • 1
  1. 1.University of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations