General Features and Satellite Observations of Magnetoionic and Magnetohydrodynamic Waves in the Outer Ionosphere
General features of magnetoionic and magnetohydrodynamic waves including plasma waves in the outer ionosphere are reviewed on the basis of a combined electromagnetic and plasma kinetic theory with particular reference to satellite observations. Explicit expressions for the refractive indices of these waves in the outer ionosphere are presented taking into account the temperature effects and Landau and cyclotron damping for both electrons and ions in a generalized form of the Appleton-Hartree equations. Formulas are specifically provided for the wave features in the HF, VLF, and ELF ranges in conjunction with topside soundings, whistlers, micropulsations, and VLF and ELF radiations. Further, possible types of plasma resonance in the ionosphere are considered over a whole range of frequencies, with some experimental data observed mainly by Alouette and partly by Injun. In this connection, the satellite experiments on micropulsations, plasma resonances and radiations in the ELF range should be included as a method supplementing ground-based soundings.
KeywordsPlasma Wave Cyclotron Frequency Alfven Wave Electron Cyclotron Frequency Group Delay Time
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