Advertisement

The Evolution of Spiral Structure

  • E. M. Burbidge
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library book series (ASSL, volume 22)

Abstract

In attempting to study the evolution of spiral structure in galaxies, one may concentrate either on our own Galaxy, or on external galaxies. In our own, only a small part of the total time scale can be spanned and it is best therefore to consider other galaxies as well and try to order them in a sensible morphological sequence, in the hope that this will represent an evolutionary sequence. But one should not forget the cautionary tale of stellar evolution: in early studies the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram was interpreted as a sequence in which stars began their existence as red giants, then moved on to the upper end of the main sequence and evolved down it. An understanding of stellar evolution depended on the realization of two crucial factors in the problem: the role played by the masses of stars, and the development of a chemical inhomogeneity through the exhaustion of the nuclear fuel, hydrogen, in the central core. In galactic evolution, I fear we may be lacking some vital information or understanding that is as basic and fundamental as these were to stellar evolution.

Keywords

Density Wave Rotation Curve Spiral Galaxy Spiral Structure Circular Velocity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arp, H. C.: 1966, Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 14, 1.Google Scholar
  2. Babcock, H. W.: 1939, Lick Observ. Bull. 19, 41.Google Scholar
  3. Burbidge, E. M. and Burbidge, G. R.: 1964a, Astrophys. J. 140, 1445.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Burbidge, E. M. and Burbidge, G. R.: 1964b, Astrophys. J. 140, 1617.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burbidge, E. M. and Burbidge, G. R.: 1970, in Stars and Stellar Systems 9, Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, in press.Google Scholar
  6. Burbidge, G. R. and Prendergast, K. H.: 1960, Astrophys. J. 131, 243ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burbidge, E. M., Burbidge, G. R., and Prendergast, K. H.: 1960a, Astrophys. J. 131, 282.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burbidge, E. M., Burbidge, G. R., and Prendergast, K. H.: 1960b, Astrophys. J. 132, 654.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burbidge, E. M., Burbidge, G. R., and Prendergast, K. H.: 1962a, Astrophys. J. 136, 704.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burbidge, E. M., Burbidge, G. R., and Prendergast, K. H.: 1962b, Astrophys. J. 136, 119.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burbidge, E. M., Burbidge, G. R., and Shelton, J. W.: 1967, Astrophys. J. 150, 783; catalogue number identified in Astrophys. J. 153 (1968) 703.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carranza, G., Courtès, G., Georgelin, Y., Monnet, G., and Pourcelot, A.: 1968, Ann. Astrophys. 31, 63.ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. Courtès, G.: 1960, Ann. Astrophys. 23, 115.ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. Courtès, G.: 1964, Astron. J. 69, 325.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Demoulin, M. H. and Burbidge, E. M.: 1969, Astrophys. J. 159, 799.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dixon, M. E.: 1967, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 137, 337.ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. Freeman, K.: 1965, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 130, 183.ADSGoogle Scholar
  18. Freeman, K.: 1966, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 134, 1.ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. Hodge, P. W.: 1969, Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 18, 73.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Holmberg, E.: 1964, Uppsala Astron. Observ. Medd. No. 148.Google Scholar
  21. Lin, C. C.: 1967, Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 5, 453.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lin, C. C. and Shu, F. H.: 1967, in Radio Astronomy and the Galactic System, IAU Symposium No. 31 (ed. by H. van Woerden), Academic Press, London, p. 313.Google Scholar
  23. Lin, C. C., Yuan, C., and Shu, F. H.: 1969, Astrophys. J. 155, 721.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Miller, R. H. and Prendergast, K. H.: 1968, Astrophys. J. 151, 699.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Morgan, W. W.: 1958, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 70, 364.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Morgan, W. W. and Osterbrock, D. E.: 1969, Astron. J. 74, 515.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Münch, G.: 1960, Astrophys. J. 131, 250.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Münch, G.: 1962, in Problems of Extragalactic Research, IAU Symposium No. 15 (ed. by G. C. McVittie), Academic Press, London, p. 119.Google Scholar
  29. Oort, J. H.: 1962, in Interstellar Matter in Galaxies (ed. by L. Woltjer), Benjamin, New York, p. 234.Google Scholar
  30. Prendergast, K. H.: 1962, in Interstellar Matter in Galaxies (ed. by L. Woltjer), Benjamin, New York, p. 217.Google Scholar
  31. Prendergast, K. H.: 1967, in Radio Astronomy and the Galactic System, IAU Symposium No. 31 (ed. by H. van Woerden), Academic Press, p. 303.Google Scholar
  32. Rubin, V. C. and Ford, Jr., W. K.: 1970, in The Spiral Structure of Our Galaxy, IAU Symposium No. 38 (ed. by W. Becker and G. Contopoulos), D. Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, p. 61.Google Scholar
  33. Schmidt, M.: 1965, in Galactic Structure (ed. by A. Blaauw and M. Schmidt), Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, p. 513.Google Scholar
  34. Sersic, J. L.: 1958, Observatory 78, 123.ADSGoogle Scholar
  35. Shapley, H.: 1950, Publ. Observ. Univ. Michigan, 10, 79.ADSGoogle Scholar
  36. Strömgren, B.: 1967, in Radio Astronomy and the Galactic System, IAU Symposium No. 31 (ed. by H. van Woerden), Academic Press, London, p. 323.Google Scholar
  37. de Vaucouleurs, G., de Vaucouleurs, A., and Freeman, K.: 1968, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 139, 425.ADSGoogle Scholar
  38. Voroncov-Vel’jaminov, B. A.: 1959, Atlas of Interacting Galaxies, Moscow.Google Scholar
  39. Zwicky, F.: 1955, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 67, 232.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, Holland 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. M. Burbidge
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of PhysicsUniversity of California at San DiegoLa JollaUSA

Personalised recommendations