• Richard M. Zaner
Part of the Phaenomenologica book series (PHAE, volume 17)


To understand Sartre’s theory of the body, it is necessary to place it in the context, first of his general ontology and second in that of his theory of intersubjectivity. In the first place, as is well-known, two of the three “ontological dimensions” of the body — the body-of-the-Other and my body-for-the-Other — make their appearance, ontologically, only subsequent to the encounter with the other.1 The appearance of the Other as “dans son corps,” indeed, is itself made possible only in and through my own “objectité,” my own being made an object by the Other’s “look.” Making an object of the Other presupposes having been made an object by him.2


Ontological Dimension Cartesian Dualism Reflective Consciousness Specific Consciousness Hyletic Data 
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  1. 1.
    L’Etre et le Néant, Librarie Galliard (Paris, 1943), p. 405. (Hereafter cited textually as EN.) Cf. also pp. 335–36.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    The Transcendence of the Ego, Noonday Press (New York, 1957), cf. pp. 50–53.Google Scholar
  3. 2.
    M. Natanson, “Phenomenology and Existentialism: Husserl and Sartre on Intentionality,” The Modern Schoolman, Vol. xxxvii (November, 1959), pp. 1–10.Google Scholar
  4. 3.
    Ibid., p. 3. Natanson’s reference is to Sartre, “A Fundamental Idea of the Phenomenology of Husserl: Intentionality,” Situations, I, Gallimard (Paris, 1947), pp. 31–35.Google Scholar
  5. 1.
    Natanson, ibid. Merleau-Ponty, as well, attempts to existentialize Husserl’s phenomenology, in much the same manner.Google Scholar
  6. 1.
    Natanson, op. cit., pp. 6–7.Google Scholar
  7. 1.
    Ibid., pp. 8–9. “…Sartre’s determination to rescue Husserl from himself blinds him to the very subjectivity existentialism seeks.” (p. 9)Google Scholar
  8. 3.
    Sartre, Transcendence of the Ego, op. cit., p. 45.Google Scholar
  9. 1.
    Ibid., pp. 53–54.Google Scholar
  10. 2.
    Sartre departs fundamentally from Husserl at this point as well: for Husseri the fundamental stratum of consciousness is affirmative; negation is founded on this. Cf. Husserl, Ideen zu einer reinen Phänomenologie und phänomenologischen Philosophie, Erstes Buch, M. Niemeyer (Halle a.d.S., 1913), § 106, pp. 218–219.Google Scholar
  11. 1.
    Loc. cit. Google Scholar
  12. 1.
    The Transcendence of the Ego, op. cit., p. 90.Google Scholar
  13. 2.
    Ibid., p. 91.Google Scholar

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© Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, Netherlands 1971

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  • Richard M. Zaner

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