Advertisement

The House of Schönborn and John Philip von Schönborn, Elector of Mainz

Chapter
  • 38 Downloads
Part of the Archives Internationales d’Histoire des Idees / International Archives of the History of Ideas book series (ARMI, volume 5)

Abstract

The village of Schönborn stands on the southern slopes of the valley of the river Lahn between the towns of Nassau and Dietz. There one finds the original homeland of the house of Schönborn. In the vicinity are places whose names have associations with a half-legendary world of medieval chivalry. At Limburg on the Lahn is the great Romanesque church of St. George, founded in A.D. 910 by Graf Conrad Kurzbold with the aid of Archbishop Hatto of Mainz. Walther von der Vogelweide dedicated verses to one of the counts of nearby Katzenelnbogen. Montabaur owes its name (Mons Tabor)to Archbishop Dietrich of Wied’s pilgrimage to Palestine in A.D. 1224 and nearby Hadamar once housed a miraculous image of the Virgin.

Keywords

Great Elector United Province General Guarantee Standing Army Imperial Troop 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Hugo Hantsch, Reichskanzler Friedrich Karl Graf von Schönborn (Augsburg: Dr. Benno Filser Verlag, 1929), p. 15.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
    Ibid., p. 15 and p. 369, n. 2.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ibid., p. 369.Google Scholar
  5. 6.
    Hantsch, op. cit., p. 369, n. 5.Google Scholar
  6. 7.
    Hantsch, op. cit., p. 369, n. 5.Google Scholar
  7. 8.
  8. 9.
    Hantsch, op. cit., p. 15 and p. 369, n. 7. One had to possess 16 quarterings on one’s arms to enter the Chapter of Mainz.Google Scholar
  9. 10.
    Herrschaftsrichter Habersack, “Stammtafel der gräflich Schönbornschen Familie,” Archiv des historischen Vereins für dem Untermainkreis, I (1833), 128.Google Scholar
  10. 11.
    Hantsch, op. cit., p. 16.Google Scholar
  11. 12.
    Georg Mentz, Johann Philipp von Schönborn, Kurfürst von Mainz, Bischof von Würzburg und Worms 1605–1673 (Jena: Gustav Fischer, 1896), I, 14.Google Scholar
  12. 13.
    Claude Badalo-Dulong, Trente ans de diplomatie française en Allemagne… 1648–1678 (Paris: Plon, 1956), p. 15.Google Scholar
  13. 14.
    Mentz, op. cit., I, 15.Google Scholar
  14. 15.
    Josef Friedrich Abert, “Vom Maezenatentum der Schönborn,” Mainfränkische Hefte, VIII (1950), 32.Google Scholar
  15. 16.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., pp. 14–15.Google Scholar
  16. 17.
    Curt von Faber du Faur, German Baroque Literature (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1958), p. 250. Von Faber du Faur attributes John Philip’s action to the influence of the Jesuit von Spee, whose attack on the mania of witch persecution, the Cautio criminalis, first appeared in 1631.Google Scholar
  17. 18.
    Mentz, op. cit., II, 219–223.Google Scholar
  18. 19.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 15.Google Scholar
  19. 20.
    As Georges Livet succinctly puts it in Recueil des Instructions données aux Ambassadeurs et Ministres de France, Vol. XXVIII, États Allemands, Tome Premier, L’Électorat de Mayence (Paris: Éditions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1962), p. xxvii: “The masks change, but the dance is the same.”Google Scholar
  20. 21.
    Fritz Dickmann, Der Westfälische Frieden (2nd edition, Münster: Verlag Aschendorff, 1965), p. 430. The provisions of the treaties of Münster and Osnabruck are summarized in Gaston Zeller, Les temps modernes, Première Partie, De Christophe Colombe à Cromwell, Vol. II of Histoire des relation internationales, ed. Pierre Renouvin (7 vols.; Paris: Hachette, 1953), pp. 261–265.Google Scholar
  21. 21a.
    The provisions of the treaties of Münster and Osnabruck are summarized in Gaston Zeller, Les temps modernes, Première Partie, De Christophe Colombe à Cromwell, Vol. II of Histoire des relation internationales, ed. Pierre Renouvin (7 vols.; Paris: Hachette, 1953), pp. 261–265.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, 1637–1657; father of Ferdinand IV, King of the Romans, 1653–1654 and of Leopold I, Emperor, 1658–1705.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., pp. 15–16.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, 3–4.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ibid., 4–9.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ibid., 10–11.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mentz, op. cit., I, 49.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mentz, op. cit., I, 44.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dickmann, op. cit., p. 430.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, 13.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, 13.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ibid., 15.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Georges Livet, Recueil des Instructions données aux Ambassadeurs et Ministres de France, Vol. XXVIII, États Allemande, Tome Troisième, L’Électorat de Trèves (Paris: Éditions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1966), p. xxxviii.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, x-xi.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, map following p. 287.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Otto Meyer, Kurfürst Lothar Franz von Schönborn inmitten der Geschichte seiner Zeit und seines Hauses (Bamberg and Wiesbaden: Bayerische Verlagsanstalt, 1957), pp. 5–6.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bruno Gebhardt, Handbuch der deutschen Geschichte, Vol. I, Frühzeit und Mittelalter (8th edition; Stuttgart: Union Deutsche Verlagsgesellschaft, 1954), pp. 444–447.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mentz, op.cit., II, 60–61.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gebhardt, op. cit., II, 208.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Xavier Mossmann, “Le congrès de Nuremberg et l’evacuation des villes d’Alsace, Septembre 1649–Juin 1650,” Revue d’Alsace (1900), p. 125.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mossmann, op. cit., p. 137. Ehrenbreitstein was returned to its rightful owner, the Elector of Trier in 1650. (Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 3, lxxxvii).Google Scholar
  42. 41a.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 3, lxxxvii).Google Scholar
  43. 42.
    Ferdinand Schevill, The Great Elector, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1947), p. 267.Google Scholar
  44. 43.
    Mentz, op. cit., I, 52.Google Scholar
  45. 44.
    Zeller, op. cit., I, 271.Google Scholar
  46. 45.
    Mentz, op. cit., I, 55. This so-called League of Frankfurt also made abortive attempts to set up a common military constitution for the Electoral and Upper Rhenish Circles.Google Scholar
  47. 46.
    Ibid., I, 53Google Scholar
  48. 46.
    Ibid., II, 19–20.Google Scholar
  49. 47.
    Ibid., II, 14.Google Scholar
  50. 48.
    Schevill, op. cit., pp. 139–142.Google Scholar
  51. 49.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 23.Google Scholar
  52. 50.
    Mentz, op. cit., I, 57–58.Google Scholar
  53. 51.
    Gebhardt, op. cit., II, 208–209.Google Scholar
  54. 52.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, xiii.Google Scholar
  55. 53.
    Mentz, op. cit., I, 58.Google Scholar
  56. 54.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 24.Google Scholar
  57. 55.
    Mentz, op. cit., I, 60.Google Scholar
  58. 56.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 25.Google Scholar
  59. 57.
  60. 58.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, 19.Google Scholar
  61. 59.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, 21.Google Scholar
  62. 60.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, 21–22.Google Scholar
  63. 61.
    Mentz, op. cit., I, 59–60.Google Scholar
  64. 62.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 25.Google Scholar
  65. 63.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, 22–23.Google Scholar
  66. 64.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, xii.Google Scholar
  67. 65.
    Mentz, op. cit., I, 75 and 78.Google Scholar
  68. 66.
    Schevill, op. cit., pp. 267–268.Google Scholar
  69. 67.
    Ibid., p. 268.Google Scholar
  70. 68.
    Leopold William of Austria, 1625–1662, Bishop of Passau and Strassburg.Google Scholar
  71. 69.
    Mentz, op. cit., I, 75.Google Scholar
  72. 70.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 27.Google Scholar
  73. 71.
  74. 71a.
    For John Philip’s leadership of the pro-French minority: Mentz, op. cit., I, 80.Google Scholar
  75. 72.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 3, xc–xcv.Google Scholar
  76. 73.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 28.Google Scholar
  77. 74.
    Mentz, op. cit., I, 80.Google Scholar
  78. 74a.
    Mentz, op. cit., II, 22–23.Google Scholar
  79. 75.
    Bernhard Erdmannsdörffer, Deutsche Geschichte vom Westfälischen Frieden bis zum Regierungsantritt Friedrichs des Grossen 1648–1740, Section III, Part VII of Allgemeine Geschichte in Einzeldarstellungen ed. W. Oncken (2 vols.; Berlin: G. Grote’sche Verlag, 1892–1893), I, 303.Google Scholar
  80. 76.
    Adam M. Reitzel, Das Mainzer Krönungsrecht und die politische Proble-matik (Mainz: Verlag Dr. Hanns Krach, 1963), p. 21.Google Scholar
  81. 77.
    Mentz, op.cit., II, 20–21. Johann Christian von Boyneburg, 1622–1672, began his career in the service of Landgrave Johann von Braubach, brother of George II of Hesse-Darmstadt. Converted to Catholicism after entering the service of John Philip to whom he was Oberhofmarschall and chief minister, 1652–1664.Google Scholar
  82. 77a.
    For an assessment of his political activity, see Mentz, ibid., pp. 268–281.Google Scholar
  83. 77b.
    Karl Wild, “Der Sturz des Mainzer Oberhofmarschall Johann Christian von Boyneburg im Jahr 1664,” I, Zeitschrift für die Geschichte des Oberrheins, XIII (1898), 584–600.Google Scholar
  84. 78.
    Mentz, op. cit., II, 295.Google Scholar
  85. 79.
    Reitzel, op. cit., p. 32.Google Scholar
  86. 80.
    Reitzel, op. cit., pp. 31–32.Google Scholar
  87. 81.
    Johann Jakob Moser, Grund-Riss der Heutigen Staats-Verfassung des Teut-schen Reichs (7th ed. revised; Tübingen: J. G. Cotta, 1754), pp. 112–113.Google Scholar
  88. 82.
    Reitzel, op. cit., p. 32.Google Scholar
  89. 82a.
    cf. Mentz, op. cit., II, 20–22.Google Scholar
  90. 83.
    Mentz, op. cit., I, 55–56.Google Scholar
  91. 84.
    Ibid., I, 81–87.Google Scholar
  92. 85.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 51.Google Scholar
  93. 85a.
    Zeller, op. cit., II, 295.Google Scholar
  94. 86.
    Mentz, op. cit., I, 34Google Scholar
  95. 86a.
    E. Lavisse and A. Rambaud, Histoire générale des IV Siècle à nos jours, Vol. VI, Louis XIV, 1643–1715 (Paris: A. Colin, 1895), p. 537. The text of the treaty among the German states is in Londorp. The treaty with France is in H. Vast, Les grands traités du règne de Louis XIV (Paris: A. Picard et fils, 1893–1899), I, 72.Google Scholar
  96. 87.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 28.Google Scholar
  97. 88.
    Ibid., p. 29.Google Scholar
  98. 89.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, ix.Google Scholar
  99. 90.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 30.Google Scholar
  100. 91.
    Mentz, op. cit., I, 95.Google Scholar
  101. 92.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, ix–x.Google Scholar
  102. 93.
    Albert Sorel, ed., Recueil des Instructions données aux Ambassadeurs, et. Ministres de France, Vol. I, Autriche (Paris: Félix Alcan, 1884), p. 40. For a French account of the negotiations leading to the Peace of the Pyrenees and the Spanish marriage.Google Scholar
  103. 93a.
    see Zeller, op. cit., I, 272–276.Google Scholar
  104. 94.
    F. J. Routledge, England and the Treaty of the Pyrenees (Liverpool: University Press of Liverpool, 1953), p. 12.Google Scholar
  105. 95.
    Routledge, op. cit., p. 70.Google Scholar
  106. 96.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 31.Google Scholar
  107. 97.
    Mentz, op. cit., I, 89–93.Google Scholar
  108. 98.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 33.Google Scholar
  109. 99.
    Ibid., p. 34.Google Scholar
  110. 100.
    Ibid., p. 35.Google Scholar
  111. 101.
    Ibid., p. 34.Google Scholar
  112. 102.
    Schevill, op. cit., p. 270.Google Scholar
  113. 103.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 39.Google Scholar
  114. 104.
    Mentz, op. cit., I, 98.Google Scholar
  115. 105.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., pp. 43–44. Wilderich Freiherr von Walderdorff, was a canon of Mainz and Würzburg, Vicar General of Mainz, Vice-Chancellor of the Empire and Bishop of Vienna.Google Scholar
  116. 106.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 44.Google Scholar
  117. 107.
    Mentz, op. cit., I, 106–107.Google Scholar
  118. 108.
    An essential work on Louis XIV as the director of French Foreign Policy is Camille-Georges Picavet, La diplomatie française au temps de Louis XIV, 1661–1715. Institutions, moeurs et coutumes (Paris: Félix Alcan, 1936).Google Scholar
  119. 109.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 54.Google Scholar
  120. 110.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, 23–25.Google Scholar
  121. 111.
    Ibid., pp. 26–27.Google Scholar
  122. 112.
    Ibid., pp. 27–28.Google Scholar
  123. 113.
    Ibid., p. 29.Google Scholar
  124. 114.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 55. This Diet, however, did not meet until January, 1663.Google Scholar
  125. 115.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 55.Google Scholar
  126. 116.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, 40–41. The arrangements were formalized in the Treaty of Philippsburg, March 5, 1663.Google Scholar
  127. 116a.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., pp. 64–65.Google Scholar
  128. 117.
    Mentz, op. cit., II, 67.Google Scholar
  129. 118.
    Mentz, op. cit., II, 140–142.Google Scholar
  130. 119.
    Jean Baptiste Colbert (1619–1683), councillor of state and intendant of finances in 1661, surintendant of manufactures, comptroller general and secretary of state in 1669.Google Scholar
  131. 120.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, 39.Google Scholar
  132. 120a.
    Cf. Max Braubach, “Eine Wirtschafts-enquête am Rhein im 17. Jahrhundert,” Rheinische Vierteljahresblätter (1948), pp. 51–86.Google Scholar
  133. 121.
    Mentz, op. cit., II, 143–144.Google Scholar
  134. 122.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., pp. 66–67.Google Scholar
  135. 123.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 69. Sebastian William von Meel, Chancellor of Würzburg and Vice-Chancellor of Mainz.Google Scholar
  136. 124.
    Mentz, op. cit., I, 106.Google Scholar
  137. 125.
    Schevill, op. cit., p. 278.Google Scholar
  138. 126.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 71.Google Scholar
  139. 127.
  140. 128.
  141. 129.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., pp. 72–73. Jean de Coligny, Comte de Saligny, 1617–1686, a Franche-Comtois.Google Scholar
  142. 129a.
    F. L. Nussbaum, The Triumph of Science and Reason 1660–1685, Vol. VI of The Rise of Modem Europe, ed. William L. Langer (20 vols.; New York: Harper and Row, 1962, p. 239), credits the success of the allies to the generalship of Raimundo Montecuccoli, the Austrian supreme commander, 1609–1680; his memoirs were published in 1703.Google Scholar
  143. 130.
    C. A. Macartney, Hungary: A Short History (Chicago: The Aldine Press, 1962), p. 86. The Emperor recognized the Sultan’s gains in Transylvania, ceded a fortress in western Hungary and paid an indemnity.Google Scholar
  144. 131.
    Schevill, op. cit., pp. 278–279.Google Scholar
  145. 132.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 73.Google Scholar
  146. 133.
    On the Erfurt affair, see Mentz, op. cit., II, 70–90Google Scholar
  147. 133a.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., pp. 73–80Google Scholar
  148. 133b.
    Wilhelm Freiherr von Tettau “Erfurts Unterwerfung unter die Mainzische Landeshoheit (1648–1664),” Neujahrsblätter herausgegeben von der historischen Kommission der Provinz Sachsen, XI (1887), 3–56. There is an article by Tettau on the legal position of Erfurt, in which he concludes that Erfurt was never an Imperial free city, in Jahrbücher der königlichen Akademie zu Erfurt, 1860, but I have not seen it.Google Scholar
  149. 134.
    Mentz, op. cit., II, 84.Google Scholar
  150. 135.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 73.Google Scholar
  151. 136.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 73.Google Scholar
  152. 137.
    Hugues de Lionne, 1611–1671, took part in the negotiations which led to the Peace of the Pyrenees and filled several ambassadorial posts. Minister of State, 1659, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 1663–1671. Saint-Simon praised him as one of the greatest of Louis XIV’s ministers: Louis de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon, Mémoires, (ed. Gonzague Truc, 7 vols.; Paris: Gallimard, 1953-), I, 667–668.Google Scholar
  153. 138.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 74.Google Scholar
  154. 139.
    Ibid., p. 76.Google Scholar
  155. 140.
  156. 141.
    Mentz, op. cit., II, 85.Google Scholar
  157. 143.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., pp. 76–77.Google Scholar
  158. 144.
    Ibid. Pradel, a bluff soldier of fortune of humble origin, seems to have aroused the dislike of his noble colleagues because he, who was willing to work for less, was more frequently employed than they were.Google Scholar
  159. 145.
    The German contingent of the besieging force was drawn from the League and included units from Mainz, Cologne, Lorraine, Trier and Münster. Before the French intervened, a force of Mainzers had been driven from the field in disorder by the militia of Erfurt. Mentz, op. cit., I, 113.Google Scholar
  160. 146.
    Mentz, op. cit., II, 88.Google Scholar
  161. 146a.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 80.Google Scholar
  162. 147.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 78.Google Scholar
  163. 148.
    Ibid., pp. 79–80.Google Scholar
  164. 149.
    Schevill, op. cit., p. 272.Google Scholar
  165. 150.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., pp. 78–80.Google Scholar
  166. 151.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, 31. Presumably the instructions were revised as late as October, as they refer to the arrest of Boyneburg (August) and the fall of Erfurt (October).Google Scholar
  167. 152.
    Ibid., pp. 31–32.Google Scholar
  168. 153.
    Ibid., p. 37.Google Scholar
  169. 154.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, p. 33.Google Scholar
  170. 155.
    Ibid., p. 34.Google Scholar
  171. 156.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, p. 36.Google Scholar
  172. 157.
    Ibid., p. 38.Google Scholar
  173. 158.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, p. 38.Google Scholar
  174. 159.
    Wild, “Der Sturz des Mainzer Oberhofmarschalls… von Boyneburg, I,” op. cit., pp. 600–605Google Scholar
  175. 159a.
    Wild, “Der Sturz des Mainzer Oberhofmarschalls… von Boyneburg, II,” ZGOR, XIV (1899), 78–110.Google Scholar
  176. 160.
    Bertrand Auerbach, La diplomatie française et la cour de Saxe (1648–1680) (Paris: Hachette, 1888), p. 175.Google Scholar
  177. 161.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 82.Google Scholar
  178. 162.
    Wild, “Der Sturz des Mainzer Oberhofmarschalls… von Boyneburg, II,” op. cit., pp. 88–91.Google Scholar
  179. 163.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 82.Google Scholar
  180. 164.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, 34.Google Scholar
  181. 165.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., pp. 82–83. The treasure survived wars and revolutions intact until 1831 when it was stolen from the Paris Cabinet des Médailles. Only a part of it was recovered.Google Scholar
  182. 166.
    Ibid., pp. 84–85.Google Scholar
  183. 167.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., pp. 86–90.Google Scholar
  184. 168.
    Ibid., p. 88.Google Scholar
  185. 169.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., pp. 89–90.Google Scholar
  186. 170.
  187. 171.
  188. 172.
    Mentz, op. cit., I, 115.Google Scholar
  189. 173.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, 39; no special instruction, if one was issued to the Abbé on this occasion, has survived.Google Scholar
  190. 174.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 95.Google Scholar
  191. 176.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 97.Google Scholar
  192. 177.
    David Ogg, England in the Reign of Charles II (2nd ed.; Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, 1956), I, 313. The Bishop of Münster after demonstrating his uselessness as an ally, dropped out of the war in April, 1666.Google Scholar
  193. 177a.
    David Ogg, England in the Reign of Charles II (2nd ed.; Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, 1956), I, 297.Google Scholar
  194. 178.
    Schevill, op. cit., p. 273.Google Scholar
  195. 179.
    Zeller, op. cit., II, 25–26;Google Scholar
  196. 180.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 107.Google Scholar
  197. 181.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 108.Google Scholar
  198. 183.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., pp. 109–110.Google Scholar
  199. 184.
    Ibid., p. 111.Google Scholar
  200. 185.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 115.Google Scholar
  201. 186.
    Ibid., p. 125.Google Scholar
  202. 187.
    Schevill, op. cit., pp. 283–284.Google Scholar
  203. 188.
    Ludwig Bittner, Chronologische Verzeichnis der österreichischen Staatsverträge 1526–1763 (Vienna: Veröffentlichungen der Kommission für Neuere Geschichte Oesterreichs, 1903), I, 68.Google Scholar
  204. 189.
    Gebhardt, op. cit., II, 224.Google Scholar
  205. 190.
    Schevill, op. cit., p. 286.Google Scholar
  206. 191.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 126. The treaty was signed at Aachen on May 2, 1668. France surrendered the occupied Franche-Comté, but kept twelve border strong-points, including Lille, Tournai and Courtrai.Google Scholar
  207. 192.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p.127.Google Scholar
  208. 193.
    Ibid., p. 129.Google Scholar
  209. 194.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 31.Google Scholar
  210. 196.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 132.Google Scholar
  211. 197.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 132.Google Scholar
  212. 198.
    Ibid., p. 133.Google Scholar
  213. 199.
    Ibid., p. 134.Google Scholar
  214. 200.
    Ibid., pp. 134–135.Google Scholar
  215. 201.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., pp. 134–135.Google Scholar
  216. 202.
    Ibid., p. 135.Google Scholar
  217. 203.
  218. 204.
    Ibid., p. 136.Google Scholar
  219. 205.
    There were two Ingelheims in the chapter of Mainz at this time. We are dealing here with the elder of the two, known, according to Gravel, as Fat Ingelheim. Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 136.Google Scholar
  220. 206.
    See below, Ch. 4.Google Scholar
  221. 207.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 136.Google Scholar
  222. 207a.
    For the dates, see P. B. Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae (2nd ed.; Leipzig: K. W. Heusemann, 1931), I, p. 290.Google Scholar
  223. 208.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 137.Google Scholar
  224. 209.
    Ibid., p. 136.Google Scholar
  225. 210.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 137.Google Scholar
  226. 211.
    G. Livet, Recueil des Instruction, données aux Ambassadeurs et Ministres de France, Vol. XXVIII, États Allemands, Tome Second, L’Électorat de Cologne (Paris: Éditions du Centre National de La Recherche Scientifique, 1963), p. xxvii.Google Scholar
  227. 212.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 138.Google Scholar
  228. 213.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 139.Google Scholar
  229. 214.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 139.Google Scholar
  230. 215.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 139.Google Scholar
  231. 215a.
    Mentz, op. cit., I, 151.Google Scholar
  232. 216.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., pp. 141–142.Google Scholar
  233. 217.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 143.Google Scholar
  234. 217a.
    For Lisola’s biography, see Alfred Francis Pribram, Franz Paul von Lisola (1613–1674) und die Politik seiner Zeit (Leipzig: Veit, 1894).Google Scholar
  235. 218.
    Nicolas de Bautru de Nogent, Marquis de Vaubrun, a French diplomatist.Google Scholar
  236. 219.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 144.Google Scholar
  237. 220.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 145. Mentz, op. cit., I, 152.Google Scholar
  238. 221.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 145. Francois-Michel le Tellier, marquis de Louvois (1641–1691), minister of war and creator of the French standing army.Google Scholar
  239. 222.
    Ibid., p. 146.Google Scholar
  240. 223.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 146.Google Scholar
  241. 224.
    Ibid., p. 147.Google Scholar
  242. 225.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., pp. 147–148.Google Scholar
  243. 226.
  244. 227.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., pp. 149–150.Google Scholar
  245. 228.
    Mentz, op. cit., I, 154 and 158.Google Scholar
  246. 229.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., pp. 150–151.Google Scholar
  247. 230.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 2, p. 9.Google Scholar
  248. 231.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 151.Google Scholar
  249. 232.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 152.Google Scholar
  250. 232a.
    Ogg, op. cit., I, 342–346.Google Scholar
  251. 233.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, 40.Google Scholar
  252. 234.
    Ibid., pp. 42–43.Google Scholar
  253. 235.
    Ibid., p. 41.Google Scholar
  254. 236.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, 41.Google Scholar
  255. 237.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 154.Google Scholar
  256. 238.
    Ibid., p. 153.Google Scholar
  257. 240.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 155.Google Scholar
  258. 241.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 156.Google Scholar
  259. 242.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 157.Google Scholar
  260. 244.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 157.Google Scholar
  261. 245.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 158.Google Scholar
  262. 248.
    Mentz, op. cit., I, 104.Google Scholar
  263. 249.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 160.Google Scholar
  264. 251.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 161.Google Scholar
  265. 252.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 161.Google Scholar
  266. 253.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., pp. 161–162.Google Scholar
  267. 254.
  268. 255.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 163. The army would be made up as follows:Google Scholar
  269. 256.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 164.Google Scholar
  270. 257.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 164.Google Scholar
  271. 258.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 165.Google Scholar
  272. 259.
    Ibid., pp. 165–166.Google Scholar
  273. 260.
  274. 261.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 167.Google Scholar
  275. 262.
    Ibid., pp. 167–168.Google Scholar
  276. 263.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., pp. 168–169.Google Scholar
  277. 264.
    Mentz, op. cit., I, 173–174.Google Scholar
  278. 265.
    Ibid., p. 171.Google Scholar
  279. 266.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 169.Google Scholar
  280. 267.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 170.Google Scholar
  281. 268.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 170.Google Scholar
  282. 269.
    Ibid., p. 171.Google Scholar
  283. 271.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, 47.Google Scholar
  284. 272.
    Simon Arnauld, Marquis de Pomponne, 1618–1699, a nephew of Antoine Arnauld, the Jansenist. Foreign minister, October, 1671. Participated in negotiations at Nymwegen, 1678. Disgraced in 1679, he was restored to the Conseil d’État in 1691.Google Scholar
  285. 273.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, 48.Google Scholar
  286. 274.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, 49–51.Google Scholar
  287. 275.
    Ibid., pp. 51–52.Google Scholar
  288. 276.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, 52–53.Google Scholar
  289. 277.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 171.Google Scholar
  290. 278.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 172.Google Scholar
  291. 280.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., pp. 172–173.Google Scholar
  292. 281.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 174.Google Scholar
  293. 282.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 174. Isaac du Pas, Marquis de Feuquières, (1618–1688), a French soldier and diplomatist.Google Scholar
  294. 284.
    Mentz, op. cit., I, 173.Google Scholar
  295. 285.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 175Google Scholar
  296. 285a.
    Mentz, op. cit., I, 176.Google Scholar
  297. 286.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 176.Google Scholar
  298. 287.
    Mentz, op. cit., I, 179, n. 1.Google Scholar
  299. 288.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 176.Google Scholar
  300. 289.
    Pieter Geyl, The Netherlands in the 17th Century, Part Two 1648–1715. (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1964) p. 122.Google Scholar
  301. 290.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 177Google Scholar
  302. 290a.
    Ogg, op. cit., I, 364–365. Charles II, in spite of his difficulties with Parliament, did not sign a treaty with the Dutch until February 9, 1674.Google Scholar
  303. 291.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 177. Jan de Witt, it should be noted, was never corrupted by French gold.Google Scholar
  304. 291a.
    See Picavet, op. cit., pp. 198–199.Google Scholar
  305. 292.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 178.Google Scholar
  306. 293.
    Ogg, op. cit., I, 362.Google Scholar
  307. 294.
    Ogg, op. cit., I, 362. Perhaps the storm early in July, 1672 which dispersed an Anglo-French fleet off the Dutch coast made King Charles hesitant about continuing the war.Google Scholar
  308. 295.
    Geyl, op. cit., pp. 127–133.Google Scholar
  309. 296.
    Mentz, op. cit., I, 182.Google Scholar
  310. 297.
    Zeller, op. cit., II, 35–36Google Scholar
  311. 297a.
    Picavet, op. cit., p. 201.Google Scholar
  312. 298.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., pp. 178–179.Google Scholar
  313. 299.
  314. 300.
    Auerbach, France et le Saint-Empire, p. 177.Google Scholar
  315. 301.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 180.Google Scholar
  316. 302.
  317. 303.
    Mentz, op. cit., pp. 179 and 182.Google Scholar
  318. 304.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 181.Google Scholar
  319. 305.
    Camille Georges Picavet, Les dernières années de Turenne 1660–1675. (Paris: Calmann-Lévy, 1914), p. 382.Google Scholar
  320. 306.
    Mentz, op. cit., I, 184.Google Scholar
  321. 307.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 182.Google Scholar
  322. 308.
  323. 309.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 183.Google Scholar
  324. 310.
    Ibid., p. 184.Google Scholar
  325. 311.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 184.Google Scholar
  326. 312.
    Ibid., p. 185.Google Scholar
  327. 313.
    Mentz, op. cit., II, 278.Google Scholar
  328. 314.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., pp. 185–186.Google Scholar
  329. 315.
    Mentz, op. cit., I, 186.Google Scholar
  330. 316.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, 55–56.Google Scholar
  331. 317.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, 55–56.Google Scholar
  332. 318.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 186.Google Scholar
  333. 319.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 187.Google Scholar
  334. 320.
    Mentz, op. cit., I, 186.Google Scholar
  335. 321.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, 55.Google Scholar
  336. 322.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., p. 188.Google Scholar
  337. 323.
    Badalo-Dulong, op. cit., pp. 189–220.Google Scholar
  338. 324.
    There is a brief notice of him in F. Werner, Der Dom von Mainz und seine Denkmäler, vol. III (Mainz, 1836), pp. 66–69.Google Scholar
  339. 325.
    Livet, op. cit., XXVIII, t. 1, lviiGoogle Scholar
  340. 325a.
    Werner, op. cit., 69–71.Google Scholar
  341. 326.
    Ludwig Bittner, Chronologisches Verzeichnis der oesterreichischen Staatsverträge, vol. I (Vienna: Kommission für Neuere Geschichte Oesterreichs, 1903), p. 104.Google Scholar
  342. 327.
    Dommayer, op. cit., p. 58.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1973

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations