The Galactic X-Ray Sources

  • Herbert Gursky
  • Ethan Schreier
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library book series (ASSL, volume 48)


When X-ray sources in the galaxy were discovered in 1962 (Giacconi et al., 1962) it was only possible to speculate on their nature, which centered on supernova and cosmic- ray phenomena since these were the only very energetic events known. In particular, the discovery of an X-ray source associated with the Crab Nebula led to the idea that the emission might be the thermal radiation from the surface of a hot, neutron star, However, it was soon demonstrated (Bowyer et al., 1964) that a neutron star could not be responsible for the bulk of the X-radiation from the Crab, and it was not possible to exclude highly pathological conditions in otherwise ordinary stellar systems as being responsible for the X-ray sources (c.f., Hayakawa and Matsuoka, 1964).


Black Hole Neutron Star Light Curve Radio Source Accretion Disk 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arons, J.: 1973, Astrophys. J. 184, 539.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bahcall, J. and Bahcall, N.: 1972, Astrophys. J. 178, L1.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baity, W., Ulmer, M., Wheaton, W., and Peterson, L.: 1974, Astrophys. J. 187, 341.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Basko, M., Sunyaev, R., and Titarchuk, L.: 1973, preprint.Google Scholar
  5. Basko, M. and Sunyaev, R.: 1973, Astrophys. Space Sci. 23, 117.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Becklin, E., Hawkins, F. J., Mason, K. O., Matthews, K., Neugebauer, G., Sanford, P. W., and Wynn-Williams, C: 1973, Nature 245, 302.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blaauw, A.: 1965, Stars and Stellar Systems 5, 435.Google Scholar
  8. Blaauw, A.: 1961, Bull. Astron. Inst. Neth. 15, 265.ADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Blumenthal, G. and Tucker, W.: 1972, Nature 235, 97.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boldt, E., Holt, S., and Serlemitsos, P.: 1971, Astrophys. J. 164, L9.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bolton, C.: 1972, Nature 235, 271.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boynton, P. C., Canterna, R., Crosa, L., Deeter, J., and Gerend, D.: 1973, Astrophys. J. 186, 617.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bowyer, S., Byram, T., Chubb, T., Friedman, H.: 1964, Science 146, 912.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Braes, L. and Miley, G.: 1971, Nature 232, 246.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Braes, L. and Miley, G.: 1972, Nature 237, 506.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Braes, L., Miley, G., Shane, W., Baars, J., and Goss, W.: 1973, Nature Phys. Sci. 242, 66.ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. Bregman, J., Butler, D., Kemper, E., Koski, A., Kraft, R., and Stone, R.: 1973, Astrophys. J. Letters 185, L117.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brinkman, A., Parsignault, D., Schreier, E., Gursky, H., Kellogg, E., Tananbaum, H., and Giacconi, R.: 1974, Astrophys. J. 188, 603.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Byram, E., Chubb, T., and Friedman, H: 1966, Science 132, 66.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cameron, A. and Mock, M.: 1967, Nature 215, 464.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Canizares, C. R., McClintock, J. E., Clark, C. W., Lewin, W. H. G., Schnopper, H. W., and Sprott, G. F.: 1973, Nature Phys. Sci. 241, 28.ADSGoogle Scholar
  22. Clark, G. W., Bradt, H. V., Lewin, W. H. G., Markert, T. H., Schnopper, H. W., and Sprott, G. F.: 1972, Astrophys. J. 177, LI09.Google Scholar
  23. Crampton, D. and Hutchings, J. B.: 1972, Astrophys. J. 178, L65.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Davidsen, A., Henry, J., Middleditch, J., and Smith, H.: 1972, Astrophys. J. 177, L97.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Davidson, K. and Ostriker, J.: 1973, Astrophys. J. 179, 585.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dilworth, C., Maraschi, L., and Reina, C.: 1973, Astron. Astrophys. 28, 71.ADSGoogle Scholar
  27. Doxsey, R., Bradt, H. V., Levine, A., Murthy, G. T., Rappaport, S., and Spada, G.: 1973, Astrophys. J. 182, L25.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fabian, A., Pringle, J., and Rees, M.: 1973, IAU Circ., No. 2555. Felten, J. E., Rees, M. J., and Adams, T. F.: 1972, Astron. Astrophys. 21, 139. Fisher, P. C., Johnson, H. M., Jordan, W. C., Meyerott, A. J., and Acton, L. W.: 1966, Astrophys. J. 148, L119.Google Scholar
  29. Forman, W., Jones, C., and Liller, W.: 1972, Astrophys. J. 177, L103.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Forman, W., Jones, C., Tananbaum, H., Gursky, H., Kellogg, E., and Giacconi, R.: 1973, Astrophys. J. 182, L103.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Friedman, H., Byram, E., and Chubb, T.: 1967, Science 156, 374.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Giacconi, R., Gursky, H., Paolini, F. R., and Rossi, B. B.: 1962, Phys. Rev. Letters 9, 439.Google Scholar
  33. Giacconi, R., Gorenstein, P., Gursky, H., Usher, P. D., Waters, J. R., Sandage, A., Osmer, P., and Peach, J.: 1967, Astrophys. J. 148, L119.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Giacconi, R., Gursky, H., Kellogg, E., Schreier, E., and Tananbaum, H.: 1971, Astrophys. J. Letters 167, L67.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Giacconi, R., Murray, S., Gursky, H., Kellogg, E., Schreier, E., Matilsky, T., Koch, D., and Tananbaum, H.: 1974, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 237, 27Google Scholar
  36. Giacconi, R., Murray, S., Gursky, H., Kellogg, E., Schreier, E., Matilsky, T., Koch, D., and Tananbaum, H.: 1974, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 237, 37ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Giacconi, R., Gursky, H., Kellogg, E., Levinson, R., Schreier, E., and Tananbaum, H.: 1973, Astrophys. J. 184, 227.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gnedin, Y. and Sunyaev, R. 1973, Astron. Astrophys. 25, 233.ADSGoogle Scholar
  39. Gregory, P., Kronberg, P., Seaquist, E., Hughes, V., Woodsworth, A., Viner, M., and Retallack, D.: 1972 Nature 239, 440.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Groth, E., Yeung, S., Papaliolios, C., Pennypacker, R. C., Spada, G., and Middleditch, J.: 1973, IAU Circ., No. 2523.Google Scholar
  41. Gursky, H., Gorenstein, P., and Giacconi, R.: 1967, Astrophys. J. Letters 150, L75.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gursky, H.: 1972, Astrophys. J. Letters 175, L141.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gursky, H.: 1973, in B. DeWitt and C. DeWitt (eds.), Black Holes, Gordon and Breach, New York.Google Scholar
  44. Hayakawa, S. and Matsuoka, M.: 1964. Prog. Theoret. Phys. Suppl. Japan, No. 30, 204.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hensberge, G., Van Den Heuvel, E. P. J., and Paes de Barros, M. H.: 1973, Astron. Astrophys. 29, 69.ADSGoogle Scholar
  46. Hiltner, W., Werner, J., and Osmer, P.: 1972, Astrophys. J. 175, L19.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hjellming, R. M. and Balick, B.: 1972, Nature 239, 443.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hjellming, R. M.: 1973, Astrophys. J. 182, L29.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hjellming, R. M. and Wade, C.: 1971, Astrophys. J. 168, L21.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Holt, S., Boldt, E., Schwartz, D., Serlemitsos, P., and Bleach, R.: 1971, Astrophys. J. 166, L65.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Holt, S., Boldt, E., Rothschild, R., Saba, L. R., and Serlemitsos, P.: 1974, Astrophys. J. 190, L109.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hutchings, J. P.: 1972, IAU Circ. No. 2537.Google Scholar
  53. Hutchings, J. B., Thackeray, A. D., Webster, B. L., and Andrews, P. T.: 1973, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 163, 13.ADSGoogle Scholar
  54. Jones, C. and Liller, W.: 1973, Astrophys. J. 184, L65.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jones, C., Forman, W., Tananbaum, H., Schreier, E., Gursky, H., Kellogg, E., and Giacconi, R.: 1973 Astrophys. J. 181, L43.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Joss, P. C., Avni, Y., and Bahcall, J.: 1973, Astrophys. J. 186, 767.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kopal, Z.: 1959, Close Binary Systems, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  58. Kraft, R. and Demoulin, M.: 1967, Astrophys. J. 150, L183.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Krzeminsky, W.: 1973, IAU Circ., No. 2569.Google Scholar
  60. Kruszewski, A.: 1966, Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, Academic Press, New York, p. 233.Google Scholar
  61. Lamb, D. and Sorvari, J. M.: 1972, IAU Circ., No. 2422.Google Scholar
  62. Lamb, F. K., Pethick, C., and Pines, D.: 1973, Astrophys. J. 184, 271.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Liller, W.: 1973, Astrophys. J. 184, L37.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Liller, W.: 1972a, IAU Circ., No. 2415.Google Scholar
  65. Liller, W.: 1972b, IAU Circ., No. 2427.Google Scholar
  66. Liller, W.: 1972, Tabulation of Interesting Optical and Radio Sources near Uhuru X-ray Sources, Harvard College Observatory.Google Scholar
  67. Margon, B., Lampton, M., Bowyer, S. and Cruddace, R.: 1971, Astrophys. J. Letters 169, L23.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Margon, B., Bowyer, S., and Stone, R.: 1973, Astrophys. J. 185, L113.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Margon, B. and Ostriker, J.: 1973, Astrophys. J. Letters 186, 91.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mason, K., Hawkins, F., Samford, P., Murdin, P., and Savage, D.: 1974, Astrophys. J. 192, L65.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Matteson, J.: 1971, Ph. D. Thesis, U.C., San Diego.Google Scholar
  72. Mauder, H.: 1973, Astron. Astrophys. 28, 473.ADSGoogle Scholar
  73. Middleditch, J. and Nelson, J.: 1973 preprint.Google Scholar
  74. Moore, E.: 1973, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 85, 564.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Neugebauer, G., Oke, J., Becklin, E., and Garmire, G.: 1969, Astrophys. J. 155, 1.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Oda, M. and Matsuoka, M.: 1970, Prog. Elem. Part. Cosmic-Ray Phys. 10, 305.Google Scholar
  77. Oda M., Gorenstein, P., Gursky, H., Kellogg, E., Schreier, E., Tananbaum, H., and Giacconi,R.: 1971, Astrophys. J. Letters 166, L1.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Oda, M., Wada, M., Matsuoka, M., Miyamoto, S., Muranaka, N., and Ogawara, Y.: 1972, Astrophys. J. Letters 172, L13.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Osmer, P. and Hiltner, W.: 1974, Astrophys. J. 187, L5.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ostriker, J.: 1971, Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 9, 353.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Overbeck, J. and Tananbaum, H.: 1968, Phys. Rev. Letters 20, 24.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Paczynski, B.: 1971, Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 9, 183.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Paczynski, B.: 1973, Annals N.Y. Acad. Sciences 224, 233.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Parsignault, D. R., Gursky, H., Kellogg, E., Matilsky, T., Murray, S., Schreier, E., Tananbaum, H., Giacconi, R., and Brinkman, A. C.: 1972, Nature Phys. Sci. 239, 123.ADSGoogle Scholar
  85. Prendergast, K. and Burbidge, G.: 1968, Astrophys. J. 151, L83.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Price, R. E., Groves, D. S., Rodrigues, R. M., Seward, F., Swift, C. D., and Toor, A.: 1971, Astrophys. J. 168, L7.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pringle, J.: 1973, Nature Phys. Sci. 243, 90.ADSGoogle Scholar
  88. Pringle, J. and Rees, M.: 1972, Astron. Astrophys. 21, 1.ADSGoogle Scholar
  89. Rappaport, S., Doxsey, R., and Zaumen, W.: 1971a, Astrophys. J. 168, L43.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rappaport, S., Zaumen, W., and Doxsey, R.: 1971b, Astrophys. J. 168, L17.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rothschild, R., Boldt, E., Holt, S., and Serlemitsos, P.: 1974, Astrophys. J. 189, L13.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Schreier, E., Gursky, H., Kellogg, E., Tananbaum, H., and Giacconi, R.: 1971, Astrophys. J. 170, L21.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Schreier, E., Levinson, R., Gursky, H., Kellogg, E., Tananbaum, H., and Giacconi, R.: 1972, Astrophys. J. 172, L79.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Schreier, E., Giacconi, R., Gursky, H., Kellogg, E., and Tananbaum, H.: 1972, Astrophys. J. 178, L71.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Schwartzman, V. F.: 1971, Soviet Astron. AJ 15, 342.ADSGoogle Scholar
  96. Setti, G. and Woltjer, L.: 1970, Astrophys. Space Sci. 9, 185.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Seward, F. D., Burginyon, G. A., Grader, R., Hill, R., and Palmieri, T.: 1972, Astrophys. J. 178, 131.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Shakura, N. I. and Sunyaev, R. A.: 1973, Astron. Astrophys. 24, 337.ADSGoogle Scholar
  99. Shulman, S., Fritz, G., Meekins, J., and Friedman, H.: 1971, Astrophys. J. 168, L49.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Stockman, S. H., Angel, J. R. P., Novick, R., and Woodgate, B. E.: 1973, Astrophys. J. 183, L63.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Strittmatter, P., Scott, J., Whelan, J., Wickramasinghe, D., and Woolf, N.: 1973, Astron. Astrophys. 25, 275.ADSGoogle Scholar
  102. Sunyaev, R.: 1973, Soviet Astron. AJ, in press.Google Scholar
  103. Tananbaum, H., Gursky, H., Kellogg, E., Giacconi, R., and Jones, C.: 1972a, Astrophys. J. 177, L5.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Trimble, V., Rose, W., and Weber, W.: 1973, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 162, 1.ADSGoogle Scholar
  105. Ulmer, M., Baity, W., Wheaton, W., and Peterson, L.: 1972a, Astrophys. J. 178, L61.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Ulmer, M., Baity, W., Wheaton, W., and Peterson, L.: 1972b, Astrophys. J. 178, L121.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Van Den Heuvel, E. and Heise, J.: 1972, Nature Phys. Sci. 239, 67.ADSGoogle Scholar
  108. Van Den Heuvel, E. and Ostriker. J.: 1973, Nature Phys. Sci. 245, 99.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wade, C. and Hjellming, R.: 1971, Astrophys. J. 170. 523.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Webster, B. and Murdin, P.: 1972, Nature 235, 37.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Webster, B., Martin, W., Feast, M., and Andrews, P.: 1972, Nature Phys. Sci. 240, 183.ADSGoogle Scholar
  112. Wilson, R.: 1973, Astrophys. J. 181, L75.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wolff, S. C. and Morrison, N. D.: 1974, Astrophys. J. 187, 69.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht-Holland 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Herbert Gursky
    • 1
  • Ethan Schreier
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for AstrophysicsHarvard College Observatory, Smithsonian Astrophysical ObservatoryCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations