Skip to main content

The Upward Trend in Airborne Particulates That Isn’t

  • Chapter

Abstract

Diverse data relating to natural and anthropogenic particulate emissions and trends in atmospheric turbidity are reviewed. It is estimated that man now contributes 13.6% of the 3.5 × 109 tons of primary and secondary particulates presently emitted to the atmosphere annually.

Values derived for the anthropogenic effect on the trend in total airborne particulates (if assumed monotonic) range from 0.06 to 0.4% increase per year. Since such an effect would be only marginally detectable in the available record, the much larger rates of increase which have been published as proof of an upward trend must be due to local or temporary effects and cannot be representative of a global trend. On the other hand almost all urban areas plagued by dirty skies prior to 1950 have shown in recent years measurable improvement in terms of visibility, dust fall, suspended particulates, or the ratio of sunshine in the central city to that at an outlying station. This leads to the conclusion that while an anthropogenic upward trend in airborne particulates existed in the past, it was halted and may even have been reversed over the past few decades.

Keywords

  • Upward Trend
  • Deposition Velocity
  • Atmospheric Aerosol
  • Airborne Particulate
  • Cloud Condensation Nucleus

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-94-010-1729-9_16
  • Chapter length: 35 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-94-010-1729-9
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   79.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbot, C. G., The Sun and the Welfare of Man, Vol. 2, Smithsonian Scientific Series, New York p. 68, 1929.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Alkezweeny, A. J. and Green, W. D.: ‘The Effect of Air Pollution on the Concentration of Ice and Condensation Nuclei’, J. Rech. Atmos. 4, 31–33 (1970).

    Google Scholar 

  3. Ashby, W. C. and Fritts, H. C.: ‘Tree Growth, Air Pollution and Climate near LaPorte, Indiana’, Bull Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 53, 246–251 (1972).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  4. Barrett, E. W.: ‘Climate Change’, Science 173, 983 (1971).

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  5. Beebe, R. G.: ‘Changes in Visibility Restrictions over a 20 Year Period’, Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 48, 348 (1967).

    Google Scholar 

  6. Bhandari, N., Arnold, J. R., and Parkin, D. W.: ‘Cosmic Dust in the Stratosphere’, J. Geophys. Res. 73, 1837–1845 (1968).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  7. Bigg, E. K. and Stevenson, C. M.: ‘Comparison of Concentrations of Ice Nuclei in Different Parts of the World’, J. Rech. Atmos. 4, 41–58 (1970).

    Google Scholar 

  8. Bonacina, L. C. W.: ‘London Fogs — Then and Now’, Weather 5, 91–93 (1950).

    Google Scholar 

  9. Bryson, R. A.: ‘All Other Factors Being Constant...’, Weatherwise 21 56 (1968).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  10. Bryson, R. A. and Baerris, D. A.: ‘Possibilities of Major Climatic Modifications: Northwest India, a Case for Study’, Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 48, 136–142 (1967).

    Google Scholar 

  11. Budyko, M. I.: ‘The Effect of Solar Radiation Variations on the Climate of the Earth’, Tellus 21, 611 (1969).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  12. Cadle, R. D. and Junge, C. E.: ‘Atmospheric Nuclei’, in W. H. Matthews, W. W. Kellogg and G. D. Robinson (eds.), Mans Impact on the Climate, pp. 396–399, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. (1971).

    Google Scholar 

  13. Chandler, T. J.: ‘The Climate of London’, Hutchinson, London (1965).

    Google Scholar 

  14. Charlson, R. J., Hodge, P. W., Lucke, P. B., Mannery, E. J., Porch, W. M., and Snow, T. P.: University of Washington Project ASTRA, Project ASTRA Publication No. 2, University of Washington, Seattle (1970).

    Google Scholar 

  15. Clark, W. E. and Whitby, K. T.: ‘Concentration and Size Distribution Measurements of Atmospheric Aerosols and a Test of the Theory of Self-Preserving Size Distributions’, J. Atmos. Sci. 24 (6), 677–687 (1967).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  16. Cobb, W. E.: ‘Oceanic Aerosol Levels Deduced from Measurements on the Electrical Conductivity of the Atmosphere (Abstract)’, EOS 53, 387 (1972).

    Google Scholar 

  17. Cobb, W. E. and Wells, H. J.: ‘The Electrical Conductivity of Oceanic Air and its Correlation to Global Atmospheric Pollution’, J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 814–819 (1970).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  18. Committee on Natural Resources: ‘Energy Resources’, Nat. Acad. Sci — Nat. Res. Counc. Publ. 1000-D, Washington D.C. (1962).

    Google Scholar 

  19. Conover, J. H.: ‘Anamolous Cloud Lines’, J. Atmos. Sci. 23, 778–785 (1966).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  20. Cronin, J. F.: ‘Recent Volcanism and the Stratosphere’, Science 172, 847–849 (1971).

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  21. Dodge, M.: ‘Forest Fuel Accumulation — A Growing Problem’, Science 177, 139–142 (1972).

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  22. Ellis, H. T. and Pueschel, R. F.: ‘Solar Radiation: Absence of Air Pollution Trends at Mauna Loa’, Science 172, 845–846 (1971).

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  23. Eriksson, E.: ‘The Early Circulation of Chloride and Sulfur in Nature; Meteorological, Geochemical and Pedological Implications’, Part I, Tellus 11, 375–443 (1959), Part II, Tellus 12, 63–109 (1960).

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  24. Davitaia, F. F.: ‘On the Possible Influence of Atmospheric Dust Cover on the Diminution of Glaciers and the Warm-Up of Climate’, Trans. Sov. Acad. Sci. Geogr. Ser. 2 (1965).

    Google Scholar 

  25. Federer, B.: Investigation of the Aerosol Content of Greenland Snow Between 1880 and 1968, Suppl. Vol. Proc. 7th Int. Conf. on Condensation and Ice Nuclei September 18–24, 1969, Prague and Vienna, Academic, Prague (1971).

    Google Scholar 

  26. Ferguson, W. S., Griffin, J. J., and Goldbert, E. D.: ‘Atmospheric Dusts from the North Pacific — A Short Note on a Long-Range Eolian Transport’, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 1137–1139 (1970).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  27. Fischer, W. H.: ‘Some Atmospheric Turbidity Measurements in Antarctica’, J. Appl. Meteor. 6, 958–959 (1967).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  28. Flowers, E. C., McCormick, R. A., and Kurfis, K. R.: ‘Atmospheric Turbidity over the United States, 1961–1966’, J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 955–962 (1969).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  29. Freeman, M. H.: ‘Visibility Statistics for LondonJHeathrow Airport’, Meteor. Magazine 97, 214–218 (1968).

    Google Scholar 

  30. Friedlander, S. K.: ‘Theory of Self-Preserving Size Distributions in a Coagulation Dispersion’, Radioactive Fallout from Nuclear Weapons Tests, pp. 253–259, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (1965).

    Google Scholar 

  31. Frisken, W. R.: ‘Extended Industrial Revolution and Climate Change’, EOS 52, 5000–508 (1971).

    Google Scholar 

  32. Fukuta, N.: ‘Experimental Studies of Organic Ice Nuclei’, J. Atmos. Sci. 23, 191–196 (1966).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  33. Galindo, I. G. and Muhlia, A.: ‘Contribution to the Turbidity Problem in Mexico City’, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. B18, 169–186 (1970).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  34. Gates, D. M.: ‘The Flow of Energy in the Biosphere’, Sci. Amer. 224, 88–100 (1971).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  35. Goldberg, E. D.: ‘Atmospheric Dust, the Sedimentary Cycle and Man’, Earth Sci. Geophys. 1, 117–132 (1971).

    Google Scholar 

  36. Griffin, J. J., Windom, H., and Goldberg, E. D.: ‘The Distribution of Clay Minerals in the World Ocean’, Deep-Sea Res. 15, 433–459 (1968).

    Google Scholar 

  37. Gunn, R.: ‘The Secular Increase of the World-Wide Fine Particle Pollution’, J. Atmos. Sci. 21 168–181 (1964).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  38. Hidy, C. M.: ‘On the Theory of the Coagulation of Noninteracting Particles in Brownian Motion’, J. Colloid. Sci. 20, 123–144 (1965).

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  39. Hidy, G. M. and Brock, J. R.: ‘An Assessment of the Global Sources of Tropospheric Aerosols’, in H. M. Englund and W. T. Beery (eds.), Proceedings Second International Clean Air Congress, p. 1088, Academic Press, New York and London (1971).

    Google Scholar 

  40. Hidy, G. M. and Friedlander, S. K.: ‘The Nature of the Los Angeles Aerosol’, in H. M. Englund and W. T. Beery (eds.), Proceeding Second International Clean Air Congress, p. 391, Academic Press, New York and London (1971).

    Google Scholar 

  41. Hobbs, P. V. and Locatelli, J. D.: ‘Ice Nucleus Measurements at Three Sites in Western Washington’, J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 90–100 (1970).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  42. Hobbs, P. V., Radke, L. F., and Shumway, S. E.: ‘Cloud Condensation Nuclei from Industrial Sources and Their Apparent Influence on Precipitation in Washington State’, J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 81–89 (1970).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  43. Hodge, P. W.: ‘A Large Decrease in the Clean Air Transmission of the Atmosphere 1.7 km above Los Angeles’, Nature 229, 549 (1971).

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  44. Hodge, P. W., Lanlainen, N., and Charlson, R. J.: ‘Astronomy and Air Pollution Summary of Informal Symposium’, Project ASTRA Publication No. 16, University of Washington, Seattle (1972).

    Google Scholar 

  45. Hogan, A. W.: ‘Experiments with Aitken Counters in Maritime Atmosphere’, J. Rech. Atmos. 3, 53–57 (1968).

    Google Scholar 

  46. Hogan, A. W., Bishop, J. M., Aymer, A. L., Harlow, B. W., Klepper, J. C., and Lupo, G.: ‘Aitken Nuclei Observations over the North Atlantic Ocean’, J. Appl. Meteorol. 6, 726–727 (1967).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  47. Holzworth, G. C.: ‘Some Effects of Air Pollution on Visibility in and near Cities’, Symposium: Air Over Cities, p. 69, SEC Tech. Rept. A62–5, Public Health Service, Washington, D.C. (1962).

    Google Scholar 

  48. Hubbert, M. K.: ‘The Energy Resources of the Earth’, Sci. Amer. 224, 60–70 (1971).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  49. Jaenicke, R. and Junge, C. E.: ‘Studien zur oberen Grenzgrösse des natürlichem Aerosols’, Beitr. Phys. Atmo 40, 129–143 (1967).

    Google Scholar 

  50. Jerzykiewicz, M.: ‘A Study of Atmospheric Extinction Observations Made at Flagstaff, Arizona, 1955–1972’, in N. Laulainen and P. W. Hodge (eds.), Project ASTRA Publication No. 15, University of Washington, Seattle (1972).

    Google Scholar 

  51. Joseph, J. H. and Manes, A.: ‘Secular and Seasonal Variations of Atmospheric Turbidity at Jerusalem’, J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 453–462 (1971).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  52. Judson, S.: ‘Erosion of the Land — Or What’s Happening to Our Continents ?’ Amer. Sci. 56, 356 (1968).

    Google Scholar 

  53. Junge, C. E.: ‘Sulfur in the Atmosphere’, J. Geophys. Res. 65, 227–237 (1960).

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  54. Junge, C. E.: Air Chemistry and Radioactivity, Chapter 2, Academic Press, New York (1963).

    Google Scholar 

  55. Junge, C. E.: ‘Comments on “Concentration and Size Distribution Measurements of Atmospheric Aerosols and a Test of the Theory of Self-Preserving Size Distributions”’, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 603–608 (1969).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  56. Junge, C. E.: The Physical and Chemical Properties of Atmospheric Aerosols and Their Relation to Condensation Processes, Suppl. Proc. 7th Int. Conf. on Condensation and Ice Nuclei, September 18–24, 1969, Prague and Vienna, pp. 31–49, Academic, Prague (1971a).

    Google Scholar 

  57. Junge, C. E.: ‘The Nature and Residence Times of Tropospheric Aerosols’, in W. H. Matthews, W. W. Kellogg and G. D. Robinson (eds.), Man’s Impact on the Climate, pp. 302–309, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. (1971b).

    Google Scholar 

  58. Junge, C. E.: ‘The Cycle of Atmospheric Gases — Natural and Man Made’, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 98, 711–729 (1972).

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  59. Keith, R. W.: Downtown Los Angeles Noon visibility Trends, Air Quality Report No. 65, Los Angeles Air Pollution Central District, Los Angeles (1970).

    Google Scholar 

  60. Knollenberg, R. G.: ‘Urea as an Ice Nucleant for Supercooled Clouds’, J. Atmos. Sci. 23, 197–201 (1966).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  61. Kocmond, W. C. and Mack, E. J.: ‘The Vertical Distribution of Cloud and Aitken Nuclei Downwind of Urban Pollution Sources’, J. Appl. Meteor. 11, 141–148 (1972).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  62. Landsberg, H. E.: ‘Observations of Condensation Nuclei in the Atmosphere’, Mon. Weather Rev. 62, 442–445 (1934).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  63. Landsberg, H. E.: ‘Atmospheric Condensation Nuclei’, Erg. Kosm. Phys. 3, 155–252 (1938).

    Google Scholar 

  64. Landsberg, H. E.: Man-Made Climatic Changes, this volume, pp. 197–234.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Ludwig, J. H., Morgan, G. B., and McMullen, T. B.: ‘Trends in Urban Air Quality’, EOS 51 468–475 (1970).

    Google Scholar 

  66. MacCready, P. B., Smith, T. B., Lockhart, T., and Diamond, R. J.: Investigations of Silver Iodide Decay and Transport and Natural Nuclei, Report for Advisory Committee on Weather Control, Meteorological Research Inc., Altadena (1955).

    Google Scholar 

  67. McCorkell, R., Fireman, E. L., and Langway, C. C, Jr.: ‘Dissolved Iron, Nickel and Cobalt Greenland Ice (Abstract)’, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union 48, 158 (1967).

    Google Scholar 

  68. McCormick, R. A. and Ludwig, J. H.: ‘Climate Modification by Atmospheric Aerosols’, Science 156, 1358–1359 (1967).

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  69. McNulty, R. P.: ‘The Effects of Air Pollutants on Visibility in Fog and Haze at New York City’, Atmos. Environ. 2, 625–629 (1968).

    Google Scholar 

  70. Machta, L.: ‘Mauna Loa and Global Trends in Air Quality’, Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 53, 402–420 (1972).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  71. Malone, T. F.: ‘The Environmental Context’, EOS 52, 508–512 (1971).

    Google Scholar 

  72. Manes, A.: Atmospheric Turbidity over Jerusalem, Meteorol. Notes Series A, No. 26, Israel Meteorol. Svc., Bet-Dagan (1972).

    Google Scholar 

  73. Mason, B. J. and Maybank, J.: Ice-Nucleating Properties of some Natural and Mineral Dusts’, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 235–241 (1958).

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  74. Maybank, J. and Barthakur, N.: ‘The Ice Nucleation Behavior of Aminoacid Particles’, Can. J. Phys. 44, 2431–2445 (1966).

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  75. Midwest Research Institute (MRI): Particulate Pollutant System Study, Vol. I — Mass Emissions, Report to Air Pollution Control Office, EPA under contract No. CPA 22–69–104, Project No. 3326-C, MRI, Durham, North Carolina (1971).

    Google Scholar 

  76. Mitchell, J. M., Jr.: ‘A Preliminary Evaluation of Atmospheric Pollution as a Cause of the Global Temperature Fluctuation of the Past Century’, in S. F. Singer (ed.), Global Effects of Environment Pollution, p. 139, D. Reidel Publ. Co. Dordrecht-Holland (1970).

    Google Scholar 

  77. Mitchell, J. M., Jr.: Air Pollution and Climate Change, presented at 64th annual meeting, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, San Francisco, Dec. 1, 1971.

    Google Scholar 

  78. Mohnen, V. A. and Lodge, J. P., Jr.: General Review and Survey of Gas-to-Particle Conversions, pp. 69–91, Proc. 7th Int. Conf. on Condensation and Ice Nuclei, September 18–24, 1969, Prague and Vienna, Academia, Prague (1969).

    Google Scholar 

  79. Mossop, S. C: ‘Concentrations of Ice Crystals in Clouds’, Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 51, 474–479 (1970).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  80. Moyers, J. L., Zoller, W. H., and Duce, R. A.: ‘Gaseous Iodine Measurements and their Relationship to Particulate Lead in a Polluted Atmosphere’, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 95–98 (1971).

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  81. National Air Pollution Control Administration (NAPCA): Nationwide Inventory of Air Pollutant Emissions, 1968, Publication No. AP-73, NAPCA, Raleigh, North Carolina (1970).

    Google Scholar 

  82. Neiburger, M.: Visibility Trends in Los Angeles, Report No. 11, Air Pollution Foundation, Los Angeles (1955).

    Google Scholar 

  83. Noll, K. E.: ‘A Procedure for Measuring the Size Distribution of Atmospheric Aerosols’, Trend Engin. 19, 21–27 (1967).

    Google Scholar 

  84. Opdyke, N. D. and Knowles, R.: ‘Paleomagnetism of Cores from the South Atlantic’, EOS 53, 170–171 (1972).

    Google Scholar 

  85. Parkin, D. W., Phillips, D. R., Sullivan, R. A. L., and Johnson, L.: ‘Airborne Dust Collections over the North Atlantic’, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 1782–1793 (1970).

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  86. Peterson, J. T. and Bryson, R. A.: ‘Atmospheric Aerosols: Increased Concentrations during the Last Decade’, Science 162, 120–121 (1968).

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  87. Peterson, J. T. and Junge, C. E.: ‘Sources of Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere’, in W. H. Matthews, W. W. Kellogg and G. D. Robinson (eds.), Man’s Impact on the Climate, pp. 310–320. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England (1971).

    Google Scholar 

  88. Prospero, J. M.: ‘Atmospheric Dust Studies on Barbadoes’, Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 49, 645–652 (1968).

    Google Scholar 

  89. Prospero, J. M. and Carlson, T. N.: ‘Sanaran Dust in the Atmosphere of the Northern Equatorial Atlantic Ocean: a Major Constituent of the Marine Aerosol (Abstract)’, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 52, 1138 (1971).

    Google Scholar 

  90. Rasmussen, R. A. and Went, F. W.: ‘Volatile Organic Material of Plant Origin in the Atmosphere’, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 53, 215–220 (1965).

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  91. Rasool, S. I. and Schneider, S. H.: ‘Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Aerosols: Effects of Large Increases on Global Climate’, Science 173, 138 (1971).

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  92. Reardon, W. A., Merrill, J. A., Jacobson, L. D., and Bathke, W. L.: A Review and Comparison of Selected United States Energy Forecasts, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratories for OST, Government Printing Office, Washington, December (1969).

    Google Scholar 

  93. Roberts, P. and Hallett, J.: ‘A Laboratory Study of the Ice Nucleating Properties of Some Mineral Particulates’, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 25–34 (1968).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  94. Robinson, E. and Robbins, R. C.: Sources, Abundance, and Fate of Gaseous Atmospheric Pollutants, Report to American Petroleum Institute, Project PR-6755, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, California (1968).

    Google Scholar 

  95. Robinson, E. and Robbins, R. C.: Sources, Abundance, and Fate of Gaseous Atmospheric Pollutants — Supplement, Report to American Petroleum Institute, Project PR-6755, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, California (1969).

    Google Scholar 

  96. Robinson, E. and Robbins, R. C.: Emissions, Concentration, and Fate of Particulate Atmospheric Pollutants, Report to American Petroleum Institute, Project SCC-8507, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, California (1971).

    Google Scholar 

  97. Roosen, R. G. and Angione, R. J.: ‘Worldwide Variations in Atmospheric Transparency during the Twentieth Century’, in N. Laulainen and P. W. Hodge (eds.), Project ASTRA Publication No. 15, University of Washington, Seattle (1972).

    Google Scholar 

  98. Roosen, R. G., Angione, R. J., and Klemcke, C. H.: ‘Worldwide Variations in Atmospheric Transmission 1 — Baseline Results From Smithsonian Observations’, Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 50, 307–316 (1973).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  99. Rosen, J. M.: ‘Stratospheric Dust and its Relationship to the Meteoric Influx’, Space Sci. Rev. 9, 58–89 (1969).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  100. SCEP: ‘Report on the Study of Critical Environmental Problems’, in Man’s Impact on the Global Environment, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. (1970).

    Google Scholar 

  101. Schaefer, V. J.: ‘Ice Nuclei from Automobile Exhaust and Iodine Vapor’, Science 154, 1555 (1966).

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  102. Schaefer, V. J.: ‘The Inadvertent Modification of the Atmosphere by Air Pollution’, Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 50, 199–206 (1969).

    Google Scholar 

  103. Schaefer, V. J.: ‘The Inadvertent Modification of the Atmosphere by Air Pollution’, this volume pp. 177–196.

    Google Scholar 

  104. Schaefer, V. J.: ‘Condensation Nuclei: Production of very Large Numbers in Country Air’, Science 170, 851 (1970b).

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  105. Schaefer, V. J.: ‘The Measurement of Aerosol Particles on a Global Scale’, in W. H. Matthews, W. W. Kellogg and G. D. Robinson (eds.), Man’s Impact on the Climate, pp. 364–368, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. (1971).

    Google Scholar 

  106. Schmidt, R. A.: A Survey of Data on Microscopic Extraterrestrial Particles, Research Report Series 63–2, Dept. of Geology, University of Wis. Madison (1963).

    Google Scholar 

  107. Selezneva, E. S.: ‘Estimation of the Background Contamination of the Atmosphere from the Chemical Composition of Precipitation’, Tellus 24, 122–127 (1972).

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  108. Selezneva, E. S.: Atmosfernye Aerozoli, (Atmospheric Aerosols), Gidrometeorologischeskoi Izdatel’stvo, Leningrad, 1966, translated and published in English by Indian National Scientific Documentation Center, New Dehli (1970).

    Google Scholar 

  109. (SMIC): Report of the Study of Man’s Impact on Climate, in Climate Modification, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. and London, England (1971).

    Google Scholar 

  110. Smith, T. B.: ‘Pollutants and Cloud Condensation Processes’, in W. H. Matthews, W. W. Kellog and G. D. Robinson (eds.), Man’s Impact on the Climate, pp. 400–409, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. and London, England (1971).

    Google Scholar 

  111. Smith, E. J., Heffernan, K. J., and Seely, B. K.: ‘The Decay of Ice-Nucleating Properties of Silver Iodide in the Atmosphere’, J. Meteorol. 12, 379–385 (1955).

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  112. Smith, T. B., Weinstein, A. I., and Alkezweeny, A. J.: Nucleation Aspects of Inadvertent Weather Modification, Report to Travelers Research Corp., Meteorology Research, Inc., Altadena (1970).

    Google Scholar 

  113. Soulage, G.: ‘Contributions des fumées industrielles á l’enrichissement de l’atmosphère en noyaux glacogènes’, Bull. Observ. Puy Dome 4, 121–124 (1958).

    Google Scholar 

  114. Spirtas, R. and Levin H. J.: ‘Patterns and Trends in Levels of Suspended Particulate Matter’, J. Air Pollut. Cont. Asc. 21, 329–333 (1971).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  115. Squires, P.: ‘An Estimate of the Anthropogenic Production of Cloud Nuclei’, J. Rech. Atmos. 2, 297–308 (1966).

    Google Scholar 

  116. Stanford Research Institute: The Smog Problem in Los Angeles County, Western Oil and Gas Association, Los Angeles (1954).

    Google Scholar 

  117. Stern, A. C. (ed.): Air Pollution, Vol. I, Academic Press, New York (1968).

    Google Scholar 

  118. Telford, J. W.: ‘Freezing Nuclei From Industrial Processes’, J. Meteorol. 17, 676–679 (1960).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  119. Ter Haar, G. L. and Bayard, M. A.: ‘Composition of Airborne Lead Particles’, Nature 232, 553–554 (1971).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  120. Twomey, S., Howell, H. B., and Wojciechowski, T. A.: ‘Comments on “Anomalous Cloud Lines”’, J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 333–334 (1968).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  121. Twomey, S. and Wojciechowski, T. A.: ‘Observations of the Geographical Variation of Cloud Nuclei’, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 684–688 (1969).

    Google Scholar 

  122. Vohra, K. G., Vasudevan, K. N., and Nair, P. V. N.: ‘Mechanisms of Nucleus-Forming Reactions in the Atmosphere’, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 2951–2960 (1970).

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  123. Volz, F. E.: ‘Some Results of Turbidity Networks’, Tellus 21, 625–630 (1969).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  124. Volz, F. E.: ‘Atmospheric Turbidity After the Agung Eruption of 1963 and Size Distribution of the Volcanic Aerosol’, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 5185–5193 (1970a).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  125. Volz, F. E.: ‘On Dust in the Tropical and Midlatitude Stratosphere from Recent Twilight Measurements’, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 1641–1646 (1970b).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  126. Wadleight, C. H.: Wastes in Relation to Agriculture and Forestry, Miscellaneous Publication No. 1065, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. (1968).

    Google Scholar 

  127. Walt, G. R.: ‘Some Experiments Relating to the Electrical Conductivity of the Lower Atmosphere’, J. Wash. Acad. 36, 321 (1946).

    Google Scholar 

  128. Warner, J.: ‘A Reduction in Rainfall Associated with Smoke from Sugarcane Fires — an Inadvertent Weather Modification ?’ J. Appl. Meteorol 7, 247–251 (1968).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  129. Warner, J.: Smoke from Sugar-Cane Fires and Rainfall, Proc. International Conference on Weather Modification, Canberra, Australia, September 6–11, 1971, pp. 191–192, Amer. Meteorol. Soc., Boston (1971).

    Google Scholar 

  130. Went, F. W.: ‘Organic Matter in the Atmosphere and its Possible Relation to Petroleum Formation’, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 46, 212–221 (1960).

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  131. Went, F. W.: ‘The Nature of Aitken Condensation Nuclei in the Atmosphere’, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 51, 1259–1267 (1964).

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  132. Went, F. W.: ‘On the Nature of Aitken Condensation Nuclei’, Tellus 18, 549 (1966).

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  133. Wexler, H.: ‘Turbidities of American Air Masses and Conclusions Regarding the Seasonal Variation in Atmospheric Dust Content’, Mon. Weather Rev. 62, 397–402, 1934.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  134. Whitby, K. J.: ‘Aerosol Measurements: New Data on Urban Aerosols’, in I. H. Blifford, Jr. (ed.), Particulate Models: Validity and Application, pp. 3–12, TN/PROC-68, NCAR, Boulder (1970).

    Google Scholar 

  135. Windom, H. L.: ‘Atmospheric Dust Records in Permanent Snowfields: Implications to Marine Sedimentation’, Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 80, 761–782, 1969.

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  136. Woodcok, A. H. and Jones, R. H.: ‘Rainfall Trends in Hawaii’, J. Appl. Meteorol. 9, 690–696 (1970).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  137. Woodcok, A. H.: ‘Solubles’, in M. N. Hill (ed.), The Sea, Vol. I., Interscience (Wiley), New York, (1962).

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 1975 D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht-Holland

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Ellsaesser, H.W. (1975). The Upward Trend in Airborne Particulates That Isn’t. In: Singer, S.F. (eds) The Changing Global Environment. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-1729-9_16

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-1729-9_16

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Dordrecht

  • Print ISBN: 978-90-277-0402-3

  • Online ISBN: 978-94-010-1729-9

  • eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive