Evolution in Eurasia and North America
Several groups of mammals in the Northern Hemisphere could have served as hosts for Cephenemyiinae (Figs. 86–87). This family has probably had a very complex history, with the production of many different branches. What we now have, however, is only the very tip of one of these branches, which is exclusively restricted to certain groups of Cervidae (and, secondarily, to one genus of Bovidae). The past history the Cephenemyiinae remains a mystery and can only be traced down to the Pliocene.