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Application of CFD Methods for Modelling in Air Pollution Problems: Possibilities and Gaps

  • Alexander Baklanov

Abstract

Different urban air pollution problems deal with complex structure of air flows and turbulence. For such problems the Computer Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods become widely used. However, this approach despite a number of advantages has some problems. Experience of use of CFD tools for development of models and suggestions of their applications for a local scale air pollution over a complex terrain and stable stratification are discussed in this paper, including:
  • Topography and complex geometry: choose of the co-ordinate system and computer grid;

  • Turbulence closure for air pollution modelling: modified k-ɛ model for stable stratified ABL;

  • Boundary conditions for vertical profiles of velocity for stable-stratified atmosphere;

  • Effects of the radiation and thermal budget of inclined surfaces to dispersion of pollutants;

  • Artificial sources of air dynamics and circulation.

Some examples of CFD applications for air pollution modelling for a flat terrain, mountainous area, mining open cast and indoor ventilation are discussed. Modified k-ɛ model for stably-stratified ABL is suggested. Due to the isotropic character of the k-ɛ model a combination of it in vertical with the sub-grid turbulence closure in horizontal can be more suitable for ABL. An effective scheme of boundary conditions for velocity profiles, based on the developed similarity theory for stable-stratified ABL, is suggested. Alongside with the common studies of atmospheric dispersion, the CFD methods have also demonstrated a good potential for studying anthropogenic and artificial-ventilation sources of air dynamic and circulation in local-scale processes of air pollution.

Key words

air pollution Computer Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods environment modelling atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) turbulence stable-stratified atmosphere complex terrain 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander Baklanov
    • 1
  1. 1.Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI)CopenhagenDenmark

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