Monitoring with Lichens — Monitoring Lichens

An Introduction
  • P. L. Nimis
  • C. Scheidegger
  • P. A. Wolseley
Part of the NATO Science Series book series (NAIV, volume 7)


Widespread changes in natural and managed environments in the last century have been associated with rapid development of technology with the capacity for massive destruction of natural environments. This has been accompanied by large-scale natural disasters such as floods and droughts and by large-scale technical failures such as Chernobyl, impacting greatly on human existence and welfare. It is the impact on social conditions that has led to increasing interest in maintaining environmental quality and ensuring that human activities do not threaten the ecosystem on which we depend. The threats to human health by water and air pollution led to early research on bioindicators in order to map and monitor the effects of pollution on selected organisms. However the range of objectives to which biomonitoring is applied has grown steadily from water quality and atmospheric pollution to heavy metal accumulation, climate change, and to environmental issues involving management of natural resources such as the effects of fragmentation and habitat alteration, effects of development on biodiversity as well as assessing conservation practices for rare or endangered species.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Goldsmith, F.B. (1991) Monitoring for Conservation and Ecology, Chapman and Hall, London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hawksworth, D.L. (1991) The fungal dimension of biodiversity: magnitude, significance, and conservation, Mycological Research 95 (6), 641–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hellawell, J.M. (1991) Development of a rationale for monitoring, in F.B. Goldsmith (ed.), Monitoring for Conservation and Ecology, Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hunsaker, C.T. (1993) New concepts in environmental monitoring: The question of indicators, The Science of The Total Environment, Suppl., 77–95.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Legendre, P. and Legendre, L. (1998) Numerical Ecology, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. L. Nimis
    • 1
  • C. Scheidegger
    • 2
  • P. A. Wolseley
    • 3
  1. 1.Dipartimento di BiologiaUniversità di TriesteTriesteItaly
  2. 2.WSLSwiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape ResearchBirmensdorfSwitzerland
  3. 3.Dept. of BotanyThe Natural History MuseumLondonUK

Personalised recommendations