Corrections of Systematic Errors and Data Homogenisation in the Daily Temperature Padova Series (1725–1998)

  • Claudio Cocheo
  • Dario Camuffo


The correction, validation and homogenisation of the long temperature series of Padova (1725–1998) are discussed. After a careful historical investigation made in order to discover the metadata concerning the series, i.e., instrument features, calibrating methodologies, operational procedures (i.e., exposure, timing and number of daily observations), instrument maintenance, relocations and instrument replacements, the series has been corrected for all the systematic errors derived from any change in the instruments or the operative methodology. Above all, correction focused on instrumental drift, scale expansion, building influence, relationship between indoor-outdoor measurements, minima and maxima evaluation from observations performed at different times, homogenisation for difference of level and change of site. Statistical tests applied to the data and the comparison with other known series has clarified some uncertainties about exposure and operational procedures that the historical analysis of metadata was unable to solve. Moreover, gaps have been filled after the comparison of the series with others of neighbouring sites. The critical work of debugging, correcting, validating and homogenising the series is essential for a correct interpretation of data, as in some cases the errors that have been corrected have been found to be greater than the climate signal. Especially in the early period, the algebraic sum of the corrections of the mean daily temperature exceeds 8 °C, where monthly corrections can reach 6 °C. After correction, validation and homogenisation, the linear trend of the Padova series is positive, +0.31 °C/100 yr over the period 1774–today. Looking at post-industrial warming, the temperature rise is +0.44 °C in the last 130 years, which means +0.34 °C/100 yr, not far from the above bulk average.


Daily Temperature Equilibrium Moisture Content Temperature Series Reference Series Data Homogenisation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alexandersson, H.: 1986, ‘A Homogeneity Test Applied to Precipitation Data’, J. Climatol. 6, 661–675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexandersson H. and Moberg A.: 1996, ‘Homogenisation of Swedish Temperature Data. Part I: A Homogeneity Test for Linear Trends’, Temperature Variations in Sweden Since the 18th Century, Dissertation Series No. 5, 98, Stockholm University.Google Scholar
  3. Camuffo, D.: 1998, Microclimate for Cultural Heritage, Developments in Atmospheric Science 23, Elsevier, Amsterdam, p. 415.Google Scholar
  4. Camuffo, D.: 2002a, ‘History of the Long Series of Daily Air Temperature in Padova (1725–1998)’, Clim. Change, this volume.Google Scholar
  5. Camuffo, D.: 2002b, ‘Calibration and Instrumental Errors in Early Measurements of Air Temperature’, Clim. Change, this volume.Google Scholar
  6. Camuffo, D.: 2002c, ‘Errors in Early Temperature Series Arising from Changes in Style of Measuring Time, Sampling Schedule and Number of Observations’, Clim. Change, this volume.Google Scholar
  7. Giordano G.: 1986, Tecnologia del legno, Vol. 3, UTET, Torino, pp. 201–217.Google Scholar
  8. Giordano G.: 1993, Tecnica delle costruzioni in legno, Hoepli, Milan, pp. 16–27.Google Scholar
  9. Hemmer, J. J.: 1783, ‘Descriptio instrumentorum meteorologicorum, tam eorum, quam Societas distribuit, quam quibus praeter haec Mannheimii utitur’, Ephemerides Societatis Meteorologicae Palatinae, Tomus 1, 57–90.Google Scholar
  10. Jones, P. D.: 1985, ‘Northern Hemisphere Temperatures 1851–1984’, Climate Monitor 14, 14–21.Google Scholar
  11. Jurin J.: 1723, ‘Invitatio ad observationes Meteorologicas communi consilio instituendas a Jacobo Jurin M.D. Soc. Reg. Secr. et Colleg. Med. Lond. Socio’, Philosophical Transactions 379, 422–427.Google Scholar
  12. Kendall, M., 1976: Time Series, 2nd edition, Charles Griffin, London.Google Scholar
  13. Poleni G.: 1709, Johannis Poleni Miscellanea hoc est: I Dissertatio de Barometris et Termometris; II Machinae Aritmeticae, eiusque Descriptio; III, De Sectionihus Conicis Parallelorum in Horologiis Solaribus Tractatus. Aloysium Pavinum, Venice.Google Scholar
  14. Sliker A. and Summitt R.: 1980, Handbook of Material Science, Vol. 4, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.Google Scholar
  15. Toaldo G.: 1803, ‘Emendazione de’ Barometri e de’ termometri’, in Completa raccolta di opuscoli, osservazioni e notizie diverse contenute nei Giornali astro-meteorologici ecc, Vol. IV, Andreola, Venice, pp. 48–82.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claudio Cocheo
    • 1
  • Dario Camuffo
    • 2
  1. 1.Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri — IRCCSPadovaItaly
  2. 2.Consiglio Nazionale delle RicercheInstitute of Atmospheric Sciences and ClimatePadovaItaly

Personalised recommendations