History of the Long Series of Daily Air Temperature in Padova (1725–1998)

  • Dario Camuffo


The history of the origin of the study of meteorology in Padova and its connection to the major developments of this science in Italy and the international context are presented. Special topics are: the scientific legacy of Galileo Galilei and the Accademia del Cimento, the birth of the first meteorological networks, i.e., Ferdinand II and Leopold de’ Medici who created the Rete Medicea, J. Jurin and the network of the Royal Society, London, L. Cotte and the Société Royale de Médicine, Paris, J. J. Hemmer and the Societas Meteorologica Palatina, Mannheim. After outlining the cultural background that favoured the development of meteorology, emphasis is given to the plurisecular time series of meteorological observations, taken in Padova since 1725, in its national and international context. This long series includes barometric pressure, air temperature, wind direction and speed; state of the sky and occurrence of meteorological events and precipitation. Special reference is made to indoor and outdoor temperature observations. Solar radiation falling on each exposure has been modelled in order to know when data were fully reliable and when they were less so. A vertical profile of air temperature has allowed corrections of the change of instrument level, when necessary. In terms of homogeneity, the series can be divided into several periods, during which instruments and operational methods, position, general criteria were unchanged: origins in homes of the first observers (1725–1767); the First Period at the Specola (1768–1812); the Second Period at the Specola (1813–1864); the Third and Fourth Periods at the Specola (1865–1937); the Last Measurements at the Specola (1938–1962); the Giovanni Magrini Observatory of the Water Magistrate (1920–today); the Gino Allegri Airport (1926–1990), the Botanical Gardens (1980–today), the CNR (1984–1986; 1993–today). The latest period, with the birth of new weather stations, is the most affected by anthropic effect. The simultaneous presence of an urban and a rural weather station pointed out local effects which dominate the urban heat island.


Urban Heat Island Meridian Circle Meteorological Observation Ground Floor Summer Solstice 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


Literature (after 1990)

  1. Bacci, P. and Maugeri, M: 1992, ‘The Urban Heat Island of Milan’, Nuovo Cimento, 15 C 4, 417–424.Google Scholar
  2. Bozzolato, G., Del Negro, P., and Ghetti, C.: 1986, La Specola dell’Universitá di Padova, Edizioni Uno più Uno, Padova.Google Scholar
  3. Bressan, E.: 1986, Il Castello di Padova. Canova, Treviso.Google Scholar
  4. Camuffo, D.: 1984, ‘Analysis of the Series of Precipitation at Padova, Italy’, Clim. Change 6, 57–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Camuffo, D.: 2000, ‘Toaldo e le origini della serie meteorologica di Padova’, in Pigatto, L. (ed.), Giuseppe Toaldo e il suo tempo, Centro per la Storia dell’Universitá di Padova e Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Padova, pp. 779–804.Google Scholar
  6. Camuffo, D.: 2002a, ‘Calibration and Instrumental Errors in Early Measurements of Air Temperature’, Clim. Change, this volume.Google Scholar
  7. Camuffo, D.: 2002b, ‘Errors in Early Temperature Series Arising from Changes in Style of Measuring Time, Sampling Schedule and Number of Observations’, Clim. Change, this volume.Google Scholar
  8. Camuffo, D. and Zardini, F.: 1997, ‘Controlling the Homogeneity of a Long Meteorological Series: The Series of Padova (1725–today)’, in Subba Rao, T., Priestley, M. B., and Lessi, O. (eds.), Applications of Time Series for Meteorology and Astronomy, Chapman & Hall, London, pp. 441–459.Google Scholar
  9. Cayan, D. R. and Douglas, A. V.: 1984, ‘Urban Influences on Surface Temperatures in Southwestern United States during Recent Decades’, J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 1520–1530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cantù, V.: 1985, ‘Alla ricerca di documenti sul clima passato. Le compilazioni di Padre Boffito e le osservazioni sei-settecentesche di Vallombrosa’, Accademie e Biblioteche d’Italia 53 (36 n. s.), 2, 103–110.Google Scholar
  11. Ceconi, E.: 1939, ‘Confronti tra media effettiva e medie ridotte della temperatura dell’aria di alcune località delle Tre Venezie’, Memorie délia R. Accademia di Scienze Lettere ed Arti in Padova, 1938–1939, Vol. LV, Accademia, Padova, p. 19.Google Scholar
  12. Cicala, A.: 1970, Meteorologia e Strumenti, Levrotto and Bella, Torino.Google Scholar
  13. Cocheo, C. and Camuffo, D: 2000, ‘L’igrometro di Chiminello e le misure igrometriche effettuate a Padova per la ‘Meteorologica Societas Palatina’, Mannheim, in Pigatto, L. (ed.), Giuseppe Toaldo e il suo tempo, Centro per la Storia dell’Università di Padova e Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Padova, pp. 743–762.Google Scholar
  14. Cocheo, C. and Camuffo, D: 2002, ‘Corrections of Systematic Errors and Data Homogenisation in the Daily Temperature Padova Series (1725–1998)’, Clim. Change, this volume.Google Scholar
  15. Colacino, M.: 2000, ‘Toaldo and the Societas Meteorologica Palatina’, in Pigatto, L. (ed.), Giuseppe Toaldo e il suo tempo, Centro per la Storia dell’Università di Padova e Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Padova, pp. 979–996.Google Scholar
  16. Colacino, M. and Rovelli, A.: 1983, ‘The Yearly Averaged Air Temperature in Rome from 1782 to 1915’, Tellus 35A, 389–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Colacino, M. and Valensise, M. R.: 1992, ‘Cimento Academy and Developmento of Meteorology in Itally’, in Schroeder, W., Colacino, M., and Gregori, G. (eds.), Exploring the Earth: Progress in Geophysics since the 17th Century. Proc. of the Meeting of the Interdivisional Commission on History — International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) Roennebeck, Bremen, pp. 221–232.Google Scholar
  18. Crestani, G.: 1926, ‘L’inizio delle osservazioni meteorologiche a Padova. Il contributo di Giovanni Poleni alla meteorologia’, Atti e Memorie della R. Accademia di Scienze Lettere ed Arti in Padova, 1925–1926, New Series, Vol. XLII, Accademia, Padova, pp. 19–83.Google Scholar
  19. Crestani, G.: 1927, ‘Sulle correzioni da apportarsi agli strumenti registratori’, Meteorologia Pratica, 65–68.Google Scholar
  20. Crestani, G.: 1928,Il Clima dei Colli Euganei e di Padova. Ufficio Idrografico Magistrato alle Acque, Provveditorato Generale dello Stato, Rome, p. 42.Google Scholar
  21. Crestani, G.: 1933, ‘Le osservazioni meteorologiche — I fenomeni meteorologici’, in Magrini G. (ed.), La laguna di Venezia, Vol. I, pars II, tomo III, Ferrari, Venice, pp. 1–203.Google Scholar
  22. Crestani, G., Ramponi F., and Venturelli L.: 1935, Le precipitazioni atmosferiche a Padova. Magistrato alle Acque-Ufficio Idrografico, Poligrafico dello Stato, Rome.Google Scholar
  23. Eredia, F.: 1921, Osservazioni pluviometriche raccolte a tutto l’anno 1915. Vol. III Bacini imbriferi della regione Veneta. Min. Lav. Pubbl., Cons. Sup. Acque 3, 1, Servizio Idrografico, Poligrafico dello Stato, Rome, pp. 416–422.Google Scholar
  24. Favaro, G. A.: 1906, ‘Valori normali dei principali elementi del clima di Padova’, Atti e Memorie della R. Accademia di Scienze Lettere ed Arti in Padova, 1905–1906, New Series, Vol. XXII, 235–250.Google Scholar
  25. Ferrantini, A.: 1958, ‘Statistiche Meteorologiche’, Le rilevazioni statistiche in Italia dal 1861 al 1956, Annali di Statistics, Istitituto Centrale di Statistica) 8(7), 179–217.Google Scholar
  26. Ferretti, R., Maugeri, M., and Buffoni, L.: 1993, ‘Serie termometriche di Milano-Brera’, Acqua Aria 4, 365–376.Google Scholar
  27. Folland, C. K., Karl, T. R., and Vinnikov, K. Ya.: 1990, ‘Observed Climate Variations and Change’, in Houghton, J. T., Jenkins, G. J., and Ephramus, J. J. (eds.), Clim. Change, the IPCC Scientific Assessment, WMNO/UNEP/IPCC, Cambridge University Press, pp. 195–238.Google Scholar
  28. Giormani, V: 1984, L’insegnamento della Chimica all’Università di Padova dal 1749 al 1808, Antenore, Padova.Google Scholar
  29. Goossens, Ch. and Berger, A.: 1986, ‘Annual and Seasonal Climatic Variations over the Northern Hemisphere and Europe during the Last Century’, Annales Geophysicae 4, B, 4, 385–400.Google Scholar
  30. Jones, P. D., Raper, S. C. B., Bradley, R. S., Diaz, H. F., Kelly, P. M., and Wigley, T. M. L.: 1986, ‘Northern Hemisphere Surface Air Temperature Variations: 1851–1984’, J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 25, 161–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kukla, G., Gavin, J., and Karl, T. R.: 1986, ‘Urban Warming’, J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 25, 1265–1270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Landsberg, H. E.: 1981, The Urban Climate. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  33. Lee, D. O.: 1992, ‘Urban Warming? — An Analysis of Recent Trends in London’s Heat Island’, Weather 47(2), 50–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lorenzoni G.: 1921, I primordii dell’Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova (edited posthumous by A. Favaro) Ferrari, Venice (after: Atti e Memorie della Reale Accademia di Scienze Lettere e Arti in Padova, special issue for the 7th centenary of the University).Google Scholar
  35. Maracchi, G.: 1991, ‘A brief History of Meteorology in Florence from the Beginnings to the Present’, X Session of the Commission for Agricultural Meteorology, World Meteorological Organisation, 2–13 Dec. 1991, Cesia, Florence, p. 169.Google Scholar
  36. Marseguerra, M., Morelli, S., Saltini, G., and Santangelo, R.: 1979, ‘Evidence of an Anthropogenic Climatic Change in the Daily Temperatures of Modena, Italy’, Nuovo Cimento 2C, 4, 499–503.Google Scholar
  37. Maugeri, M., Buffoni, L., and Chlistovsky, F.: 2002, ‘Daily Milan Temperature and Pressure Series (1763–1998): History of the Observations and Data and Metadata Recovery’, Clim. Change, this volume.Google Scholar
  38. Middleton, K. W. E.: 1966, A history of the Thermometer and its use in Meteorology, J. Hopkins Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  39. Mitchell, J. M., Jr.: 1953, ‘On the Causes of Instrumentally Observed Secular Temperature Trends’, J. Meteorol. 10, 244–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Moberg, A., Jones, P. D., Bergström, H., Camuffo, D., Cocheo, C., Davies, T. D., Demarée, G., Maugeri, M., Martin-Vide, J., and Verhoeve, T.: 2001, ‘Day-to-day Temperature Variability Trends in 160 to 275-year-long European Instrumental Records’, J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 105(D18), 22849–22868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ongaro, G.: 1988, ‘Il sodalizio tra Giovanni Poleni e Giambattista Morgagni’, in Soppelsa, M. L. (ed.), 1988, Giovanni Poleni idraulico matematico Architetto filologo (1683–1761), Accademia Patavina di Scienze Lettere ed Arti, Collana Accademica, Padova, Vol. 10, pp. 187–202.Google Scholar
  42. Parker, D. E.: 1994, ‘Effects of Changing Exposure of Thermometers at Land Stations’, International Journal of Climatology 14, 1–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Robinson, N.: 1966, Solar Radiation. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  44. Servizio Meteorologico Aeronautica: 1975, Origini ed evoluzione del Servizio Meteorologico dell’Aeronautica Militare, Vol. I, Aeronautica Militare, Rome.Google Scholar
  45. Silva, G.: 1911, Cross section of the Specola. Old Library of the Specola, Padova.Google Scholar
  46. Yan, Z., Jones, P. D., Moberg, A., Bergström, H., Davies, T. D., and Yang, C.: 2001, ‘Recent Trends in Weather and Seasonal Cycles — An Analysis of Daily Data in Europe and China’, J. Geophys. Res 106, 5123–5138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zaccaria, G. B.: 1932, L’officina Meccanica della Specola di Padova. Penada, Padova, p. 27.Google Scholar
  48. Zanella, G.: 1976, ‘Il clima urbano di Parma’, Rivista Meteorologia Aeronautica 36, 125–146.Google Scholar
  49. Zaupa, M. M.: 1990, Storia della Specola di Padova dalla fondazione al 1985. Degree thesis University of Padova, Dept. Astronomy.Google Scholar

Sources (before 1900)

  1. Antinori, V.: 1841, ‘Notizie istoriche relative all’Accademia del Cimento’, in Saggi délie naturali esperienze. Archivio Meteorologico Centrale Italiano. Museo di Fisica e Storia Naturale, Florence (first printing: 1858).Google Scholar
  2. Brandolese, P.: 1795, Pitture sculture e architetture ed altre cose notabili di Padova nuovamente descritte, Brandolese, Padova.Google Scholar
  3. Carlini, F.: 1838, Sulla distribuzione e sull’uso delle osservazioni meteorologiche che si fanno nell’T.R. Osservatorio di Milano, Effemeridi Astronomiche 1838, Archives of the Brera Observatory, Milano, pp. 65–67.Google Scholar
  4. C. F: 1725, Manuscript dated 3 May 1725, signed C. F., at the Marciana Library, Venice, classified C1.4 N.631 Coll. 5354.Google Scholar
  5. Cerato, D. and Coworkers: 1767–1777, Facciata della nuova Specola e sue adiacenze. The original drawings are preserved in the Specola Observatory, Padova.Google Scholar
  6. Chiminello, V: 1779, Note on the register of the daily meteorological observations. Library of the Astronomic Observatory, Padova.Google Scholar
  7. Chiminello, V: 1785, Ricerche sulla comparabilità dell’igrometro, Giornale Enciclopedico di Vicenza, Turra, Vicenza, p. 81.Google Scholar
  8. Chiminello, V: 1786, Risultati di osservazioni barometriche per li quali si détermina un doppio flusso e riflusso dell’atmosfera, Saggi Scientifici e Letterari dell’Accademia di Padova, Tomo I, Accademia, Padova, pp. 195–201.Google Scholar
  9. Cossali, P.: 1813, Elogio di G. Poleni recitato all’apertura dell’anno scolastico 1812–1813, Bettoni, Padova.Google Scholar
  10. Denza, F: 1882, Istruzioni per le osservazioni meteorologiche e il barometro altimetrico, Associ-azione Meteorologica Italiana, Torino, p. 311.Google Scholar
  11. Direzione Statistica: 1872, Notizie su le osservazioni meteorologiche — Norme per le osservazioni meteoriche, Supplemento alla Meteorologia Italiana, 28–32.Google Scholar
  12. Ferrari, J. B.: 1815, Vitae Virorum Illustrium Seminarii Patavinii, Tipografia Seminario, Padua, pp. 386–412.Google Scholar
  13. Flammarion, C: 1888, L’atmosfera, Sonzogno, Milano.Google Scholar
  14. Galileo, G.: 1626, Letter to Cesare Marsili, dated 25 April 1626 (Favaro, 1966).Google Scholar
  15. Hemmer, J. J.: 1783, Descriptio instrumentorum meteorologicorum, tarn eorum, quam Societas distribuit, quam quibus praeter haec Manheimii utitur. Ephemerides Societatis Meteorologicae Palatinae, Tomus 1, pp. 57–90.Google Scholar
  16. Jurin, J.: 1723, ‘Invitatio ad observationes Meteorologicas communi consilio instituendas a Jacobo Jurin M. D. Soc. Reg. Seer, et Colleg. Med. Lond. Socio’, Philosophical Transactions 379, 422–427.Google Scholar
  17. Lorenzoni, G.: 1872, Sulle osservazioni udometriche eseguite a Padova dal 1725 al 1871, Randi, Padova (after: Atti e Memorie della Reale Accademia di Scienze Lettere e Arti in Padova, pp. 71–134).Google Scholar
  18. Lorenzoni G.: 1885, L’insegnamento di Astronomia e Meteore del Prof. Lodovico Riva e i documenti relativi alla fondazione dell’osservatorio astronomico, Randi, Padova, Atti e Memorie della Reale Accademia di Scienze Lettere e Arti in Padova, 1884–1885, n. s., Vol. I, disp. III.Google Scholar
  19. Lorenzoni G.: 1896, IL castello di Padova e le sue condizioni verso la fine del secolo decimottavo, Randi, Padova, Atti e Memorie della Reale Accademia di Scienze Lettere e Arti in Padova, Vol. XII, New Series, pp. 171–224.Google Scholar
  20. Malagotti, L.: 1667, Saggi di naturali esperienze fatte nell’Accademia del Cimento, Florence.Google Scholar
  21. Moschini, G. A.: 1817, Guida per la Città di Padova alVamico delle Belle Arti, Gamba, Venezia.Google Scholar
  22. Poleni G.: 1709, Johannis Poleni Miscellanea hoc est: I Dissertatio de Barometris et Termometris; II Machinae Aritmeticae, eiusque Descriptio; III, De Sectionibus Conicis Parallelorum in Horologiis Solaribus Tractatus, Aloysium Pavinum, Venice.Google Scholar
  23. Poleni, G.: 1716–1725, Unpublished manuscripta, Mss. It., CL. IV, N.631, 5354, Marciana Library, Venice.Google Scholar
  24. Poleni, G.: 1731, ‘Viri Celeberrimi Johannis Marchionis Poleni, R. S. S. ad virum Doctissimum Jacobum Jurinum, M. D. R.S.S. Epistola, qua continetur Summarium Observationum Meteorologicarum per sexennium Patavij habitarum’, Philosophical Transactions 421, 201–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Poleni, G.: 1738a, ‘Viri Celeberrimi Johannis Marchionis Poleni, R. S. Lond. S. ad virum Doctissimum Jacobum Jurinum, M. D.R.S.S. Epistola, qua continetur Summarium Observationum Meteorologicarum per sexennium Patavii habitarum’, Philosophical Transactions 448, 239–248.Google Scholar
  26. Poleni, G.: 1738b, Observatio aurorae borealis, visae nocte insequente diem XVI Decembris anno MDCCXXXVII habita Patavii ab Joanne Poleno. — In Raccolta d’opuscoli scientifici e nlologici, Zane, Venice, Tom. 17 (1738), pp. 1–13 also Phylosophical Transactions 459, 587.Google Scholar
  27. Poleni, G.: 1740, ‘Ioannis Poleni ad nobilissimum virum comitem Alexandrum de Pompeiis patricium veronensem Epistola, qua nonnullae observationes astronomicae et meteorologicae continentur’, Commentaria Academiae Scientificae Petropolitanae, Tom. VIII, 439–452.Google Scholar
  28. Ramazzini, B.: 1718a, Constitutiones Epidemicas Anni 1690, 1691, 1692, 1693, 1694, in Beranardini Ramazzini Operum Omnium, Conzatti, Padova Vol. 2., 1–195.Google Scholar
  29. Ramazzini, B.: 1718b, Ephemeris Barometricae, in Beranardini Ramazzini Operum Omnium. Conzatti, Padova, Vol. 3, pp. 273–623.Google Scholar
  30. Ramazzini, B.: 1718c, Hyemalis constitutio algidissima anni 1709, in Beranardini Ramazzini Operum Omnium, Conzatti, Padova, Vol. 4, pp. 239–261.Google Scholar
  31. Rossetti, G. B.: 1776, Descrizione delle pitture, sculture ed architetture di Padova, Stamperia del Seminario, Padova.Google Scholar
  32. Salmon, U. P.: 1798, ‘Biographie de Joseph Toaldo’, Magazin Encyclopédique ou Journal des Sciences Lettres et Arts, Fuchs, Paris, 3, 6, 468–481.Google Scholar
  33. Targioni Tozzetti, G.: 1780, Notizie degli aggrandimenti delle Scienze Fisiche accaduti in Toscana nel corso di anni LX del secolo XVII, Tomo I, Bouchard, Florence.Google Scholar
  34. Toaldo, G.: 1770, Saggio Meteorologico della vera influenza degli Astri, delle Stagioni e mutazioni di Tempo, (1st edn.), Manfrè, Stamperia del Seminario, Padova.Google Scholar
  35. Toaldo, G.: 1774, ‘Ristretto Meteorologico dell’Anno 1773 in Padova’, Giornale Astro Meteoro-logico, Bettinelli, Venice, pp. 53–58.Google Scholar
  36. Toaldo, G.: 1775, La Meteorologia applicata alVAgricoltura, Storti, Venice, p. 84.Google Scholar
  37. Toaldo, G.: 1777, ‘Ristretto Meteorologico dell’Anno 1776 in Padova’, Giornale Astro Meteoro-logico, Storti, Venezia, p. 27.Google Scholar
  38. Toaldo, G.: 1779–1780, Observationes astronomicae peractae in Specula Patavina anni 1779…, Old Library of the Astronomic Observatory, Padova.Google Scholar
  39. Toaldo, G.: 1781, Saggio Meteorologico della vera influenza degli Astri, delle Stagioni e mutazioni di Tempo, Manfrè, (2nd edn.), Stamperia del Seminario, Padova.Google Scholar
  40. Toaldo, G.: 1784, ‘Confronto dell’anno 1782 cogli anni addietro, 1764, 1746, 1728, ad esso corrispondenti per il ciclo delle 223 lune’, Giornale Astro Meteorologico, Storti, Venice, pp. 61–74.Google Scholar
  41. Toaldo, G.: 1786, ‘Observationes meteorologicae Patavii ad Speculam Astronomicam peractae a Josepho Toaldo, Astronomiae Professore, Annis 1780–1781’, Saggi scientifici e letterari dell’Accademia di Padova, Tom. I, Accademia, Padova, pp. 285–310.Google Scholar
  42. Toaldo, G.: 1789, ‘Delle qualità fisiche delle Plaghe’, Saggi Scientifici e Letterari dell’Accademia di Padova, Tom. II, Accademia, Padova, pp. 121–143.Google Scholar
  43. Toaldo, G.: 1794, ‘Investigatio caloris plurium Italiae locorum’, Saggi Scientifici e Letterari dell’Accademia di Padova, Tom. III, Pars I, Accademia, Padova, pp. 216–228.Google Scholar
  44. Toaldo, G. and Chiminello, V: 1789, ‘Observationes meteorologicae peractae in Specula Patavina annis 1782–1783 a Josepho Toaldo ac Socio Vincentio Chiminello’, Saggi Scientifici e Letterari dell’Accademia di Padova, Tom. II, Accademia, Padova, pp. 247–272.Google Scholar
  45. Toaldo, G. and Chiminello, V.: 1794, ‘Observationes meteorologicae peractae in Specula Patavina annis 1782–1783 a Josepho Toaldo ac Socio Vincentio Chiminello’, Saggi Scientifici e Letîerari delUAccademia di Padova, Tomo III, pars I, Accademia, Padova, pp. 423–460.Google Scholar
  46. Valle, G.: 1781, Planta di Padova (Map of Padova), The map was commissioned in 1779, finished in China ink and watercolour by G. Valle in 1781 and then etched and printed by G. Volpato, Rome 1784. The original is preserved in the Accademia Patavina di Lettere Scienze ed Arti, Padova.Google Scholar
  47. Von Humboldt, A.: 1817a, ‘Des lignes isothermes et de la distribution de la chaleur sur le Globe’, Mémoires de la Société d’Arcueil, Vol. III.Google Scholar
  48. Von Humboldt, A.: 1817b, De distributione geographica plantarum secundum coeli temperiem et altitudinem montium, Libraria Graeco-Latino-Germanica Paris.Google Scholar
  49. Zantedeschi, F.: 1869, Leggi del clima di Padova dedotte dalle osservazioni meteorologiche dal 1725 al 1860, Commentari delVAteneo di Brescia, Apollonio, Brescia.Google Scholar
  50. Zendrini, B.: 1709, Discorso fisico matematico sopra il turbine accaduto in Venezia l’anno 1709, Galleria Minerva, Venice.Google Scholar
  51. Zendrini, B.: 1741, ‘Observationes meteorologicae Venetiis habitae anno 1738 a Bernardino Zendrini’, in Calogerà, A. (ed.), Raccolta di opuscoli scientifici e filosofici 23, Venice.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dario Camuffo
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and ClimateConsiglio Nazionale delle RicerchePadovaItaly

Personalised recommendations