The Time-of-Flight Energy, Angle, Mass Spectrograph (Teams) Experiment for Fast



The Time-of-flight Energy Angle Mass Spectrograph (TEAMS) is being flown on the FAST Small Explorer mission to measure the 3-dimensional distribution function of the major ion species present in the lower magnetosphere. The instrument is similar to time-of-flight plasma analyzer systems that have been designed and planned for flight as CODIF (Composition and Distribution Function analyzer) on the four European Space Agency Cluster-II spacecraft and, as ESIC (Equator-S Ion Composition instrument) on Equator-S. This instrument allows the 3-dimensional distribution functions of individual ion species to be determined within 1/2 spin period (2.5 s). Two-dimensional distributions are measured in 80 ms. These capabilities are crucial for the study of selective energization processes in the auroral regions of the magnetosphere. The design, operational characteristics, and test and calibration results for this instrument are presented. The sensor consists of a toroidal top-hat electrostatic analyzer with instantaneous acceptance of ions over 360° in polar angle. After post-acceleration of the incoming ions by up to 25 kV, a time-of-flight mass spectrograph discriminates the individual species. It has been demonstrated through calibration that the instrument can easily separate H+, He2+, He+, O+ and, for energies after post-acceleration of > 20 keV, even O 2 + molecules. On-board mass discrimination and the internal accumulation of several distinct data quantities combined with the spacecraft’s flexible telemetry formatting allow for instrument data rates from 7.8 kb s−1 to 315 kb s−1 to be telemetered to ground through the FAST centralized Instrument Data Processor.


Spin Axis Spin Period Carbon Foil Auroral Region Electrostatic Analyzer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Carlson, C. W., McFadden, J. P., Turin, P., Curtis, D. W., and Magoncelli, A.: 2001, ‘The Electron and Ion Plasma Instrument on FAST’, Space Sci. Rev., this issue.Google Scholar
  2. Carlson, C. W. and McFadden, J. P.: 1998, ‘Design and Application of Imaging Plasma Instruments’, Measurement Techniques in Space Plasmas, American Geophysical Union, Geophys. Monog. 102, 125–140.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carlson, C. W.: 1992, ‘The Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer: June 9, 1992’, EOS 73, 249.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carlson, C. W., Curtis, D. W., Paschmann, G., and Michael, W.: 1982, ‘An Instrument for Rapidly Measuring Plasma Distribution Functions with High Resolution’, Adv. Space Res. 2, 67.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ghielmetti, A. G. and Young, D. T.: 1987, ‘A Double-Focusing Toroidal Mass Spectrograph for Energetic Plasmas, I, Theory’, Nucl. Instr. Meth. A258, 297.ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. Gloeckler, G., Ipavich, F. M., Studemann, W., Wilken, B., Hamilton, D. C., Kremser, G., Hovestadt, D., Gliem, E, Lundgren, R. A., Rieck, W., Turns, E. O., Cain, J. C., MaSung, L. S., Weiss, W., and Winterhof, P.: 1985, ‘The Charge-Energy-Mass Spectrometer for 0.3–300 keV/e Ions on the AMPTE/CCE’, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. GE-23, 234–240.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hamilton, D. C., Gloeckler, G., Ipavich, F. M., Lundgren, R. A., Sheldon, R. B., and Hovestadt, D.: 1990, ‘New-High Resolution Electrostatic Ion Mass Analyzer Using Time-of-Flight’, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 3104–3106.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hovestadt, D. et al.: 1989, ‘CELIAS — Charge, Element and Isotope Analysis System for SOHO’, The SOHO Mission, ESA SP-1104, 69.Google Scholar
  9. Klumpar, D. M.: 1979, ‘Transversely Accelerated Ions: An Ionospheric Source of Hot Magne-tospheric Ions’, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 4229.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. McComas, D. J. and Nordholt, J. E.: 1990, ‘New Approach to 3-D, High Sensitivity, High Mass Resolution Space Plasma Composition Measurements’, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 3095–3097.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. McEntire, R. W., Keath, E. P., Fort, D. E., Lui, A. T. Y., and Krimigis, S. M.: 1985, ‘The Medium-Energy Particle Analyzer (MEPA) on the AMPTE CCE spacecraft’, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. GE-23, 230–233.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Möbius, E., Tang, L., Kistler, L. M., Popecki, M., Lund, E. J., Klumpar, D. M., Peterson, W., Shelley, E. G., Klecker, B., Hovestadt, D., Carlson, C. W., Ergun, R., McFadden, J. P., Mozer, F., Temerin, M., Cattell, C., Elphic, R., Strangeway, R., and Pfaff, R.: 1998a, ‘Species Dependent Energies in Upward Directed Ion Beams over Auroral Arcs as Observed with FAST TEAMS’, Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2029–2032.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Möbius, E., Kistler, L. M., Popecki, M. A., Crocker, K. N., Granoff, M., Jiang, Y., Satori, E., Ye, V., Rème, H., Sauvaud, J. A., Cros, A., Aoustin, C., Camus, T., Médale, J.-L., Rouzaud, J., Carlson, C. W., McFadden, J. P., Curtis, D., Heetdirks, H., Croyle, J., Ingraham, C., Klecker, B., Hovestadt, D., Ertl, M., Eberl, F., Kästle, H., Künneth, E., Laeverenz, P., Seidenschwang, E., Shelley, E. G., Klumpar, D. M., Hertzberg, E., Parks, G. K., McCarthy, M., Korth, A., Rosenbauer, H., Gräve, B., Eliasson, L., Olsen, S., Balsiger, H., Schwab, U., and Steinacher, M.: 1998b, ‘The 3-D Plasma Distribution Function Analyzers with Time-of-Flight Mass Discrimination for CLUSTER, FAST, and Equator-S’, Measurement Techniques in Space Plasmas, American Geophysical Union, Geophys. Monog. 102, 243–248.ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. Möbius, E., Bochsler, P., Ghielmetti, A. G., Hamilton, D. C: 1990, ‘High Mass Resolution Isochronous Time-of-Flight Spectrograph for Three-Dimensional Space Plasma Measurements’, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 3609–3612.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Möbius, E., Gloeckler, G., Hovestadt, D., Ipavich, F. M., Klecker, B., Scholer, M., Arbinger, H., Hofner, H., Künneth, E., Laeverenz, P., Luhn, A., Turns, E. O., and Waldleben, H.: 1985, ‘The Time-of-Flight Spectrometer SULEICA for Ions of the Energy Range 5-270 keV/charge on the AMPTE/IRM’, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. GE-23, 274–279.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Paschmann, G., Loidl, H., Obermayer, P., Ertl, M., Laborenz, R., Sckopke, N., Baumjohann, W., Carlson, C. W., and Curtis, D. W.: 1985, ‘The Plasma Instrument for AMPTE/IRM’, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. GE-23, 262–266.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rème, H., Bosqued, J. A. Sauvaud, J. A., Cros, A., Dandouras, J., Aoustin, C., Martz, Ch., Médale, J. H., Rouzaud, J., Mobius, E. et al.: 1993, ‘The Cluster Ion Spectrometry Experiment’, ESA SP-1159, 133-162.Google Scholar
  18. Sharp, R. D., Johnson, R. G., and Shelley, E. G.: 1977, ‘Obseration of an Ion Acceleration Mechansim Producing Energetic (keV) Ions Primarily Normal to the Geomagnetic Field Direction’, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 3324–3328.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Shelley, E. G., Ghielmetti, A. G., Balsiger, H., Black, R. K., Bowles, J. A., Bowman, R. P., Bratschi, O., Burch, J. L., Carlson, C. W., Coker, A. J. et al.: 1995 ‘The Toroidal Imaging Mass-Angle Spectrograph (TIMAS) for the Polar Mission’, Space Sci. Rev. 71, 497–530.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Shelley, E. G., Sharp, R. D., and Johnson, R. G.: 1976, ‘Satellite Observations of an Ionospheric Acceleration Mechanism’, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 654–657.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Shelley, E. G., Johnson, R. G., and Sharp, R. D.: 1972, ‘Satellite Observations of Energetic Heavy Ions During a Geomagnetic Storm’, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 6104–6110.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Young, D. T., Bame, S. J., Thomsen, M. F., Martin, R. H., Burch, J. L., Marshall, J. A., and Reinhard, B.: 1988, ‘2-pi-Radian Field-of-View Toroidal Electrostatic Analyzer’, Rev. Sci. Instr 59, 743–751.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Young, D. T., Geiss, J., Balsiger, H., Eberhardt, P., Ghielmetti, A., and Rosenbauer, H.: 1977, ‘Discovery of He2+ and O2+ Ions of Terrestrial Origin in the Outer Magnetosphere’, Geophys. Res. Lett. 4, 561–564.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lockheed MartinAdvanced Technology CenterPalo AltoUSA
  2. 2.Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and SpaceUniversity of New HampshireDurhamUSA
  3. 3.Space Sciences LaboratoryUniversity of California BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA
  4. 4.Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische PhysikGarchingGermany

Personalised recommendations